Volume 8 - 2017 - Issue 8 (July/August)- closed


1. The type species of Tetrapyrgos and Campanella (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) are redescribed and epitypified

Authors: Desjardin DE, Perry BA, Shay JE, Newman DS, Randrianjohany E

Recieved: 23 May 2017, Accepted: 22 June 2017, Published: 02 July 2017

Tetrapyrgos atrocyanea, the type species of Tetrapyrgos, and Campanella buettneri, the type species of Campanella, are redescribed and epitypified based on recently collected material from Madagascar and Príncipe, respectively, supported with morphological and LSU, ITS sequences data. Line drawings, colour photographs, and comparisons with similar taxa are provided.

Keywords: agarics – Campanella buettneri – fungal diversity – taxonomy – Tetrapyrgos atrocyanea

 

2. Comparison of antibacterial and antibiofilm activity properties of Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. lichen extracts from different locations in Turkey

Authors: Özyiğitoğlu G, Açıkgöz B, Tahiroğlu G, Sesal NC

Recieved: 10 January 2017, Accepted: 05 February 2017, Published: 06 July 2017

The levels of bioactivity in lichens can change in response to environmental stress. For this reason, it was decided to compare the activity levels of Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. (Parmeliaceae) samples collected from six different localities in Turkey and the factors that may be effective. We also questioned our opinion that antibacterial activity is not directly proportional to the effectiveness of the antibiotic. The in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiofilm effect of diethyl ether (DE) and chloroform-methanol-acetone (CMA) extracts of the lichen H. tubulosa were explored against two pathogenic microbial strains of Staphylococcus aureus-ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis-ATCC 29212. Antibacterial activity was screened by disk diffusion method through the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Biofilm inhibitory potency of the extracts was measured by spectrophotometrically.  Most of the tested extracts of H. tubulosa demonstrated inhibitory effects against S. aureus and E. faecalis as strong as antibiotics. Differences of the findings depending on locality, habitat and extract variables were evaluated. The most antibacterially active samples were from Bursa (Location 4 and 6), both DE and CMA extracts with MIC values of 100 μg/ml, did not show inhibition effect against the bacterial biofilm. CMA extract of the Bolu sample (Location 3) with lower antibacterial effect, significantly reduced biofilm formation of both strains measured with lower absorbance levels compared to control groups. This result confirms that the samples with low antibacterial activity have more inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. In addition, different results were obtained according to localities among the samples of the same lichen species. Environmental factors influence the active substances produced by lichens. The results of this study present evidences of antibiofilm potential as well as strong antibacterial effect of H. tubulosa as promising source of antibacterial drugs. 

Keywords: Hypogymnia tubulosa – antibacterial activity – MIC ¬– antibiofilm activity

 

3. Epiphyllous fungi from Miocene deposits of the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland)

Authors: Worobiec G, Worobiec E

Recieved: 05 May 2017, Accepted: 10 June 2017, Published: 07 July 2017

Fossil fungal fructifications were encountered during palynological investigation of the Miocene deposits of the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland). Five fossil taxa similar to family Microthyriaceae (Phragmothyrites cf. lutosus (Dilcher) R.K. Kar & R.K. Saxena, Phragmothyrites sp. 1, Phragmothyrites sp. 2, Trichothyrites cf. hordlensis P.H. Smith, and Trichothyrites sp.) and one taxon (Callimothallus pertusus Dilcher) similar to extant anamorphic genus Mycoleptodiscus Ostaz. are reported. Callimothallus pertusus, Phragmothyrites cf. lutosus, Phragmothyrites sp. 2, and Trichothyrites cf. hordlensis are new for the fossil mycota of Poland. The presence of Callimothallus pertusus points to warm palaeoclimatic conditions which is confirmed by previously obtained data from plant macro and microremains. 

Keywords: fungal fructifications – Neogene – palaeoecology – Poland – taxonomy

 

4. Nutritional and nutraceutical characterization of three wild edible mushrooms from Haryana, India

Authors: Mridu, Atri NS

Recieved: 06 May 2017, Accepted: 22 May 2017, Published: 14 July 2017

Mushrooms are included in the category of functional foods due to their culinary and pharmaceutical properties. In the present investigation, three wild edible mushrooms include, Calocybe gambosa (Fr.) Donk (PUN 3538), Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (PUN 3539), Podaxis pistillaris (L.) Fr. (PUN 7151) collected from Haryana (India) were analyzed for their proximate composition and bioactive compounds. Among these, L. squarrosulus was found having highest dietary fiber (38.38±1.96g/100g) and ash content (11.4±0.55g/100g) on dry weight basis in comparison to the other two species evaluated. C. gambosa revealed the presence of maximum protein content (20.22±0.07/100g dw). Out of the evaluated species, P. pistillaris was evaluated for the presence of maximum levels of fat content (1.97±0.16 /100g dw), total carbohydrates (77.79±0.39g/100g dw) and energy value (387.05±0.28 kCal/100g dw). Amongst the Nutraceutical components, C. gambosa has been evaluated to possess maximum quantity of phenols (1.53±0.06mg/g dw), flavonoids (1.27±0.04 mg/g dw) and alkaloids (1.85±0.07 mg/100g dw). Other Nutraceutical components including steroids (1.82±0.03mg/100g dw), β-carotene (4.68±0.02μg/g dw) and lycopene (1.23±0.01μg/g dw) were present in maximum proportion in L. squarrosulus while P. pistillaris contained least quantity of all these bioactive compounds amongst the three-evaluated species.

Keywords: Anti-oxidant- FAO/WHO - Health- Monsoon - Sporocarps

 

5. Taxonomy of the south Brazilian species of Protostropharia (Strophariaceae, Agaricales)

Authors: Seger C, Gallego JC, Takiuchi E and Cortez VG

Recieved: 29 March 2017, Accepted: 16 May 2017, Published: 14 July 2017

Three species of Protostropharia are reported in South Brazil: P. alcis ssp. austrobrasiliensis, P. dorsipora and P. semiglobata. Morphological variations are described and discussed for P. alcis ssp. austrobrasiliensis and P. dorsipora, as well sequences of the ITS region of rDNA, which were compared to other members of the genus. A key for the southern Brazilian species and photographs of macro- and microscopic features are furnished.

Keywords: coprophilous agarics, fungal barcode, mycobiota, taxonomy

 

6. Tar spot fungi from Thailand

Authors: Tamakaew N, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Cheewangkoon R.

Recieved: 06 July 2017, Accepted: 10 July 2017, Published: 18 July 2017

Phyllachora species are responsible for leaf tar spot disease in a wide range of hosts, worldwide. We are studying the phyllachoraceous taxa in northern Thailand. In this paper, we report on two taxa collected from symptomatic graminicolous leaves collected during 2015-2016. The taxa are shown to be novel based on morphological and sequence data and introduced here as Phyllachora thysanolaenae collected from Thysanolaena maxima and Phyllachora vetiveriana from Chysopogon zizanioides. Descriptions, illustrations and molecular data are provided for the new species which are discussed with comparable taxa. 

Keywords: Phyllachora – tar spot

 

7. Russula brunneopurpurea sp. nov. and its ectomycorrhiza from Pakistan

Authors: Jabeen S, Niazi AR, Khalid AN

Recieved: 13 January 2017, Accepted: 08 March 2017, Published: 23 July 2017

Russula brunneopurpurea sp. nov. and its ectomycorrhiza were collected from different coniferous forests of district Swat, Pakistan. Basidiomata and ectomycorrhizal morphotypes are described and illustrated. Morphologically, it is characterized by its purple to brownish-purple shades of the pileus, sometimes cream tinge at the centre or towards the edges; off-white to cream or yellowish hymenium with few lamellulae; amyloid, subglobose (8.7–9.9 × 7.3–8.2 µm) basidiospores having prominent warts without reticulum; fusiform, mucronate to rostrate hymenal cystidia and subulate pileocystidia. Its ectomycorrhiza is characterized by irregular to monopodial pinnate or monopodial pyramidal morphotypes; plectenchymatous mantle layers; emanating hyphae bearing simple septa; lageniform cystidia on the outer mantle surface and loosely arranged, intermingled rhizomorphs hyphae. Combination of all these characters and molecular phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA confirmed its identity as a new species in Russula section Tenellae.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara, ITS, Russulaceae, taxonomy

 

8. Xylaria spinulosa sp. nov. and X. atrosphaerica from southern China

Authors: Li QR, Liu LL, Zhang X, Shen XC, Kang JC

Recieved: 07 March 2017, Accepted: 30 June 2017, Published: 23 July 2017

Two species of Xylaria collected from southern China are reported. Xylaria spinulosa sp. nov. is introduced as a new species based on morphology and sequence data analysis. Xylaria spinulosa differs from other species in the genus mainly by its long spines covering the surface of the stroma. Xylaria atrosphaerica is a new record for China. Descriptions and illustrations for both species are provided in this paper. 

 

Keywords: morphology – new species – phylogeny – taxonomy – Xylariales

 

9. Taxonomy and multigene phylogenetic evaluation of novel species in Boeremia and Epicoccum with new records of Ascochyta and Didymella (Didymellaceae)

Authors: Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Jeewon R, Ariyawansa HA, Bhat JD, Camporesi E, Kang JC

Recieved: 04 April 2017, Accepted: 06 June 2017, Published: 23 July 2017

Four microfungi collected from Italy and Russia are reported. Morphological examination revealed that all four species can be accommodated in the family Didymellaceae (Pleosporales) and more precisely in the genera Ascochyta, Boeremia, Didymella and Epicoccum. ITS, LSU, RPB2 and β-TUB sequence data were analysed to investigate their phylogenetic relationships. Two new species, Boeremia galiicola and Epicoccum mackenziei are introduced, while Ascochyta medicaginicola and Didymella macrostoma are new records from Russia and Italy. A sexual stage is reported for the first time in Ascochyta medicaginicola. All taxa are described and illustrated with discussion on their taxonomic placement. Multigene phylogenetic analyses provide further evidence to support the introduction of these taxonomic novelties and their classification within the Didymellaceae.   

Keywords: Asexual morph, Dothideomycetes, Pleosporales, rDNA, RPB2, β-TUB

 

10. A new species of Perenniporia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) from Thailand

Authors: Ji XH, Thawthong A, Wu F

Recieved: 26 February 2017, Accepted: 11 March 2017, Published: 23 July 2017

Perenniporia chiangraiensis is introduced as a new species from Thailand based on morphological characters and molecular data, and it is characterized by perennial and pileate basidiocarps with concentric sulcate pileal surface and a white pore surface, distinctly stratified tubes, a dimitic hyphal system with strongly dextrinoid skeletal hyphae, the presence of dendrohyphidia, and ellipsoid, truncate, thick-walled, non-dextrinoid basidiospores. The differences between the new species and phylogenetically related and morphologically similar species are discussed. 

 

Keywords:

 

11. Antibacterial activity, optimal culture conditions and cultivation of the medicinal Ganoderma australe, new to Thailand

Authors: Luangharn T, Karunarathna SC, Khan S, Xu JC, Mortimer PE, Hyde KD

Recieved: 03 June 2017, Accepted: 23 June 2017, Published: 23 July 2017

Ganoderma is a well-known genus of medicinal mushrooms that belongs to the order Polyporales. Many members of this genus are extensively used in traditional Asian medicines. Herein we report a new strain of Ganoderma australe collected in Thailand and identified using macro- and micro-morphological characteristics as well as phylogenetic analysis. The optimal conditions for mycelia growth were 25–30 ºC at pH 7–8, while sorghum and barley were found to be the best grain media for spawn production. The best medium for mycelia growth was Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium. Para rubber sawdust with organic and inorganic additives is used as a standard cultivation substrate in Thailand. The mycelia were fully distributed throughout the sawdust substrate after being incubated at 30 ºC, 60–75% relative humidity for 18 days. The first primordia were observed three days after the bags were opened. Three fruiting cycles were obtained, although the weight of mushrooms produced decreased each time (115.04 ± 48.85 g kg-1, 72.01 ± 6.00 g kg-1 and 36.47 ± 9.04 g kg-1, respectively). Extracts of G. australe inhibited Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria however, the extracts were not effective against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is the first report of the antimicrobial activities observed in G. australe. 

 

Keywords:

 

12. Comparative studies on glucanases and β-glucosidase activities of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius in solid state fermentation

Authors: Ekundayo FO, Ekundayo EA, Ayodele BB

Recieved: 25 March 2017, Accepted: 19 August 2017, Published: 04 August 2017

Agricultural wastes constitute major environmental problem. However, these wastes can be used as substrates for the production of enzymes such as cellulases by filamentous fungi including Pleurotus species. This present investigation was therefore aimed at screening Pleurotus ostreatus DBUI 14 and P. pulmonarius DBUI002 for glucanases and β-glucosidase using rice bran, corn cob and sawdust as substrates. Both P. ostreatus DBUI14 and P. pulmonarius DBUI002 cultivated on pretreated rice bran, corn cob and sawdust were screened for cellulolytic enzymes under solid state fermentation (SSF) for a period of 15 days using standard methods. The protein contents were determined using the method of Lowry. The results showed that lowest activities of these enzymes by Pleurotus spp occurred on the third and fifteenth days while the highest activities occurred on the ninth day of fermentation. The highest endoglucanase as well as lowest exoglucanase activities were obtained from Pleurotus pulmonarius DBUI002cultivated on corn cob (PPCC). Pleurotus ostreatus DBUI 14 cultivated on corn cob (POCC) had the lowest endoglucanase but highest exoglucanase activity when grown on rice bran (PORB). Moreover, lowest β-glucosidase activity was obtained from POCC while PPCC and PORB had the highest β-glucosidase activities. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivated on corn cob and P. ostreatus cultivated on rice bran could be harnessed in the commercial production of endoglucanase and exoglucanase. In addition, both Pleurotus ostreatus DBUI 14 strain and P. pulmonarius DBUI002 could be harnessed in synthesis of β-glucosidase.

Keywords: agro-industrial wastes bioconversion extracellular cellulolytic enzymes – pretreatment – submerged fermentation

 

13. Biodegradative activities of fungal isolates from plastic contaminated soils

Authors: El-Morsy EM, Hassan HM, Ahmed E

Recieved: 16 May 2017, Accepted: 15 June 2017, Published: 06 August 2017

Fungal strains were isolated from plastic contaminated soils in open dump sites located in different governorates in Egypt. The isolates showed various abilities in enzymes production that were related to soil origins and characteristics. For example, fungi isolated from El-Sharqia soil were able to produce protease, esterase, lipase followed by those isolated from Ismailia soil. Moreover, isolates with high esterase activity were identified as Monascus ruber, Monascus sanguineus and Monascus sp. The results showed that M. ruber could produce maximum esterase concentration followed by M. sanguineus. The same three Monascus species were selected to assess polyurethane biodegradation. Monascus sp. isolated from El-Sharqia was the most efficient isolate in degradation of polyurethane in the form of Impranil DLN. In addition, SEM micrographs and zeta potential measurements confirmed the adsorption and complex formation between the polyurethane and the hyphae of Monascus sp. 

 

Keywords: Enzymes – Monascus – Polyurethane

 

14. New Cylindrocladiella spp. from Thailand soils

Authors: Lombard L, Cheewangkoon R, Crous PW

Recieved: 04 June 2017, Accepted: 24 June 2017, Published: 06 August 2017

Species of Cylindrocladiella (Nectriaceae) are generally regarded as saprobes or weak plant pathogens, typically causing problems in nurseries under high humidity conditions. Although the genus Cylindrocladiella is a common soil inhabitant in tropical and subtropical countries, only seven species have thus far been reported from Thailand. The aim of this study was thus to investigate various soil samples from northern Thailand for the presence of Cylindrocladiella, and to identify isolates to species level using a combination of cultural studies, morphology and DNA phylogeny (ITS, tef1 and tub2 gene regions). From the various isolates obtained, six new Cylindrocladiella species could be identified, described here as C. brevistipitata, C. horticola, C. humicola, C. lateralis, C. reginae, and C. terrestris. Further studies are required to establish the ecology of the new species, and also to determine which potential species occur in other as yet unsampled regions in Thailand. 

Keywords: cryptic species – phylogeny – taxonomy

 

15. Natural products of Nothophoma multilocularis sp. nov. an endophyte of the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta

Authors: Abdel-Wahab FA, Bahkai AHA, El-Gorban AM, Hodhod MS

Recieved: 02 May 2017, Accepted: 15 June 2017, Published: 15 August 2017

In the present study, we isolated endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta from Saudi Arabia. Twenty-eight fungal isolates representing five species were isolated from 21 leaves (10 young and 11 old) of R. stricta. These fungi include two species of Alternaria, Aspergillus sp., Nothophoma sp. and one species producing sterile mycelia. Based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of LSU rDNA, we describe Nothophoma (E-2-5) as a new species to science. Nothophoma multilocularis is characterized by its large multiloculate pycnidia and its larger conidial dimensions than the six described Nothophoma species. A table (Table 3) comparing the morphology and the host of the seven Nothophoma species is provided, along with a key for their identification. The culture filtrates of the isolated endophytic fungi were extracted using ethyl acetate and were tested against pathogenic microbes. Fifty-five bioactive chemical compounds were identified from the crude extracts of Nothophoma multilocularis using GC-MS. Ten major bioactive compounds were recorded namely: Di-n-octyl phthalate representing 53.98 % of the crude extract, 2-Allyl-3,4dimethoxybenzaldehyde (10.26 %), Maltol (9.45 %), Cetene (2.73 %), 1-Tetradecene (2.07 %), E-15Heptadecenal (2.06 %), 2,5-Cyclohexadien-1-one (1.88 %), 1-Octadecene (1.36 %), Diethyldithiophosphinic acid (1.17 %) and Phenol, 2,4-di-t-butyl-6-nitrophenol (1.07 %). These compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity in combination. 

 

Keywords: Antibacterial – antifungal – Didymellaceae – molecular phylogeny

 

16. Comparative studies on glucanases and β-glucosidase activities of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius in solid state fermentation

Authors: Ekundayo FO, Ekundayo EA, Ayodele BB

Recieved: 25 March 2017, Accepted: 19 July 2017, Published: 18 August 2017

Agricultural wastes constitute major environmental problem. However, these wastes can be used as substrates for the production of enzymes such as cellulases by filamentous fungi including Pleurotus species. This present investigation was therefore aimed at screening Pleurotus ostreatus DBUI14 and P. pulmonarius DBUI002 for glucanases and β-glucosidase using rice bran, corn cob and sawdust as substrates. Both P. ostreatus DBUI14 and P. pulmonarius DBUI002 cultivated on pretreated rice bran, corn cob and sawdust were screened for cellulolytic enzymes under solid state fermentation (SSF) for a period of 15 days using standard methods. The protein contents were determined using the method of Lowry. The results showed that lowest activities of these enzymes by Pleurotus spp occurred on the third and fifteenth days while the highest activities occurred on the ninth day of fermentation. The highest endoglucanase as well as lowest exoglucanase activities were obtained from Pleurotus pulmonarius DBUI002cultivated on corn cob (PPCC). Pleurotus ostreatus DBUI14 cultivated on corn cob (POCC) had the lowest endoglucanase but highest exoglucanase activity when grown on rice bran (PORB). Moreover, lowest β-glucosidase activity was obtained from POCC while PPCC and PORB had the highest β-glucosidase activities. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivated on corn cob and P. ostreatus cultivated on rice bran could be harnessed in the commercial production of endoglucanase and exoglucanase. In addition, both Pleurotus ostreatus DBU14 strain and P. pulmonarius DBUI002 could be harnessed in synthesis of β-glucosidase. 

Keywords: agro-industrial wastes bioconversion extracellular cellulolytic enzymes – pretreatment – submerged fermentation

 

17. Chrysosporium leigongshanense sp. nov. from Guizhou Province, China

Authors: Li Z, Zeng GP, Ren J, Zou X, Han YF

Recieved: 30 January 2017, Accepted: 07 April 2017, Published: 18 August 2017

A new species of the genus Chrysosporium, C. leigongshanense, was isolated from the soils in Leigong Mountain, Guizhou Province, China. The isolate was morphologically characterized and subjected to molecular analysis based on ITS rDNA sequence data. Diagnostic characters are as follows: racquet hyphae present; terminal and lateral conidia produced on protrusions, the stalk or side branches; conidia smooth, single- to double- celled, cylindrical to clavate, 5.4-19.4 µm × 1-3.2 µm; Basal scars were 0.5-2 µm wide; Intercalary conidia and chlamydospores absent. Holotype was deposited as HMAS 255243. 

Keywords: filamentous fungi – morphological character – phylogeny, taxonomy

 

18. Triadelphia moubasheri sp. nov., from the gut of red palm weevils, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier

Authors: Abdel-Sater MA and Soliman Z

Recieved: 19 April 2017, Accepted: 27 July 2017, Published: 18 August 2017

During surveys of the mycota inhabiting guts of some insect species in Assiut area, Egypt, an interesting isolate of a dematiaceous hyphomycete was obtained from a gut sample (out of 11 investigated) of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. This isolate was morphologically and genotypically identified as a new species in the genus Triadelphia (Triadelphia moubasherii Abdel-Sater and Soliman Z, with 94 % ITS similarity with T. disseminata Madrid & J. Edathodu, GenBank accession no. KC489510). The type strain of the new species was deposited at Assiut University Mycological Centre Culture Collection and given AUMC number 10746 and the ITS gene sequence was deposited at the National Center for Biotechnological Information (NCBI) and accession numbers is given as KY611849. Description and photos of the new species are presented

Keywords: in Assiut –insect–pleomorphic –Triadelphia disseminata–T.pulvinata.

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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