Volume 9 - 2018 - Issue 5 - Closed


1. High diversity of Ganoderma and Amauroderma (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) in Hainan Island, China

Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Karunarathna SC, Raspé O, De Silva KHWL, Thawthong A, Wu XL, Kakumyan P, Hyde KD, Wen TC

Recieved: 06 August 2018, Accepted: 15 September 2018, Published: 18 September 2018

Species of Amauroderma and Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) have been widely used as traditional medicines in Asia over many centuries. The genera are widely researched, owing to their beneficial medicinal properties and chemical constituents with potential nutritional and therapeutic uses. There are, however, taxonomic confusions surrounding the species in these genera, whose circumscription is often unclear. We surveyed species of Amauroderma and Ganoderma in Hainan Island in Southern China. In this paper, we provide data on 15 species found in the Wuzhishan and Jiangfengling mountains on the island. One species named Ganoderma ellipsoideum Hapuar., T.C. Wen & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov. is new to science and introduced with evidence from morphology and molecular analysis. The other species collected are described with photographs and compared with similar taxa. We provide a phylogeny for the two genera based on ITS sequence data and the taxonomic status of the species is briefly discussed.

Keywords: 1 new species – ITS – Lingzhi – Morphology – Phylogeny

 

2. Erratum to: Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves, Alaska

Authors: McCune B, Arup U, Breuss O, Di Meglio E, Di Meglio J, Esslinger TL, Magain N, Miadlikowska J, Miller AE, Muggia L, Nelson PR, Rosentreter R, Schultz M, Sheard JW, Tønsberg T, Walton J

Recieved: 15 September 2018, Accepted: 19 September 2018, Published: 19 September 2018

Erratum to Mycosphere 9(4), 859–930, Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/9/4/10

In the publication, on page 867, The basionym was published as “Basionym – Enchylium bachmanianum var. millegranum Degel., Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 13 (2): 192. 1954”, which should instead be “Basionym – Collema bachmanianum var. millegranum Degel., Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 13 (2): 192. 1954.”

Keywords: N/A

 

3. The structure of mycelial cords and rhizomorphs of fungi: A mini-review

Authors: Yafetto L

Recieved: 17 June 2018, Accepted: 21 September 2018, Published: 10 October 2018

Fungi are ubiquitous – they are found in any conceivable environment, i.e., both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. They remain one of the most diverse groups of organisms on Earth. Because fungi are heterotrophic, they obtain their nutrients by colonizing their substrates with a vegetative mass of hyphae called mycelium. These hyphae secrete enzymes that digest nutrients locked in colonized substrates, after which the nutrients are then absorbed by the hyphae. Not only do hyphae constitute the mycelium of fungi, but they also form other structures – mycelial strand, mycelial cords, and rhizomorphs – through which fungi are able to spread in their environment in search of new substrates to colonize. The aim of this present paper is to explore the structure of mycelial cords and rhizomorphs. Rhizomorphs are among the most complex organs produced by fungi. They are root-like structures constituted by a series of differentiated tissues each with distinctive hyphal type, orientation, size, and function. Thus, rhizomorphs are produced as a result of a coordinated growth of millions of bundled hyphae. Rhizomorph-forming fungi thrive in nutrient-poor environment and are known to cause devastating destruction to homes and plantations. Because rhizomorphs serve as exploratory organs, and they enhance the survival of rhizomorph-forming fungi in plantations and homes, farmers, homeowners, attorneys, and even mycologists and plant pathologists, need to understand and appreciate their potential to wreak havoc that results in huge annual financial losses.

Keywords: Armillaria spp – fungal hyphae – Meruliporia incrassata – mycelial cord – rhizomorph structure – Serpula lacrymans

 

4. Additions to Pestalotiopsis in Taiwan

Authors: Ariyawansa HA, Hyde KD

Recieved: 16 August 2018, Accepted: 07 September 2018, Published: 10 October 2018

As part of fungal exploration of Taiwan, we found several pestalotioid taxa from Taipei Botanical Gardens, Zhongzheng District. Based on single- and multi-locus phylogenies using internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin and partial translation elongation factor 1-α gene regions, along with morphological features, these species fit into two novel taxa of Pestalotiopsis sensu stricto and are proposed herein as Pestalotiopsis formosana and P. neolitseae. Pestalotiopsis formosana and P. neolitseae were isolated from dead grass and living leaves of Neolitsea villosa respectively. These two novel species are morphologically comparable with Pestalotiopsis sensu stricto in having concolourous median cells, but differ from the phylogenetically related species in the size of the conidia, the number of apical appendages, the length of basal appendages, plus ecology and distribution. The results of pathogenicity testing revealed that Pestalotiopsis neolitseae is capable of causing leaf spots on Neolitsea villosa and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of Pestalotiopsis species associated with leaf spots of Neolitsea villosa in Taiwan.

Keywords: 2 new taxa – New record – New species – Pestalotioid species – Phylogeny – phytopathogenic fungi

 

5. Fungal remains from late Neogene deposits at the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, USA

Authors: Worobiec G, Worobiec E, Liu YC

Recieved: 12 July 2018, Accepted: 23 August 2018, Published: 10 October 2018

Interesting fungal remains were encountered during palynological investigation of the Neogene deposits at the Gray Fossil Site, Washington County, Tennessee, USA. Both Cephalothecoidomyces neogenicus and Trichothyrites cf. padappakarensis are new for the Neogene of North America, while remains of cephalothecoid fungus Cephalothecoidomyces neogenicus G. Worobiec, Neumann & E. Worobiec, fragments of mantle tissue of mycorrhizal Cenococcum and sporocarp of epiphyllous Trichothyrites cf. padappakarensis (Jain & Gupta) Kalgutkar & Jansonius were reported. Remains of mantle tissue of Cenococcum for the fossil state are reported for the first time. The presence of Cephalothecoidomyces, Trichothyrites, and other fungal remains previously reported from the Gray Fossil Site suggest warm and humid palaeoclimatic conditions in the southeast USA during the late Neogene, which is in accordance with data previously obtained from other palaeontological analyses at the Gray Fossil Site.

Keywords: Cephalothecoid fungus – Epiphyllous fungus – Miocene/Pliocene – Mycorrhizal fungus – North America – palaeoecology – taxonomy

 

6. Current status of global Ganoderma cultivation, products, industry and market

Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Elkhateeb WA, Karunarathna SC, Cheng CR, Bandara AR, Kakumyan P, Hyde KD, Daba GM, Wen TC

Recieved: 12 May 2018, Accepted: 21 August 2018, Published: 19 October 2018

Among many traditional medicines, Ganoderma has been used in Asian countries for over two millennia as a traditional medicine for maintaining vivacity and longevity. Research on various metabolic activities of Ganoderma have been performed both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, it is debatable whether Ganoderma is a food supplement for health maintenance or a therapeutic “drug” for medical purposes. Over the past two decades, the Ganoderma industry has developed greatly and today offers thousands of products to the markets. Despite the large market, there are problems with the industry which prevent it from establishing an effective market. This paper describes the current status of the world Ganoderma cultivation, products, industry and provides suggestions for facilitating further research.

Keywords: lingzhi – secondary metabolites – traditional medicine

 

About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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