Volume 8 - 2017 - Issue 6 (SI Tropical Wood Degrading Fungi)-closed


1. Editorial – New taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi from the tropics

Authors: Yu-Cheng Dai

Recieved: 30 April 2017, Accepted: 06 April 2017, Published: 11 April 2017

Wood-inhabiting fungi are not taxonomically a natural taxon, but have a similar ecology (growing on wood) in nature; most of these fungi can decompose cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in woody plants, and therefore play a key role in nutrient recycling in most forest ecosystems. The major taxa of this group fungi are traditionally known as aphyllophoroid fungi, and share the tough basidiocarps not fleshy as in the Agaricales, but with variable of hymenophore as smooth, poroid, irpicoid, reticulate, merulioid, grandinoid, ondontioid, hydnoid, tuberculate, colliculose and epitheloid etc. In addition, wood-inhabiting fungi have different shapes of fruiting body such as resupinate, effused-reflexed, pileate and stipitate etc. Molecular evidence has shown wood-inhabiting fungi are distinctly polyphyletic; based on the modern taxonomy they belong to orders of Agaricales, Amylocorticiales, Atheliales, Boletales, Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Corticiales, Gloeophyllales, Hymenochaetales, Jaapiales, Polyporales, Russulales, Thelephorales and Trechisporales, but most taxa in Polyporales, Hymenochaetales, Thelephorales, Russulales and Corticiales.

Some members of wood-inhabiting fungi are the serious forest pathogens, e.g. the species of genus Heterobasidion Bref. cause the most destructive forest disease in north hemisphere, and some wood-inhabiting fungi have been used as medicinal herbs, e.g. the selling for various productions of Ganoderma lingzhi Sheng H. Wu, Y. Cao & Y.C. Dai is over 2 billion US$ by 2015. Species diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in boreal and temperate areas is relatively well known, however, it is still poorly known in tropics because of less exploration and rich of woody plants. Most wood-inhabiting fungi were reported to grow on an extensive host range, but recent studies showed species in many genera were considered to be host-specific. Recently a greater number of novel genera and species of wood-inhabiting fungi were described from tropics by the application of molecular techniques, and these studies are mostly connected with phylogenies. New taxa are redefined based on a combination of morphology, ecology, host-specific and DNA sequence analysis. Phylogeny on wood-inhabiting fungi in tropics is more important than in boreal and temperate areas, especially for the host-specific groups, because the host tree species in boreal and temperate areas are usually recognized at generic or species level by mycologists, but they are very difficult in tropics.

This issue of Mycosphere includes papers dealing with new taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi found from tropical Asia, Central America and South America, and phylogenetic analyses on these new taxa are included. Ecological discussions on substrate specificity of some genera are provided.

Keywords:

 

2. Porodaedalea chinensis (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota) — a new polypore from China

Authors: Dai SJ, Vlasák J, Tomšovský M, Wu F

Recieved: 29 May 2017, Accepted: 01 June 2017, Published: 02 July 2017

Porodaedalea chinensis is described and illustrated as a new species occurring on Pinus yunnanensis from southwestern China based on morphological and molecular characters. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal RNA gene and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α) sequences show that the new species forms a distinct lineage separating it from other Porodaedalea species. P. chinensis is characterized by perennial, pileate basidiocarps, relatively small pores (2–3 per mm), a dimitic hyphal system with generative hyphae bearing simple septa which are frequent in trama and skeletal hyphae dominant in context and trama, broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-to slightly thick-walled, smooth, moderately cyanophilous basidiospores measured as 46 × 34.8 µm, and having a distribution in southwestern China.

Keywords: Hymenochaetales – phylogeny – taxonomy – wood-inhabiting fungi

 

3. Kavinia chacoserrana sp. nov. (Gomphales, Basidiomycota): a new species from South America based on morphological and molecular data

Authors: Robledo GL, Urcelay C

Recieved: 25 June 2017, Accepted: 03 July 2017, Published: 14 July 2017

Kavinia chacoserrana is described as a new species based on morphological data and molecular evidence. The species is characterized by its white to pale yellowish hydnoid hymenophore and cylindrical to fusiform basidiospores measured as 10–12 × 3–4 μm. Phylogenetic analysis provide evidence suggesting that, as currently accepted, Kavinia alboviridis is a species complex.

Keywords: Argentina – Chaco – corticioid fungi – neotropical fungi – phylogeny – taxonomy

 

4. A new Phanerochaete (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) with brown subicular hyphae from Thailand

Authors: Sádlíková M, Kout J

Recieved: 16 June 2017, Accepted: 13 July 2017, Published: 23 July 2017

A new species of Phanerochaete, P. thailandica, is described from Thailand, it has resupinate fruiting body with smooth, beige, creamy hymenophore, a monomitic hyphal system, the presence of leptocystidia, ellipsoid spores and remarkable subicular layer composed of brown clamped hyphae with quasi-binding hyphae. Molecular analysis of rDNA ITS regions shows P. thailandica as an independent species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the relationships with closely related species and confirms position the new species in the genus Phanerochaete. 

Keywords: Corticioid fungi – Phanerochaetaceae – Southeast Asia – Taxonomy

 

5. A new species of Neomensularia (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from China

Authors: Ji XH, Wu F

Recieved: 10 January 2017, Accepted: 05 February 2017, Published: 04 August 2017

Neomensularia rectiseta sp. nov. is described and illustrated from China based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. It produces perennial, pileate basidiocarps with concentrically sulcate and zonate pileal surface, a duplex context, subulate and straight hymenial setae, and yellowish basidiospores. The new species macroscopically resembles N. duplicata, which differs in having annual fruiting bodies, ventricose and hooked hymenial setae, and occurs in tropical forests. In LSU and ITS based phylogenies, the new species formed a distinct lineage in the Neomensularia clade. 

Keywords: phylogenetic analysis – polypore – taxonomy

 

6. Amylosporus guaraniticus sp. nov. (Wrightoporiaceae, Russulales) a new neotropical species from Paraguay

Authors: Campi M, Maubet Y, Grassi E, Robledo G.

Recieved: 25 June 2017, Accepted: 23 July 2017, Published: 04 August 2017

Amylosporus guaraniticus is described as a new species from Paraguay based on morphological characters and molecular evidence based on ITS and LSU markers. The species is characterized by its annual, pileate basidiomata, poroid hymenophore, a dimitic hyphal system with simple septate and double to multiple clamped generative hyphae and asperulated, amyloid basidiospores (4–6.5 × 3–4.5 µm). An identification key to Amylosporus species is presented. 

Keywords: fungal diversity, molecular phylogeny, neotropical polypores, taxonomy

 

7. Favolus gracilisporus (Polyporaceae, Basidiomycota), an East Asian polypore species new to the European mycobiota

Authors: Papp V, Dima B

Recieved: 29 June 2017, Accepted: 23 July 2017, Published: 06 August 2017

The interesting finding of Favolus gracilisporus a recently described polypore species from East Asia is reported new to the European mycobiota from Hungary (Central Europe). This species has previously been known only from the type locality, Mt Hagga in South Korea. The ITS sequence, macro-, microscopical characteristics and photographs of the Hungarian specimen are given.

Keywords: Central Europe – new record – Polyporus – phylogeny

 

8. Trichaptum (Basidiomycota) in tropical America: a sequence study

Authors: Abdel-Sater MA and Soliman Z

Recieved: 27 June 2017, Accepted: 01 July 2017, Published: 18 August 2017

A comprehensive study on Trichaptum was performed on the basis of collections from Europe, USA and Central America. The phylogenetic analysis, including 33 newly generated nuc rDNA ITS sequences revealed four new lineages. Combined with morphological evidence, three new lineages are described and illustrated as new species: Trichaptum agricola, T. confertum and T. resacarium; one new lineage represented by a single collection is treated as unidentified taxon. Nigrofomes melanoporus ITS sequence is shown to merge into the Trichaptum clade. 

 

Keywords: Hymenochaetales – taxonomy – Costa Rica

 

9. A new species of Fuscoporia (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from southern China

Authors: Chen Q, Yuan Y

Recieved: 19 April 2017, Accepted: 31 July 2017, Published: 18 August 2017

A new polypore species, Fuscoporia subferrea, is described from southern China based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis. The new species is characterized by annual, resupinate basidiocarp, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, cylindrical basidiospores measured as 4.2–5.8 × 2.2–2.6 µm. It resembles F. ferrea, but differs by smaller pores (7–10/mm vs. 5–7/mm) and narrower basidiospores (4.2–6.2 × 2.0–2.6 µm vs. 4.2–5.2 × 2.8–3.5 μm). Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the ITS and nLSU sequences indicate that the new species forms a distinct lineage with strong support and is closely related to F. ferrea. 

 

Keywords: Hymenochaetaceae – phylogeny – taxonomy – wood-rotting fungi

 

10. A new species in the Skeletocutis subincarnata complex (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) from southwestern China

Authors: Fan LF, Ji XH, Si J

Recieved: 06 July 2017, Accepted: 17 July 2017, Published: 18 August 2017

A new polypore species, Skeletocutis pseudo-odora, was collected on fallen branches of Pinus armandii in Guizhou Province, southwestern China. It is described based on molecular data and morphological characteristics. The species belongs to the Skeletocutis subincarnata complex, and macro-morphologically resembles S. albocream and microscopically is similar to Skeletocutis odora. However, S. albocream can be readily distinguished from S. pseudo-odora by having hyphal pegs and wider basidiospores (4–5 × 1.3–1.7 µm). S. pseudo-odora differs from S. odora in having corky basidiocarps without any odour or taste when fresh, smaller pores (6–8 per mm), thick and entire dissepiments. Phylogeny inferred from the ITS dataset indicates that Skeletocutis under the current concept was not a monophyletic genus and S. pseudo-odora was distinct from other sampled species of Skeletocutis, including S. odora. 

 

Keywords: Phylogeny – polypore – taxonomy – wood-decaying

 

11. Aegis boa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) a new neotropical genus and species based on morphological data and phylogenetic evidences

Authors: Gómez-Montoya N, Rajchenberg M and Robledo GL

Recieved: 25 July 2017, Accepted: 13 November 2017, Published: 14 November 2017

The new genus, Aegis Gómez-Montoya, Rajchenb. & Robledo, is described to accommodate the new species Aegis boa based on morphological data and phylogenetic evidences (ITS – LSU rDNA). It is characterized by a particular monomitic hyphal system with thick-walled, widening, inflated and constricted generative hyphae, and allantoid basidiospores. Phylogenetically Aegis is closely related to Antrodiella aurantilaeta, both species presenting an isolated position within Polyporales into Grifola clade. The new taxon is so far known from Yungas Mountain Rainforests of NW Argentina.

Keywords: Grifola – Neotropical polypores – Tyromyces

 

12. Two new species of aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) from southern China.

Authors: Huang FC, Liu B, Wu H, Shao YY, Qin PS, Li JF

Recieved: 16 October 2017, Accepted: 13 November 2017, Published: 22 November 2017

Two new species of aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) from Nonggang, Guangxi Autonomous Region, tropical, China are described. Perenniporia nonggangensis mainly characterized by resupinate to effused-reflexed basidiocarps with cream to greyish cream pore surface, up to 1.4 cm thick, broad-ellipsoid to subglobose, non-truncate and non-dextrinoid basidiospores. Aporpium obtusisporum characterized by pileate basidiocarps with poroid to lamellate hymenophore when mature, abundant hyphal pegs on both pileal surface and tubes, oval-elliptic, obtuse apically, cyanophilous basidiospores. Morphology and sequence analysis of the combined ITS and nLSU dataset support their taxonomic position as new species.

Keywords: Morphological structure – Phylogeny – Polyporaceae – Aporpiaceae – Taxonomy

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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