Volume 14 - 2023 Issue 1
1. Endophytic fungi in green manure crops; friends or foe?
Abeywickrama PD et al. (2023)
Volume 13 - 2022 Issue 2 (SI Fungal Evolution)
9. Special Issue: Fungal Evolution, in honour of the Academician Professor Yu Li’s 80th Birthday
Hyde Kevin David et al. (2023)
5. Comparative genomics provides new insights into the evolution of Colletotrichum
Chen YP et al. (2022)
4. Large-scale genome investigations reveal insights into domestication of cultivated mushrooms
Fu YP et al. (2022)
2. Phylogenetic diversity and affiliation of tropical African ectomycorrhizal fungi
Houdanon RD et al. (2022)
Volume 8 - 2017 - Issue 7 (May/June)- closed
Authors: Nie Y, Tang XX, Liu XY, Huang B
Recieved: 05 March 2017, Accepted: 25 May 2017, Published: 29 May 2017
Conidiobolus is a widely distributed genus throughout the world, and its resting spores include zygospores, chlamydospores and villose conidia. Conidiobolus dabieshanensis is confirmed as a new species with chlamydospores within the genus Conidiobolus based on the morphological evidence and the molecular data of LSU rDNA region. It is morphologically allied with C. adiaeretus and C. firmipilleus and it is phylogenetically closely related to C. humicolus, C. chlamydosporus and C. firmipilleus. The new species differs from C. adiaeretus by the absence of capilliconidia, from C. firmipilleus and C. chlamydosporus by its size of primary conidia and slender and curving germ hyphae arising from a single conidium, and from C. humicolus by its larger primary conidia and the absence of zygospores.
Keywords: Entomophthorales – Morphology – Molecular phylogeny
Authors: Liu XB, Guo ZK, Huang GX
Recieved: 29 March 2017, Accepted: 15 May 2017, Published: 09 June 2017
In a survey on the diversity of endophytic fungi of Brachiaria brizantha, a new species of Sarocladium was isolated and proposed here as Sarocladium brachiariae. According to the LSU and ITS rDNA sequences and culture morphology and micromorphology, the species differed from the species hitherto described in Sarocladium, and is characterized as a new species. The new species can produce hyphal coils and slimy heads. In addition, raised, cottony, moist to slimy colonies on PDA, and adelophialides, branched conidiophores were also useful characters for distinguishing species from other species of Sarocladium.
Keywords: Endophytes – Sarocladium – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
3. Further characterization and pathogenicity of Didymella microchlamydospora causing stem necrosis of Morus nigra in Iran
Authors: Ahmadpour SA, Farokhinejad R, Mehrabi-Koushki M
Recieved: 10 March 2017, Accepted: 11 April 2017, Published: 09 June 2017
In the last decade, canker and dieback diseases have caused disease of ornamental and fruit trees of Khuzestan Province in the southwest of Iran. Fourty-eight symptomatic branches and trunks were sampled and a survey was made to identify the probable pathogens, which led to the isolation of the recently established species, Didymella microchlamydospora. A multi-locus DNA sequence based phylogeny, in combination with morphology, was used to characterize seven isolates of this species. Two phylogenetic trees constructed based on the combined sequences of ITS/LSU/tub2 and ITS/LSU/tub2/rpb2 regions showed very little differences, and both trees presented generally consistent relationships among the strongly supported clades. In both of three- and four-locus based phylogenetic trees, our isolates and a reference strain, D. microchlamydospora CBS 105.95, formed supportive monophyletic clades with strong 99% and 100% BS support, respectively. In pathogenicity tests, the isolate of D. microchlamydospora SCUA 14_Dez_Mor formed the necrosis and wood discoloration on stem fragments of Morus nigra. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pathogenicity of D. microchlamydospora on Morus nigra and its association on plants of olive, bitter orange, oleander and bottlebrush worldwide. In addition, we gave a slightly amended description of this species.
Keywords: die back – Khuzestan – multi-locus phylogeny
Authors: Chen YY, Wu F
Recieved: 22 February 2017, Accepted: 24 May 2017, Published: 12 June 2017
A new species, Antrodia monomitica sp. nov., is described and illustrated from China based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. It is characterized by producing annual, fragile and nodulose basidiomata, a monomitic hyphal system with clamp connections on generative hyphae, hyaline, thin-walled and fusiform to mango-shaped basidiospores (6–7.5 × 2.3–3 μm), and causing a typical brown rot. In phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS and nLSU rDNA sequences, the new species forms a distinct lineage in the Antrodia s. l., and has a close relationship with A. oleracea.
Keywords: Fomitopsidaceae – phylogenetic analysis – taxonomy – wood-decaying fungi
5. Effects of additives and bioreactors on cordycepin production from Cordyceps militaris in liquid static culture
Authors: Wen TC, Long FY, Kang C, Wang F, Zeng W
Recieved: 11 April 2017, Accepted: 15 May 2017, Published: 12 June 2017
Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine), a nucleoside analog, was isolated from Cordyceps militaris, an entomopathogenic fungus, important in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this study, Cordycepin production by three strains of C. militaris (strains GACP08Y5, GACP08Y1 and GACP0746) in static liquid culture was established using different working volumes and bioreactors. The best cordycepin production of 3005.83 mg/L was obtained by strain GACP08Y5 in 5 L-flasks, containing 2 L medium at day 40, and total cordycepin content reached 6011.66 mg/flask. The utilization ratio of adenine reached 91%. This is the highest report of cordycepin production in a single fermenter. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes.
Keywords: comparison – cordycepin – Cordyceps militaris – Growth curve – large scale production
Authors: Sulzbacher MA, Bevilacqua CB, Baldoni DB, Jacques RJS, Antoniolli ZI et al.
Recieved: 13 January 2017, Accepted: 15 March 2017, Published: 12 June 2017
Setchelliogaster tenuipes is ectomycorrhizal species with Eucalyptus spp. and currently occurring throughout the world, introduced from Australasia. In South America, it is known from Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Chile. Some of the main features of S. tenuipes are the reddish brown basidiomes, presence of stipe, shape of cystidia and peridium structures. The aim of the study is to report the genetic diversity of Setchelliogaster tenuipes (Setch.) Pouzar in Brazil, as well as, in the world distribution. It was presented morphological and phylogenetic notes of this species sampled in Brazil.
Keywords: ectomycorrhizal fungi – Eucalyptus plantation – nrDNA – sequestrate fungi
Authors: Dai LD, He SH.
Recieved: 09 June 2017, Accepted: 10 June 2017, Published: 16 June 2017
Aleurodiscus ryvardenii sp. nov. from southwestern China is described and illustrated. The species is characterized by possessing effused basidiocarps, simple-septate generative hyphae, moniliform gloeocystidia and verrucose basidiospores. Aleurodiscus tsugae on coniferous bark in East Asia is transferred to Aleurocystidiellum. Illustrated description of Aleurocystidiellum tsugae and a key to the three species of Aleurocystidiellum are given. The phylogeny of 29 species of Aleurdiscus s.l., Stereum and Xylobolus was inferred from ITS sequences.
Keywords: Aleurocystidiellum – ITS – Stereaceae – taxonomy – wood-inhabiting fungi
8. Phylogenetic investigations on freshwater fungi in Tubeufiaceae (Tubeufiales) reveals the new genus Dictyospora and new species Chlamydotubeufia aquatica and Helicosporium flavum
Authors: Brahmanage RS, Lu YZ, Bhat DJ, Wanasinghe DN, Yan JY, Hyde KD, Boonmee S
Recieved: 11 May 2017, Accepted: 16 June 2017, Published: 25 June 2017
Seven new collections of sexual and asexual morphs of Tubeufiaceae from woody substrates in freshwater, were obtained from different regions of Thailand. ITS, LSU and TEF1α sequence data obtained from single spore isolates of these collections were analyzed with other species of Tubeufiaceae. The phylogenetic analyses with combined ITS, LSU and TEF1α data indicated that the collections represented three new species, Chlamydotubeufia aquatica, Dictyospora thailandica and Helicosporium flavum. A new genus, Dictyospora is introduced to accommodate Dictyospora thailandica. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided for the new taxa and compared with similar taxa. A single ascospore isolates of Dictyospora thailandica and Helicosporium flavum produced asexual conidia in MEA.
Keywords: Chlamydotubeufia – Dictyospora – Helicosporium – lignicolous fungi – phylogeny – taxonomy
Authors: Wijayawardene NN, Papizadeh M, Phillips AJL, Wanasinghe DN, Bhat DJ, Weerahewa HLD, Shenoy BD, Wang Y, Huang YQ
Recieved: 09 May 2017, Accepted: 09 June 2017, Published: 26 June 2017
The application of molecular phylogenetic methods has provided a better understanding of the taxonomy and evolution of coelomycetous fungi. Providing taxonomic placements for orphan genera, re-visiting historic genera, resolving species complexes and polyphyletic genera are progressing with new data continually immerging. Taxonomists need to implement the usage of adopted names of pleomorphic fungi after the introduction of Art. 59.1. In this paper, we summarize the recent advances and future potentials of taxonomic studies of coelomycetous studies
Keywords: morphology – phylogeny – pleomorphism – species complexes
Authors: Toprak B, Soti P, Jovel E, Alverado L, Jayachandran K
Recieved: 10 May 2017, Accepted: 11 June 2017, Published: 27 June 2017
In the recent years, low input agriculture has gained high popularity and there is an emerging body of literature on the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in organic farming and its potential use in low input agriculture systems. This study was conducted to analyse mycorrhizal status of several 31 different plants in organically managed farms in south Florida: organic farm at the Florida International University and the organic fruit, farm Possum Trot. Rhizosphere soil was analysed for mycorrhizal spores and soil nutrients, and plant roots were analysed for mycorrhizal colonization status. Possum Trot, which is a less disturbed site, had higher mycorrhizal spore density in the soil as compared to the organic farm at the Florida International University, which gets highly disturbed with student activities. However, plants at the Florida International University organic farm had higher degree of mycorrhizal colonization in the roots. Of the 31-plant species analysed, Cymbopogen nardus had highest root colonization (75%), while Spinacia oleracea had no signs of mycorhrizal colonization in the roots. Surprisingly, although very low, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization was observed in roots of Eruca sativa and Chrysophyllum cainito which are normally reported as non-host plants of mycorrhizal fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizal spore density showed a negative correlation with soil N, while it had a positive correlation with soil P. Though spores of Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora and Scutellospora were found in our study. Glomus were the dominant genera in the rhizosphere of plants grown in the organic farms. Our results indicate that disturbance did not have much impact on the mycorrhizal colonization in the roots, but did have an impact on the rhizosphere spore density. The high occurrence of mycorrhizal fungi in the organic farms of south Florida and potential for the use in organic farm management is discussed.
Keywords: disturbance – mycorrhizal fungi – organic farms – soil nutrients – sustainable agriculture
11. Phytophthora elongata (Peronosporaceae) is present as an estuarine species in Philippine mangroves
Authors: Bennett RM, Dedeles GR, Thines M
Recieved: 05 April 2017, Accepted: 15 May 2017, Published: 27 June 2017
The genus Phytophthora, a group of hemibiotrophic oomycetes, is composed of almost 150 species, most of which are pathogens of terrestrial and freshwater plant species. Of the known taxa of Phytophthora, three species (P. estuarina, P. gemini, and P. rhizophorae) were only recorded in the estuarine or marine environment, while others were recently discovered to be present in these environments as saprotrophs, suggesting that more Phytophthora species might be present in marine or estuarine habitats. Thus, mangrove habitats of the Philippines were surveyed for additional Phytophthora species apart from the previously-reported species, Phytophthora insolita. As a result, Phytophthora elongata, which was reported as a pathogen of Eucalyptus marginata from Western Australia, was isolated from mangrove leaf litter in the coastal area of Cavite, Philippines, as the first Clade 2 species found in saline habitats. This suggests that among Phytophthora species there is the potential to rather easily evolve measures to deal with osmotic pressure, which supports the potential importance of mangroves as a cryptic habitat of Phytophthora.
Keywords: Estuarine environment – Halophytophthora – Mangroves – Oomycetes –Peronosporaceae – Phytophthora
12. Study of the biological activities of Physarum polycephalum and Physarella oblonga plasmodial extracts
Authors: Nguyen TN Nguyen, Tuyen TM Huynh, Steven L Stephenson, Hanh TM Tran
Recieved: 18 May 2017, Accepted: 09 June 2017, Published: 27 June 2017
Various species of myxomycetes have been found to produce bioactive compounds that appear to considerable potential for pharmaceutical applications. However, obtaining a sufficient amount of sample material for studying the bioactive compounds of myxomycetes has been a real challenge due to the small size of their fruiting bodies in the field and the slow growth rates of their plasmodia on synthetic media under laboratory conditions. The research reported herein was carried out first to study the effects of carbon source and carbon concentration on the growth of Physarum polycephalum and Physarella oblonga and then to evaluate antimicrobial and anticancer activities of their plasmodial extracts. Physarella oblonga was found to grow better on agar without nutrients, as it has ability to hydrolyze agar as a carbon source. The best agar concentration for the growth of this species was 19g/L, and at this concentration a remarkably high amount of plasmodia (92.05 g/L) was obtained. In contrast, Physarum polycephalum preferred glucose as a carbon source, and 20g/L of glucose was found to be the most suitable amount for this species. At this gulcose concentration, 65.02 g/L of plasmodia was produced. In term of antimicrobial activity, none of the Phy. oblonga extracts showed inhibitory activity on the pathogens tested. However, 90% MeOH and 90% MeOH:90% acetone extracts of Ph. polycephalum showed antimicrobial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus. Data on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed that S. aureus was more susceptible to the extract of Ph. polycephalum 90% MeOH:90% acetone as the MIC of this extract was in the range of 1.56 to 0.78 mg/mL, whereas that of the 90% MeOH extract was between 6.25 and 3.12 mg/mL. However, the minimum bactericidal concentration values of these two extracts were found to be the same (at 12.5mg/mL). Initially, studies of the cytotoxicity of the extracts found that Phy. oblonga extracts could inhibit the tested cancer cell lines better when compared to those of Ph. polycephalum. Notably, MeOH:Chl Phy. oblonga had an inhibitory rate of 31.95 ± 6.37% on Jurkat blood cancer cells.
Keywords: Anticancer activity - Antimicrobial activity - Myxomycete plasmodial extracts - Jurkat cells - Staphylococcus aureus