Volume 9 - 2018 - Issue 6 - Closed


1. Structure of fungal communities (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) in Western Carpathian submontane forest stands under different managements

Authors: Luptáková E, Parák M, Mihál I

Recieved: 14 May 2018, Accepted: 05 November 2018, Published: 08 November 2018

In our paper, we present a mycocoenological study of two, differently managed beech forest stands (a 28year-old pole-sapling stand – plot H and a control 115yearold mature stand – plot K) in temperate forests of The Western Carpathians. Out of 117 identified species of macromycetes, 87 species were found at plot H and 72 species at plot K. Altogether, 63% of fruiting bodies abundance was recorded at plot H and 37% was recorded at plot K. Together, 41 species (35.04%) had a common occurrence at both plots. We found 55 wood-inhabiting species, of which the most abundant production of fruiting bodies were by species Panellus stipticus (797 fruiting bodies), Hypoxylon fragiforme (480), Lycoperdon pyriforme (408); 32 ectomycorrhizal species, with the largest production of fruiting bodies by Craterellus cornucopioides (94 fruiting bodies), Russula foetens (36), Lactarius piperatus (24); and 27 species of terrestrial saprotrophs, out of which the most fruiting bodies were produced by species Mycena alcalina agg. (52 fruiting bodies), Mycena inclinata (50), Psathyrella laevissima (38). At plot K, the values of overall biomass production of fruiting bodies, as well as biomass of fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal species, were higher compared to plot H.

Keywords: abundance of sporocarps – beech – biomass production – Fagus sylvatica L. – macrofungi – managed forests

 

2. Brief review: lignocellulolytic enzymes from polypores for efficient utilization of biomass

Authors: Nguyen KA, Wikee S, Lumyong S

Recieved: 16 May 2018, Accepted: 08 November 2018, Published: 16 November 2018

Polypores are a group of diverse macrofungi that belong to phylum Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes). The ability of polypores to produce enzymes has attracted the attention of scientists. These enzymes are increasingly being used for many industrial purposes, e.g. textile, pulp and paper, food, detergents and animal feeds. However, their expensive of production is the main hindrance to their use. Fortunately, most polypores can decompose cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the plant cell walls. Solid state fermentation is a good method to degrade lignocellulose and to produce enzymes at low cost since residual agro-industrial waste can be used as the substrate for microorganism growth. Every day large amounts of residues and waste materials are lodged into the environment by industry, agriculture, and other ways leading to environmental problems. The present paper explores the isolation of polypore fungi and their production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, taking full advantage of various agro-industrial wastes as substrate.

Keywords: Agro-industrial wastes – Cellulolytic – Fermentation – Fungi – Ligninolytic

 

3. Four new filamentous fungal species from newly-collected and hive-stored bee pollen

Authors: Zhao YZ, Zhang ZF, Cai L, Peng WJ, Liu F

Recieved: 05 July 2018, Accepted: 05 November 2018, Published: 16 November 2018

Hive-stored pollen, as one of the major nutrition sources for honeybees, is the mixture of fresh bee pollen with honey, plant resins and wax. In this study, four new species (i.e. Arthrinium locuta-pollinis, Chrysosporium alvearium, Nigrograna locuta-pollinis and Trichoderma pollinicola) were identified, when we explored the culturable fungi in newly-collected bee pollen and hive-stored pollen produced by Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) in the flowering season of rape (Brassica campestris). The four new species were described on the basis of morphological comparisons and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, and their relationships with morphologically similar and phylogenetically closely related taxa are discussed.

Keywords: Arthrinium – Chrysosporium – Morphology – Nigrograna – Phylogenetic analyses – Trichoderma

 

4. Phosphate-solubilizing characteristics of yeasts

Authors: Kuo CY, Fu SF, Chou FC, Chen RY, Chou JY

Recieved: 21 August 2018, Accepted: 12 November 2018, Published: 16 November 2018

Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant development and metabolism. Because of its low availability and mobility in soils, it is often a limiting nutrient of plant growth. When phosphorus content in soil is insufficient, symptoms of phosphorus deficiency can appear, such as purple spots on leaves and stems or inhibition of development and maturation. To provide adequate nutrients for plant growth, appropriate fertilizers should be applied. However, overuse of chemical fertilizers can cause unanticipated environmental effects. To decrease the negative environmental effects resulting from continued use of chemical fertilizers, we can inoculate plants with phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms are crucial in dissolving fertilizer phosphorus and bound phosphorus in soil in a manner that is both environmentally friendly and sustainable. In this study, we selected yeasts with calcium-phosphate-solubilizing ability and found that this ability to be regulated by environmental factors (e.g. amount of soluble phosphate, liquid or solid agar plates condition, and type of inorganic phosphate). Arabidopsis thaliana was inoculated with selected yeasts; we found that Cryptococcus laurentii (JYC370) promoted plant growth in an inorganic phosphate (Pi)-deficient medium supplemented with calcium phosphate dibasic dihydrate. The amount of cellular inorganic phosphate was also higher in yeast-treated plants than in control plants grown in the Pi-deficient medium. This result reveals the potential of these strains for biofertilizer applications and commercial use as biofertilizer agents in the future.

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana – biofertilizer – calcium phosphate – phosphorus – phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms

 

5. Phylogenetic placement of Cryptophiale, Cryptophialoidea, Nawawia, Neonawawia gen. nov. and Phialosporostilbe

Authors: Yang J, Liu NG, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu ZY

Recieved: 29 August 2018, Accepted: 25 October 2018, Published: 19 November 2018

During a survey of freshwater fungi in China and Thailand, seven fresh collections representing four species in Chaetosphaeriaceae are described and illustrated based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU and ITS sequence data. Cryptophiale udagawae, Cryptophialoidea fasciculata and Nawawia filiformis were re-collected and are reported with the first sequence data. Two collections of Phialosporostilbe from China and Thailand are identified and introduced as a new species named P. scutiformis with the first sequence data for the genus. A new genus Neonawawia is introduced to accommodate Ne. malaysiana. New combinations are proposed for the genera Neonawawia and Phialosporostilbe. Descriptions and illustrations of the new taxa and identified species are provided. Reference specimens of Cryptophiale udagawae, Cryptophialoidea fasciculata and Nawawia filiformis are designated in this study. Phylogenetic placements of the genera Cryptophiale, Cryptophialoidea, Nawawia, Neonawawia and Phialosporostilbe are discussed.

Keywords: 2 new taxa – asexual fungi – Chaetosphaeriaceae – reference specimens – Sordariomycetes – taxonomy

 

6. New species and new records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota) from Thailand

Authors: Rossi W, Bernardi M

Recieved: 28 August 2018, Accepted: 08 November 2018, Published: 27 November 2018

Eight new species of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota) are described. These are Corethromyces fuscoramosus, parasitic on Medon sp. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae); Eucantharomyces ferreroi, parasitic on Pogonoglossus sp. (Coleoptera, Carabidae); Euphoriomyces rugosus, parasitic on Agathidium sp. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae); Kyphomyces siamensis, parasitic on Holotrochus sp. (Staphylinidae); Rickia cifoneae, parasitic on Melisia spp. (Acarina, Canestriniidae); Stigmatomyces coronatus, parasitic on Ochthera sp. (Diptera, Ephydridae); Teratomyces cylindrocarpus, parasitic on Diochus sp. (Staphylinidae); Zeugandromyces assingii, parasitic on Neosclerus areolatus (Staphylinidae). Twenty-nine species are reported for the first time from Thailand, 5 of which are new for the whole Asian continent and 8 are recorded for the first time after description. A new synonymy is established: Stigmatomyces subcircinalis Thaxt. 1931 = S. tortilis Thaxt. 1918. 

Keywords: 8 new species – Ectoparasitic fungi – Indochina – Mites – Laboulbeniomycetes – Taxonomy

 

7. Curvularia ahvazensis and C. rouhanii spp. nov. from Iran

Authors: Mehrabi-Koushki M, Pooladi P, Eisvand P, Babaahmadi G

Recieved: 03 August 2018, Accepted: 26 November 2018, Published: 06 December 2018

Three isolates of Curvularia were obtained from diseased Eucalyptus sp., Syngonium vellozianum and Zinnia elegans. Phylogenetic trees inferred from combined dataset of the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS), partial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), and partial translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1α) along with morphological characterization, showed they are two novel species. Curvularia ahvazensis sp. nov. and C. rouhanii sp. nov. are described and illustrated and shown to be morphologically distinct from previously known species of Curvularia.

Keywords: Two new species – Common zinnia – Eucalyptus – syngonium – multi-locus phylogenetic analysis

 

8. Morphological and molecular identification of two novel species of Melanops in China

Authors: Jiang N, Phillips AJL, Zhang ZX, Tian CM

Recieved: 14 August 2018, Accepted: 12 December 2018, Published: 18 December 2018

Melanops is an uncommon genus in Botryosphaeriales that until now has been found only on Fagaceae hosts. It can be distinguished from the other Botryosphaeriales by having large, multiloculate ascomata and conidiomata with locules arranged at various levels within the stroma and a narrow, persistent mucous sheath surrounding the ascospores and conidia. In the present study, the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of Melanops specimens collected from Castanea mollissima and Quercus sp. in China were studied. As a result, Melanops castaneicola sp. nov. and Melanops chinensis sp. nov. are introduced, and a comparison with accepted Melanops species is presented.

Keywords: Botryosphaeriales – Castanea – Melanopsaceae – Quercus – Taxonomy

 

9. Two new species and one new record of Kretzschmaria (Ascomycota, Xylariales) from Iran

Authors: Pourmoghaddam MJ, Khodaparast SA, Krisai-Greilhuber I, Voglmayr H, Stadler M

Recieved: 06 October 2018, Accepted: 18 December 2018, Published: 19 December 2018

Kretzschmaria hedjaroudei and Kretzschmaria iranica are described as new species based on collections from dead wood in northern Iran and on evidence from morphology and molecular phylogenetic data. Kretzschmaria hedjaroudei is phylogenetically close to Kretzschmaria deusta, from which it differs in its stromatal morphology, ascospore size and the size of the apical apparatus. Kretzschmaria iranica is similar to Kretzschmaria pavimentosa, but distinguishable by smaller ascospore size. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined matrix of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA and of α-actin (ACT1) gene sequences strongly support their status as two distinct new species within the genus Kretzschmaria. Moreover, Kretzschmaria zonata, a species previously only known from tropical countries, is encountered for the first time in Iran.

Keywords: 2 new species – Biodiversity – Biosystematics – Phylogeny – Xylariaceae

 

10. The Cantharellus isabellinus species complex (Cantharellales, Hydnaceae) in tropical Africa

Authors: Buyck B, Henkel T, Hofstetter V

Recieved: 18 September 2018, Accepted: 11 December 2018, Published: 20 December 2018

Cantharellus isabellinus is epitypified and discussed on the basis of multiple new collections from the African rain forest. These are the first collections since this species was described more than half a century ago. Phylogenetic analysis of tef-1 sequence data confirm placement of C. isabellinus in C. subg. Rubrinus sect. Isabellinus for which it had been chosen as the type species based on morphology. Cantharellus eyssartieri is its twin species in the field but growing in Madagascar, while the very similar C. parvisporus stat. et comb. nov. is the closest relative of C. isabellinus from the surrounding miombo woodlands. Cantharellus croceifolius might represent a bisporic form of C. isabellinus, but has never been recollected. Cantharellus griseoisabellinus sp. nov., described here, is a somewhat similar species occurring in the same habitat as C. isabellinus.

Keywords: molecular phylogeny / new species / Cantharellus isabellinus / Cantharellus griseoisabellinus sp. nov. / Cantharellus parvisporus stat. et comb. nov. / tef-1

 

11. Notes for genera update – Ascomycota: 6822-6917

Authors: Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Wang Y

Recieved: 04 October 2018, Accepted: 11 December 2018, Published: 20 December 2018

Acquiring updated information of fungi is one of the challenges faced by mycologists. This study is a continuation of Wijayawardene et al. (2017, 2018) and provides notes (generic name, classification, number of species, typification details, life mode, distribution, references) for each genus of Ascomycota described mainly during the period January to June 2018.

Keywords: Classification – Coelomycetes – Hyphomycetes – New Genera – Sexual Genera

 

12. Phylogenetic relationship and evolution of Neodidymelliopsis isolates collected from Iran

Authors: Soleimani P, Soleimani MJ, Hosseini S

Recieved: 25 January 2018, Accepted: 08 August 2018, Published: 25 December 2018

Several isolates of the novel genus Neodidymelliopsis have been recently found in Iranian citrus orchards with severe dieback symptoms. Neodidymelliopsis belongs to Didymellaceae, an important family of Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes. None of the few studies on molecular dating of Ascomycetes have resolved the divergence time of genera in Didymellaceae. Motivated by this fact, we consider the reliable age of a fossil related to extant species of Aigilalus, the estimated mean crown age of Dothideomycetes from other studies as a secondary calibration, also the second fossil which represent common ancestor of Capnodiales to calibrate the reconstructed tree. Our dating analysis is based on four genetic regions of 91 taxa from Capnodiales and Pleosporales, using BEAST analysis. The selected taxa of Pleosporales belong to Aigialaceae and Didymellaceae; including three newly discovered Neodidymelliopsis sp. isolates and one isolate of Didymella sp. from Iran. Our dating analyses suggest that Didymellaceae diverged from Aigialaceae in the Cretaceous, and initial divergence of Didymellaceae happened in the late Eocene followed by two divergences in the late Oligocene and several splits in the Miocene. Furthermore, the results suggest that the Iranian isolates of Neodidymelliopsis sp. and Didymella sp. diverged from other Neodidymelliopsis and Didymella isolates in the Pliocene and the late Miocene, respectively.

Keywords: Didymellaceae – Divergence time – Fossil – Pleosporales – Secondary calibration

 

13. Crassiperidium (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), a new ascomycetous genus parasitic on Fagus crenata in Japan

Authors: Matsumura M, Kato W, Hashimoto A, Takahashi YS, Shirouzu T, Tanaka K

Recieved: 02 October 2018, Accepted: 19 December 2018, Published: 26 December 2018

A new genus, Crassiperidium, is established to accommodate two new species, C. octosporum and C. quadrisporum, found on twigs of the Fagus crenata in Japan. Crassiperidium is characterized by globose to depressed globose ascomata with a well-developed ascomatal wall at the sides, clavate asci, broadly fusiform, hyaline ascospores, pycnidial conidiomata, and cylindrical, multi-septate, hyaline conidia produced by annellidic conidiogenous cells. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined dataset of SSU and LSU nrDNA, and RPB2 revealed that Crassiperidium is close to Cyclothyriellaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), but its familial placement was unresolved. The two new species of Crassiperidium have similar-sized ascospores and conidia, but the asci are 8-spored in C. octosporum and 4-spored in C. quadrisporum. Phylogenetic analyses of Crassiperidium species based on the sequences of ITS, TEF1, RPB2, and a combined dataset of these three loci support the validity of these two species. 

Keywords: 3 new taxa – Ascomycota – Cyclothyriellaceae – Phylogeny – Pseudoasteromassaria – Taxonomy

 

14. Identification and characterization of chestnut branch-inhabiting melanocratic fungi in China

Authors: Jiang N, Li J, Piao CG, Guo MW, Tian CM

Recieved: 21 May 2018, Accepted: 21 December 2018, Published: 28 December 2018

Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is an important commercial tree species widely cultivated in most provinces in China. Chestnut branch-inhabiting fungi may be responsible for branch canker and dieback. In present study, dead corticated chestnut branches with superficial ascomata or conidiomata were collected from chestnut plantations in Hebei, Shaanxi and Shandong provinces. Fungi producing melanocratic ascospores or conidia were observed and identified based on both morphology and analyses of DNA sequence data. Specimens were identified to five species, viz. Neopseudomelanconis castaneae gen. et sp. nov., Aplosporella javeedii Jami, Gryzenh., Slippers and M.J. Wingf., Coryneum umbonatum Nees, Lopadostoma americanum Jaklitsch, J. Fourn., J.D. Rogers and Voglmayr and Myrmaecium fulvopruinatum Jaklitsch and Voglmayr.

Keywords: 2 new taxa – canker – Diaporthales – Pseudomelanconidaceae – taxonomy

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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