Volume 9 - 2018 - Issue 2 - Closed


1. Contribution to the study of neotropical discomycetes: a new species of the genus Geodina (Geodina salmonicolor sp. nov.) from the Dominican Republic

Authors: Angelini C, Medardi G, Alvarado P

Recieved: 31 December 2017, Accepted: 28 February 2018, Published: 08 March 2018

Geodina salmonicolor sp. nov., a new neotropical / equatorial discomycetes of the genus Geodina, is here described and illustrated. The discovery of this new entity allowed us to propose another species of Geodina, until now a monospecific genus, and produce the first 28S rDNA genetic data, which supports this species is related to genus Wynnea in the Sarcoscyphaceae.

Keywords: 1 new species – Ascomycota – Sarcoscyphaceae – Sub-tropical zone Caribbeans – Taxonomy

 

2. Variation in the ability of fungi in the extrafloral nectar of Mallotus paniculatus to attract ants as plant defenders

Authors: Sun PF, Chen PH, Lin WJ, Lin CC, Chou JY

Recieved: 05 January 2018, Accepted: 05 March 2018, Published: 08 March 2018

Many plant–ant interactions are considered mutualisms. In Mallotus paniculatus (Euphorbiaceae) (also known as Turn-in-the-wind), the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) on the base of the leaf laminas can produce sugar-rich secretions to attract ants as effective agents against herbivores or plant competitors. Growing evidence reveals that microorganisms are important “hidden players” in insect–plant interactions. Understanding which microorganisms act as such third-party species and how they operate is a major challenge in the study of mutualistic interactions. In this study, we showed that two dominant fungal species, the yeast Jaminaea angkorensis and the hyphal fungus Gibellulopsis nigrescens both from EFNs and the interiors of bodies of the ant Pheidole megacephala (Formicidae) on their own were sufficient for ant attraction. Our results also revealed that different fungal species on the host plant influenced ant behavior differently. These results can be applied in agriculture to increase ants or herbivore predators to protect plant hosts using fungal baits. Moreover, they indicate that fungal odors represent the critical signal to establish the plant–microbe–insect interactions. The traditional plant–defender concept must be updated to include the role of microorganisms.

Keywords: plant–ant interaction – extrafloral nectar – mutualism – olfaction – yeast

 

3. Three new species of Agaricus section Minores from China

Authors: He MQ, Hyde KD, Wei SL, Xi YL, Cheewangkoon R, Zhao RL

Recieved: 29 November 2017, Accepted: 31 January 2018, Published: 14 March 2018

Agaricus subgenus Minores section Minores has the richest species in the genus Agaricus and worldwide distribution. In this paper, the phylogenetic trees generated by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses for section Minores were conducted using ITS, LSU and tef1-α genes sequences from 105 species. The molecular phylogenetic analysis showed there were three new lineages from Chinese specimens within this section, and the following morphological examination supported them as three new species. We named them as A. parvibrunneus, A. pseudominipurpureus and A. yanzhiensis respectively. Descriptions, colour photographs and illustrations of those new species are presented in detail. 

Keywords: Agaricaceae – Phylogeny – Taxonomy

 

4. Phylogenetic diversity of 18S rDNA sequences of dictyostelids from Amnat Charoen Province, Thailand

Authors: Rukseree K, Wonganun K, Palittapongarnpim P, Ajawatanawong P

Recieved: 04 February 2018, Accepted: 10 March 2018, Published: 15 March 2018

Dictyostelids, a group of social amoebae, are one of the major eukaryotic microbes in soil. They play an important role in the turnover of nutrients and minerals and also in bacterial population control in nature. Species diversity of these microbes has been surveyed globally, but surveys in Thailand are rare. We collected 73 isolates of dictyostelids from soils in two districts of Amnat Charoen Province, Thailand. The majority of dictyostelids recovered from Amnat Charoen Province belong to the genus Dictyostelium, with 48.0%. The 5’-end of the 18S rDNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the Sanger sequencing approach. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using three different methods. These were neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The resulting phylogeny suggests that five genera of dictyostelids (Cavenderia, Heterostelium, Raperostelium, Dictyostelium and Polysphondylium) were found in Amnat Charoen Province, with Dictyostelium as the dominant group. These data are the first on the phylogenetic diversity of dictyostelids in north-eastern Thailand and will be useful in the management of natural and microbial resources. 

Keywords: dictyostelids – 18S rDNA – phylogenetics – diversity

 

5. Salt-tolerant chitin and chitosan modifying enzymes from Talaromyces stipitatus, a mangrove endophyte

Authors: Paranetharan MS, Thirunavukkarasu N, Rajamani T, Murali TS, Suryanarayanan TS

Recieved: 31 January 2018, Accepted: 08 March 2018, Published: 21 March 2018

In this paper, we show that a Talaromyces stipitatus isolated as an endophyte from the root of the mangrove tree Avicennia marina, produces salt-tolerant chitinase and chitosanases.  The endophyte is halotolerant and produces these chitin modifying enzymes even in the presence of a high concentration of NaCl in the growth medium.  The chitosanases produced could act on chitosans of low, medium and high degrees of acetylation. The presence of NaCl influenced the production of isoforms of chitinase and chitosanase by the endophyte. The chitinase activity was not altered much by NaCl concentration.

Keywords: chitinase – chitosanase – halotolerant enzymes – fungal enzymes

 

6. Myxomycete diversity in Costa Rica

Authors: Rojas C, Lado C, Rojas PA

Recieved: 22 February 2018, Accepted: 27 April 2018, Published: 04 April 2018

An updated analysis of myxomycete diversity in Costa Rica is provided herein as a product of an extensive data mining-based study intended to normalize the information on myxomycetes from that country. Within the context of the Mesoamerican Biodiversity Hotspot, the 242 species of myxomycetes are reported herein demonstrated the potential of this area for diversity-based studies. For the construction of the updated species list, a thorough analysis that included examination of vouchers and a literature review has been carried out, and some species previously included in other works have been rejected due to inconsistencies or misidentification. The present contribution is essential to address the Wallacean shortfall within Mesoamerica and important for providing updated data on microorganisms in the context of regional biodiversity monitoring.

Keywords: Amoebozoa – biogeography – Central America – checklist – distribution – myxogastrids – Myxomycetes – plasmodial slime moulds

 

7. Additions to wild seed and fruit fungi 1: The sexual morph of Diaporthe rosae on Magnolia champaca and Senna siamea fruits in Thailand

Authors: Perera RH, Hyde KD, Peršoh D, Jones EBG, Liu JK, Liu ZY

Recieved: 25 February 2018, Accepted: 10 March 2018, Published: 09 April 2018

We are studying seed and fruit fungi in Thailand and made several sexual morph collections of Diaporthe rosae from dried fruits of Magnolia champaca and Senna siamea. The sexual morphs were linked to the asexual morphs based on molecular data, and morphological similarity with the asexual morph produced on PDA. The asexual morph of D. rosae was previously reported from a dead pedicel of Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) from the same location as its sexual morph. The sexual morph is characterized by 34–46 × 6.7–9 µm asci and 10–12.5 × 2.8–3.6 µm, ellipsoidal ascospores. We also provide LSU, ITS, tub2 and tef sequence data of D. rosae strains which are deposited in GenBank. The molecular analyses were performed in the ARB software environment and the pipeline is provided as supplementary data.

Keywords: ARB analysis – Diaporthaceae – saprobes – seed/fruit fungi

 

8. Mycosphere notes 169–224

Authors: Hyde KD, Chaiwan N, Norphanphoun C, Boonmee S, Camporesi E, Chethana KWT, Dayarathne MC, de Silva NI, Dissanayake AJ, Ekanayaka AH, Hongsanan S, Huang SK, Jayasiri SC, Jayawardena R, Jiang HB, Karunarathna A, Lin CG, Liu JK, Liu NG, Lu YZ, Luo ZL, Maharachchimbura SSN, Manawasinghe IS, Pem D, Perera RH, Phukhamsakda C, Samarakoon MC, Senwanna C, Shang QJ, Tennakoon DS, Thambugala KM, Tibpromma, S, Wanasinghe DN, Xiao YP, Yang J, Zeng XY, Zhang JF, Zhang SN, Bulgakov TS, Bhat DJ, Cheewangkoon R, Goh TK, Jones EBG, Kang JC, Jeewon R, Liu ZY, Lumyong S, Kuo CH, McKenzie EHC, Wen TC, Yan JY, Zhao Q

Recieved: 01 April 2018, Accepted: 29 April 2018, Published: 30 April 2018

This is the fourth in a series of Mycosphere notes wherein we provide notes on various fungal genera. In this set of notes, we introduce Phaeoseptaceae as a new family, Pseudobyssosphaeria (Melanommataceae) as a new genus, 40 new species, 11 new host or country records, one reference specimen, one new combination and provide a description of the holotype of Uleodothis balansiana (Dothideaceae). The new species are Acrospermum longisporium (Acrospermaceae), Ascitendus aquaticus (Annulatascaceae), Ascochyta clinopodiicola (Didymellaceae), Asterina magnoliae (Asterinaceae), Barbatosphaeria aquatica (Barbatosphaeriaceae), Camarosporidiella populina (Camarosporidiellaceae), Chaetosphaeria mangrovei (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Cytospora predappioensis, Cytospora prunicola (Cytosporaceae), Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis (Dictyosporiaceae), Diaporthe subcylindrospora, Diaporthe subellipicola (Diaporthaceae), Diplodia arengae (Botryosphaeriaceae), Discosia querci (Sporocadaceae), Dyfrolomyces sinensis (Pleurotremataceae), Gliocladiopsis aquaticus (Nectriaceae), Hysterographium didymosporum (Pleosporomycetidae genera, incertae sedis), Kirschsteiniothelia phoenicis (Kirschsteiniotheliaceae), Leptogium thailandicum (Collemataceae), Lophodermium thailandicum (Rhytismataceae), Medicopsis chiangmaiensis (Neohendersoniaceae), Neocamarosporium phragmitis (Neocamarosporiaceae), Neodidymelliopsis negundinis (Didymellaceae), Neomassarina pandanicola (Sporormiaceae), Neooccultibambusa pandanicola (Occultibambusaceae), Neophaeosphaeria phragmiticola (Neophaeosphaeriaceae), Neosetophoma guiyangensis (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Neosetophoma shoemakeri (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Neosetophoma xingrensis (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Ophiocordyceps cylindrospora (Ophiocordycipitaceae), Otidea pseudoformicarum (Otideaceae), Periconia elaeidis (Periconiaceae), Phaeoisaria guttulata, Pleurotheciella krabiensis, Pleurotheciella tropica (Pleurotheciaceae), Pteridiospora bambusae (Astrosphaeriellaceae), Phaeoseptum terricola (Phaeoseptaceae), Poaceascoma taiwanense (Lentitheciaceae), Pseudobyssosphaeria bambusae (Melanommataceae) and Roussoella mangrovei (Roussoellaceae). The new host records or new country records are provided for Alfaria terrestris (Stachybotryaceae), Arthrinium phragmites (Apiosporaceae), Bertiella ellipsoidea (Melanommataceae), Brevicollum hyalosporum (Neohendersoniaceae), Byssosphaeria siamensis (Melanommataceae), Cerothallia subluteoalba (Teloschistaceae), Cryptophiale hamulata (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Didymella aliena (Didymellaceae), Epicoccum nigrum (Didymellaceae), Periconia pseudobyssoides (Periconiaceae) and Truncatella angustata (Sporocadaceae). We provide new molecular data for 52 species and updated phylogenetic trees for 15 orders (Acrospermales, Amphisphaeriales, Annulatascales, Asterinales, Botryosphaeriales, Chaetosphaeriales, Diaporthales, Dyfrolomycetales, Hypocreales, Kirschsteiniotheliales, Peltigerales, Pleosporales, Pleurotheciales, Rhytismatales and Teloschistales) and 35 families (Acrospermaceae, Annulatascaceae, Apiosporaceae, Asterinaceae, Astrosphaeriellaceae, Barbatosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriaceae, Camarosporidiellaceae, Chaetosphaeriaceae, Collemataceae, Cytosporaceae, Diaporthaceae, Dictyosporiaceae, Didymellaceae, Kirschsteiniotheliaceae, Lentitheciaceae, Melanommataceae, Neocamarosporiaceae, Neohendersoniaceae, Neophaeosphaeriaceae, Nectriaceae, Occultibambusaceae, Ophiocordycipitaceae, Otideaceae, Periconiaceae, Phaeoseptaceae, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleurotheciaceae, Pleurotremataceae, Rhytismataceae, Roussoellaceae, Sporocadaceae, Sporormiaceae, Stachybotryaceae and Teloschistaceae) and 45 genera (Acrospermum, Alfaria, Arthrinium, Ascitendus, Ascochyta, Asterina, Barbatosphaeria, Bertiella, Brevicollum, Byssosphaeria, Camarosporidiella, Cerothallia, Chaetosphaeria, Cryptophiale, Cytospora, Dendryphiella, Diaporthe, Didymella, Diplodia, Discosia, Dyfrolomyces, Epicoccum, Gliocladiopsis, Hysterographium, Kirschsteiniothelia, Leptogium, Lophodermium, Medicopsis, Neocamarosporium, Neodidymelliopsis, Neooccultibambusa, Neomassarina, Neophaeosphaeria, Neosetophoma, Ophiocordyceps, Otidea, Periconia, Phaeoisaria, Phaeoseptum, Pleurotheciella, Poaceascoma, Pseudobyssosphaeria, Pteridiospora, Roussoella and Truncatella). A reference specimen is provided for Periconia cookei (Periconiaceae). A new combination is proposed for Seimatosporium ciliata (Sporocadaceae).

Keywords: 42 new taxa – Ascomycota – Description of type species of genus – Dothideomycetes– Lecanoromycetes – Leotiomycetes – Molecular phylogeny – New combinations – New family – New records – New species – Pezizomycetes – Phylogenetic – Reference specimens – Sordariomycetes – Taxonomy

 

About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering