Volume 9 - 2018 - Issue 4 - Closed


1. A survey on endophytic fungi within roots of Chenopodiaceae species under different environmental conditions

Authors: Aletaha R, Safari Sinegani AA, Zafari D

Recieved: 22 January 2018, Accepted: 10 May 2018, Published: 02 July 2018

Iran with large saline areas is an ideal habitat for growth of plants of the family Chenopodiaceae. Diversity, frequency, and population density of endophyte fungi species depend on the edaphic and climatic conditions, heterogeneity of habitats and niches present within the host tissues, as well as on the competing organisms. In order to isolate endophytic fungi, 52 specimens of each Chenopodiaceae species were collected from its natural habitats in dry and temperate ecosystems located in the south and north of Iran. Staining roots showed that hyphae, spore and microsclerotia of endophytes are present in all surveyed roots. After surface disinfection, specimens were cultured on potato dextrose agar medium (PDA). A total of 192 fungal isolates were obtained and identified on the basis of morphological features and molecular identification. Obtained isolates consisted of eight dematiaceous genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Embellisia, Macrophomina and Ulocladium) and four non dematiaceous genera (Acremonium, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium) and twelve types of sterile mycelia. We isolated three species of Alternaria in the studied sites that base on phylogenetic studies located in three different groups. Most of plant roots had a colonization rate of 100% in dry ecosystems (site A, B), while the average colonization rate in temperate ecosystem was 63.8%. However, Shannon's and Fisher's Alpha indices indicate diversity of fungi in temperate ecosystem (site C, 2.45) is higher than that of in other sites. Among the genera, Fusarium was the most abundant in all ecosystems (site A 51%, site B 49% and site C 57%). Climate and soil condition can alter frequency of endophytic fungi in each ecosystem, so that site C with different altitude and soil condition in temperate region had different fungal distribution patterns compared to other studied sites in arid region. Our observations showed that higher endophytic fungi  frequency can occur in the roots of plant in arid soils with pH values ranging from 7 to 8 and EC values ranging from 1.4–4.5(dS m-1) in high altitude (1230–2000 m) compared to those in roots of plants in temperate soil in low altitude (13m). According to similarly Jaccard index, site A and B had the highest similarity (0.26). 

Keywords: Arid environment – Soil condition – Temperate environment

 

2. Curvularia mosaddeghii sp. nov., a novel species from the family Pleosporaceae

Authors: Heidari K, Mehrabi-Koushki M, Farokhinejad R

Recieved: 10 March 2018, Accepted: 11 April 2018, Published: 02 July 2018

The new species C. mosaddeghii sp. nov. isolated from plants of Syzygium cumini and Vigna unguiculata is described and illustrated. Three-locus DNA sequence based phylogeny, in combination with morphology of the asexual morph, were used to characterize this species. Phylogenetic analysis used combined sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and part of the translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1α). In the phylogenetic trees, both isolates of C. mosaddeghii clustered together as a monophyletic clade with strong support, distinct from other previously known species of Curvularia. Morphologically, this species is distinguished from closely related species by having narrower conidia and hila.

Keywords: Ahvaz – Jambolan – Cowpea – Mycoflora – New species

 

3. Mycosphere Notes 225–274: types and other specimens of some genera of Ascomycota

Authors: Doilom M, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Dai DQ, Tang LZ, Hongsanan S, Chomnunti P, Boonmee S, Dayarathne MC, Li WJ, Thambugala KM, Perera RH, Daranagama DA, Norphanphoun C, Konta S, Dong W, Ertz D, Phillips AJL, McKenzie EHC, Vinit K, Ariyawansa HA, Jones EBG, Mortimer PE, Xu JC, Promputtha I

Recieved: 20 May 2018, Accepted: 20 June 2018, Published: 10 July 2018

This is the fifth in a series, Mycosphere notes, wherein 50 notes are provided on types of genera and other specimens with descriptions and illustrations. This includes one genus in Arthoniomycetes, one genus in Eurotiomycetes, 38 genera in Dothideomycetes, six genera in Sordariomycetes, two genera in Ascomycota, families incertae sedis, one genus in Pezizomycotina, and one taxon, Angatia rondoniensis, is treated as a doubtful species. Pycnocarpon magnificum is classified in Asterinaceae. We reinstate Eopyrenula in Dacampiaceae on the basis of its morphological characters, which are similar to other members in this family. Eopyrenula leucoplaca is designated as a reference specimen. Fasciatispora arengae is described as a new species. The isotype specimen (GZU 000301526), which was formerly named as Thyridium concinnum is transferred to Platystomum based on morphology. Syrropeltis is placed in the family Parmulariaceae based on morphology. Rivilata and Vonarxella are excluded from Saccardiaceae, and treated in Phaeothecoidiellaceae and Schizothyriaceae, respectively. The family Saccardiaceae based on Saccardia quercina is maintained and includes Ascolectus, Cyanodiscus, Henningsiella, Phillipsiella, Pseudodiscus and Schenckiella. Johansoniaceae is introduced as a new family. We hope to motivate fresh collecting of type species included of taxa in genera incertae sedis, so that molecular data can be obtained to confirm their natural classification.

Keywords: two new taxa – Asterinaceae – Astrosphaeriellaceae – Barbatosphaeriaceae – Dacampiaceae – Davidiellaceae – Didymellaceae – Dothideomycetes – Didymosphaeriaceae – Gloniaceae – Hysteriaceae – Johansoniaceae – Leptosphaeriaceae – Lindgomycetaceae – Lophiostomataceae – Microtheliopsidaceae – Mytilinidiaceae – Myriangiales – Naetrocymbaceae – Parmulariaceae – Phaeothecoidiellaceae – Polycoccaceae – Roccellaceae – Saccardiaceae – Schizothyriaceae – Sordariomycetes – Strangosporaceae – Testudinaceae – Venturiaceae – Xylariales

 

4. Lignicolous freshwater fungi in China III: Three new species and a new record of Kirschsteiniothelia from northwestern Yunnan Province

Authors: Bao DF, Luo ZL, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Sarunya N, Li WL, Su HY, Hyde KD

Recieved: 07 June 2018, Accepted: 04 July 2018, Published: 11 July 2018

The diversity of lignicolous freshwater fungi of China is currently being studied. In this paper, fresh collections of Kirschsteiniothelia species from submerged wood in northwestern Yunnan Province, China, were reported. The phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU and SSU sequence data placed the isolates of the taxa within the family Kirschsteiniotheliaceae. Three new species, Kirschsteiniothelia aquatica, K. cangshanensis and K. fluminicola are introduced, based on their distinct morphology and evidences from molecular phylogeny. A detailed description of Kirschsteiniothelia rostrata, a new record for China is provided.

Keywords: 3 new species – Asexual morphs – Kirschsteiniotheliaceae – Phylogeny – Taxonomy

 

5. Phaeosaccardinula coffeicola and Trichomerium chiangmaiensis, two new species of Chaetothyriales (Eurotiomycetes) from Thailand

Authors: Maharachchikumbura SSN, Haituk S, Pakdeeniti P, Al-Sadi AM, Hongsanan S, Chomnunti P, Cheewangkoon R

Recieved: 18 May 2018, Accepted: 12 June 2018, Published: 11 July 2018

Two species of sooty mould-like taxa, were obtained from living leaves of Coffea arabica plants collected in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Differences in phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics based on combined large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences indicated that the two isolates represent two novel species (Phaeosaccardinula coffeicola and Trichomerium chiangmaiensis) within the order Chaetothyriales. Phaeosaccardinula coffeicola (Chaetothyriaceae) is distinguished morphologically from related species by its smaller asci and ascospores. Trichomerium chiangmaiensis (Trichomeriaceae) is morphologically distinguishable from its phylogenetically related species by its smaller conidial arms. Detailed taxonomic descriptions and illustrations of the new species are provided.

Keywords: Chaetothyriaceae – Coffea arabica – new species – sooty mould – Trichomeriaceae

 

6. Morphology and phylogeny of Mycopepon

Authors: Liu LL, Long QD, Kang JC, Zhang X, Hyde KD, Shen XC, Li QR

Recieved: 11 May 2018, Accepted: 13 July 2018, Published: 12 July 2018

Two species similar to Mycopepon were found on bamboo in Guizhou Province, China. These species are introduced as the new species Mycopepon bambusae M. fusoidisporus, based on their morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of LSU and SSU sequences data in this paper. Descriptions and illustrations for both species are provided. Mycopepon smithii var. mexicanum is raised to specific rank as M. mexicanus stat. nov. Mycopepon bambusae differs from M. smithii and M. mexicanus by its narrower ascospores (45–61.5 × 6.5–8.5 μm). Mycopepon fusoidisporus has the unique features of 1-septate, dark brown, wider, ellipsoid-fusiform ascospores (45.5–57.5 × 11.5–23.5 μm). Based on a combined SSU and LSU sequence data, the phylogenetic results indicate that Mycopepon falls in Astrosphaeriellaceae.

Keywords: 2 new species – Astrosphaeriellaceae – Dothideomycetes – Pleosporales – taxonomy

 

7. Dominant tree species identity effects on soil fungi are context dependent

Authors: Shi LL, Wen Y, Yang ZJ, Zang HD, Gui H, Zou XM, Mortimer P

Recieved: 29 June 2018, Accepted: 12 July 2018, Published: 18 July 2018

Fungal Fungi diversity and community composition are mainly depending on soil and vegetation factors. However, the effects of these drivers on different fungal taxonomy and functional guilds remain largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. The soil was collected from five dominate tree species forests: Castanopsis carlesii, Castanopsis fabri, Cinnamomum chekiangense, Schima superb, and Cunninghamia lanceolata in Wanmulin National Nature Reserve of South-eastern China. Fungal communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil were assessed employing ITS rDNA illumina sequencing. Ascomycota dominated the fungal community and most of them belong to Saprotrophic fungal group. On the genus level, Cladophialophora, Spirosphaera, and Podospora were dominate in soils of Castanopsis carlesii, Castanopsis fabri, and Cinnamomum chekiangense (> 50% of the OTUs), respectively. Analysis of similarity showed that the Ascomycota and Saprotrophic fungi rather than total fungal community were significantly different among the soils with different dominant tree species. Furthermore, Ascomycota community were affected by soil C, C/N, and total K, while Saprotrophic fungi were explained by changes in tree richness, diameter at breast height and soil available P. In conclusion, our analyses revealed that the effects of dominant tree species on soil fungi are largely depend on different taxonomic and functional groups levels. 

Keywords: Ascomycota – Illumina sequencing – Saprotrophic – Subtropical forest

 

8. Taxonomic novelties of hysteriform Dothideomycetes

Authors: Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Peršoh D, Camporesi E, Kang JC

Recieved: 02 June 2018, Accepted: 23 July 2018, Published: 21 August 2018

Hysteriaceous ascomycetes are an interesting and important group of fungi belonging to a small number of families and orders in the class Dothideomycetes. They can be saprobes, endophytes and/or ectomycorrhizal. Hysteriaceous fungi mainly occur on twigs or bark of various woody and herbaceous plants in terrestrial and aquatic environments worldwide. They have evolved convergently at least five times, and further studies are needed to resolve the taxonomic placement of new and previously described taxa. In this study, we introduce a new order, Gloniales, to accommodate Glonium, a new family, Acrogenosporaceae, to accommodate Acrogenospora, five new species (Hysterium doimaeensis, H. thailandica, Hysterobrevium hakeae, Hy. rosae and Mytilinidion didymospora) and a new combination (Purpurepithecium minus). New records are provided with descriptions and illustrations are given for Gloniopsis subrugosa, Hysterium angustatum and Hysterographium fraxi. The findings are supported by morphological and phylogenetic analyses of LSU SSU, RPB2 and TEF1 sequence data. In addition, amino acid sequences of RPB2 were phylogenetically analyzed.

Keywords: Acrogenosporaceae – Gloniales – hysteriaceous – Hysterium – Hysterobrevium – Hysterographium

 

9. Hypogeous gasteroid Lactarius sulphosmus sp. nov. and agaricoid Russula vinosobrunneola sp. nov. (Russulaceae) from China

Authors: Li GJ, Zhang CL, Lin FC, Zhao RL

Recieved: 31 January 2018, Accepted: 20 May 2018, Published: 21 August 2018

Two new species of Russulaceae from China are herein described and illustrated based on their morphologies and phylogenies. A hypogeous gasteroid species, Lactarius sulphosmus sp. nov. and an agaricoid species, Russula vinosobrunneola sp. nov. are introduced. The latter is morphologically distinguished from R. sichuanensis, although the ITS-based phylogeny was unable to distinguish them. Therefore, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of the nLSU, ITS, mtSSU, and tef-1α gene sequences of Russula subsection Laricinae was carried out, which supports the assertion that they are different species.

Keywords: Basidiomycota – phylogeny – Agaricomycetes – Russulales – taxonomy

 

10. Biodiversity and ecology of lichens of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves, Alaska

Authors: McCune B, Arup U, Breuss O, Di Meglio E, Di Meglio J, Esslinger TL, Magain N, Miadlikowska J, Miller AE, Muggia L, Nelson PR, Rosentreter R, Schultz M, Sheard JW, Tønsberg T, Walton J

Recieved: 24 April 2018, Accepted: 26 July 2018, Published: 21 August 2018

We inventoried lichens in Lake Clark (LACL) and Katmai (KATM) National Parks and Preserves. We assembled the known information on lichens in these parks by combining field, herbarium, and literature studies. Our results provide baseline data on lichen occurrence that may be used in resource condition assessments, vulnerability assessments, long-term ecological monitoring, and resource management. We report a total of 896 taxa of lichenized fungi from the Parks, adding 889 taxa to the total of seven taxa reported for the Parks by the National Park Service database and including ten new species first published elsewhere. An additional 15 lichenicolous fungi are reported here. Seven non-lichenized fungi associated with young living twigs of particular host species are also included. Sixteen species are new to Alaska, and six species new to North America (Caloplaca fuscorufa, Lecanora leucococca s.l., Ochrolechia brodoi, Protoparmelia memnonia, and Rhizocarpon leptolepis). Four new combinations are made, Cetraria minuscula, Enchylium millegranum var. bachmanianum, Lathagrium undulatum var. granulosum, and Protomicarea alpestris. Additional new species based on collections from the Parks have been described in separate publications.

Keywords: Alaska Peninsula – Alaska Range – inventory – lichenized fungi – North America

 

About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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