Volume 8 - 2017 - Issue 4 (March/April)- closed


1. A new species of Bertiella (Melanommataceae) from Brazil and a key to accepted species

Authors: Almeida DAC, Gusmão LFP, Miller AN

Recieved: 21 November 2016, Accepted: 15 February 2017, Published: 01 March 2017

During an inventory of ascomycetes in the semi-arid region of Brazil, an undescribed specimen of Bertiella was found. It is described and illustrated as B. gelatinosa sp. nov., based on morphological data. The new fungus is distinguished by the size of the ascospores, which are surrounded by a gelatinous sheath. A synoptic table and a key to all known species of Bertiella are presented.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Dothideomycetes – Pleosporales – Taxonomy

 

2. A family level rDNA based phylogeny of Cucurbitariaceae and Fenestellaceae with descriptions of new Fenestella species and Neocucurbitaria gen. nov.

Authors: Wanasinghe DN, Phookamsak R, Jeewon R, Wen Jing Li, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Camporesi E, Promputtha I.

Recieved: 01 February 2017, Accepted: 28 February 2017, Published: 07 March 2017

The taxonomy of the family Cucurbitariaceae and its allies, especially Fenestellaceae has received little attention despite its broad relevance. To further clarify phylogenetic relationships between the two families, new collections were made and samples examined morphologically. Morphometric observations reveal two new Fenestella species that are different from other known species and are introduced as Fenestella ostryae sp. nov. and F. mackenziei sp. nov. The asexual morph of F. ostryae is also established from single spore cultures and described. Phylogeny inferred from a combined dataset of ITS, LSU and SSU rDNA sequence also reveals a close association of the new taxa to F. fenestrata, but they are distinct. Sequence analyses also support our previous assumption that Fenestellaceae should be synonymized with Cucurbitariaceae. Pyrenochaeta quercina, Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis and an additional new cucurbitaria-like isolate constitute a strongly supported monophyletic lineage within Cucurbitariaceae. To better resolve intergeneric level relationships and improve taxonomic issues within Cucurbitariaceae, a new genus, Neocucurbitaria gen. nov. is introduced with Neocucurbitaria acerina as a new species.

Keywords: Asexual morph – Dictyospores – Dothideomycetes – Italy – phylogeny – sexual morph

 

3. Magnicamarosporium diospyricola sp. nov. (Sulcatisporaceae) from Thailand

Authors: Phukhamsakda C, Bhat DJ, Hongsanan S, Tibpromma S, Yang JB, Promputtha I

Recieved: 17 February 2017, Accepted: 03 March 2017, Published: 14 March 2017

A new species of Magnicamarosporium, M. diospyricola was found on dead or dying twigs of a dicotyledonous plant in southern Thailand. The new species is distinct from other species in Sulcatisporaceae, as it has dematiaceous dictyosporous conidia. It differs from Magnicamarosporium iriomotense in its smaller conidiomata and conidia. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis of combined LSU, SSU, ITS, and TEF1-α sequence data indicate that M. diospyricola is a well-resolved species, sister to M. iriomotense, in the family Sulcatisporaceae. The morphology and phylogenetic placement of the new species are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: asexual morph – coelomycetes – Massarineae – Pleosporales – saprobes

 

4. Fungi from Asian Karst formations II. Two new species of Occultibambusa (Occultibambusaceae, Dothideomycetes) from karst landforms of China

Authors: Zhang JF, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Yang W, Liu ZY

Recieved: 23 February 2017, Accepted: 22 March 2017, Published: 03 April 2017

During an investigation of saprobic ascomycetes from karst landforms in southwest China, two new species were isolated from dead bamboo culms collected from Maolan Town in Guizhou Province. The new taxa share similar morphological characters as known Occultibambusa species in having immersed, papillate ascomata, broadly-cylindrical to clavate asci and fusiform, hyaline to brown ascospores. Phylogenetic analysis of combined LSU, SSU, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data also placed the new taxa within the genus Occultibambusa in the family Occultibambusaceae with good support. The new taxa can be distinguished from other species by septation and different-sized ascospores and the present or absence of sheaths. The new species, Occultibambusa jonesii and O. maolanensis are introduced here, with descriptions, illustrations and molecular data.

Keywords: Dothideomycetes-phylogeny-Pleosporales-taxonomy

 

5. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with Quercus dentata in a coastal broadleaf forest

Authors: Arai H, Tamai Y, Yajima T, Obase K, Miyamoto T

Recieved: 31 October 2016, Accepted: 24 November 2016, Published: 15 April 2017

Coastal forests are exposed to high salinity and drought stress, and plant growth is restricted under such harsh conditions. Quercus dentata is one of the most common species in coastal forests in northern Japan. We investigated the changing vegetation in a coastal forest, shoreline to inland, and examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with Q. dentata. We aimed to determine whether the ECM changes corresponded with the changes in vegetation. More than 300 m inland, broadleaf trees such as Q. dentata were dominant. An almost pure Q. dentata stand was formed in the area closest to the shoreline. By contrast, as the forest moved inland, the occurrence of other tree species increased and the density of Q. dentata gradually decreased, respectively. In the areas that were furthest inland, Q. dentata, Q. crispula, Acer mono, and Tilia japonica were equally dominant. Five sampling plots (20 m × 20 m, each) were set up in the forest 100 m apart, and soil cores (including the fine roots of Q. dentata) were sampled in each plot. The total ECM colonization rate was > 98% in each sampling plot. Morphological characterization and DNA sequencing of the root tips identified six taxa (Tomentella sp., Russula spp., Tricholoma sp., Hebeloma sp. and Boletales sp.). Tomentella sp. was relatively abundant near the shoreline and its abundance decreased as the density of Q. dentata decreased inland. Conversely, Russula sp. increased as the forest moved inland.

Keywords: coastal forest – ectomycorrhizal fungi – Quercus dentata – vegetation

 

6. Muscodor camphora, a new endophytic species from Cinnamomum camphora

Authors: Meshram V, Kapoor N, Chopra G, Saxena

Recieved: 03 February 2017, Accepted: 09 March 2017, Published: 17 April 2017

The current study describes a new endophytic species Muscodor camphora from internal stem tissue of Cinnamomum camphora. The fungus produces white hairy colonies over potato dextrose agar medium with sterile ropy mycelial filaments and hyphal coils. Scanning electron micrographs exhibited that they form dense hyphal web, which club to form rope-like mycelium and coils. Phylogenetic, genetic distance and haplotype analyses based on internal transcribed spacer confirm its identity as a new species in the genus Muscodor. The fungus also produces a unique mixture of 18 volatile organic compounds predominantly producing tetracontane, 4-octadecylmorpholine, N, N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine and cis-9-hexadecenal. These volatiles exhibited synergistic inhibitory effect over a tested spectrum of pathogenic microorgan­isms. Out of 15 tested pathogenic microorganisms, the volatile organic compounds inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens by 13–70 %, while considerable inhibition was observed against Candida, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species.

Keywords: ITS-rDNA, ropy mycelium, Tiger Hills, volatile organic

 

7. New record of Trichoglossum rasum from Asia

Authors: Prabhugaonkar A, Pratibha J

Recieved: 10 January 2017, Accepted: 05 February 2017, Published: 17 April 2017

Trichoglossum rasum, a rare species in the genus Trichoglossum, previously reported only from New Caledonia in 1909, was recently observed in Khasi hills, India. This paper illustrates important distributional record along with first molecular phylogenetic placement of the species. A review of all 19 hitherto accepted species in the genus is also provided. 

Keywords: Fungal diversity, Geoglossaceae, Khasi hills

 

8. In-vitro antioxidant activity and nutritional value of four wild oyster mushroom collected from North-Eastern Part of Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Vishwakarma P, Singh P, Tripathi NN

Recieved: 09 August 2016, Accepted: 08 January 2017, Published: 17 April 2017

Four species of wild edible oyster mushroom viz., Pleurotus cystidiosus OK. Mill., P. flabellatus (Berk & Br.) Sacc., P. florida (Mont.) Singer and P. ostreatus (Jacq: Fries) were selected to evaluate their antioxidant property and bioactive compounds (β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and phenolic content). The antioxidant property of all tested mushroom extracts gave a positive result with free radical scavenging potentials. Phenolic content ranged from 37.70-39.01 mg/g. P. ostreatus showed highest antioxidant activity in all tested protocols (DPPH: 0.1884mg/ml, β-carotene bleaching assay: 0.362mg/ml, H2O2 Scavenging assay: 0.820mg/ml) in comparison to other three species tested viz., P. cystidiosus, P. flabellatus and P. florida. All mushroom tested exhibited significant antioxidant properties which therefore can be promoted as natural antioxidant preference in food and can also be used as nutraceuticals.

Keywords: bioactive compounds – biochemical – DPPH – phenol – Pleurotus

 

9. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Sparticola muriformis sp. nov. on decaying grass

Authors: Karunarathna A, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN, Wijayawardene NN, Weerahewa HLD, Khan S, Wang Y

Recieved: 27 March 2017, Accepted: 15 April 2017, Published: 21 April 2017

Members of Sporormiaceae are saprobes on plant debris, wood, soil and dung and are sometimes endophytes. In this study, a saprobic species was collected from decaying grass in China. Maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses of combined ITS, LSU, SSU, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data clarified the phylogenetic affinity in Sparticola. The isolate was confirmed as a new species based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Sparticola muriformis sp. nov. is distinguished from other taxa in Sporormiaceae by having muriform ascospores. 

 

Keywords: Dothideomycetes – muriform – Pleosporales – Sporormiaceae

 

10. Distribution and national conservation status of the lichen family Lobariaceae (Peltigerales): from subtropical luxuriant forests to the alpine scrub of Nepal Himalaya

Authors: Devkota S, Keller C, Olley L, Werth S, Chaudhary RP, Scheidegger C

Recieved: 09 March 2017, Accepted: 14 April 2017, Published: 30 April 2017

During 2007 - 2014, voucher specimens of Lobariaceae were collected from different geographic locations of Taplejung, Solukhumbu, Rasuwa, Gorkha, Manang, Kaski, and Myagdi districts of Nepal. Morphological characters, chemical tests and thin-layer chromatography techniques (TLC) were applied for the identification. Combining with earlier publications on Lobariaceae, this study summarized two genera Lobaria and Sticta each with seven and six species, reported from ten different districts of Nepal. The altitudinal distribution of the species varies from 1350 m to 5004 m (i.e. subtropical to alpine bioclimatic zones) above sea level, from Eastern, Central and Western parts of Nepal. Lobaria adscripturiens (Nyl.) Hue, L. fuscotomentosa Yoshim. L. aff. quercizans Michx. and S. limbata (Sm.) Ach. are new records for the lichen flora of Nepal. Major chemotypes and their distributions are presented and further work on molecular analyses of these specimens from Nepal is recommended for the understanding of their systematic position. Extensive exploration covering more geographical areas of Nepal will increase the understanding on taxonomy and ecology of this interesting lichen group. In the light of species occurrence and following IUCN criteria, we have also prepared the national conservation status of Lobariaceae species, which could provide further insights for the inclusion of species in national conservation priorities.

Keywords: Checklist – Lobaria – Sticta – Taxonomy – TLC

 

11. Morphological properties and levels of extracellular peroxidase activity and light emission of the basidiomycete Armillaria borealis treated with β-glucosidase and chitinase

Authors: Mogilnaya OA, Ronzhin NO, Artemenko KS, Bondar VS

Recieved: 27 March 2017, Accepted: 21 April 2017, Published: 30 April 2017

The study estimates morphological properties and levels of extracellular peroxidase activity and light emission of mycelium of the basidiomycete Armillaria borealis IBSO 2328 treated with β-glucosidase and chitinase. Mycelium incubated with the enzymes shows considerable morphological changes and indications of osmotic shock. Injuries observed in the cell envelope of the fungal hyphae are primarily attributed to the partial (in the β-glucosidase treatment) or complete (in the chitinase treatment) disintegration of the melanin layer on the surface of the cell wall. Changes in the cell wall of hyphae are accompanied by release of extracellular peroxidases of the fungus into the incubation medium and an increase in light emission relative to the luminescence of the control pellets. We assume that higher level of luminescence of the enzyme-treated mycelium samples could be related to the disintegration of the surface pigment layer of the hyphae and the partial loss of extracellular peroxidases. The data obtained confirm the previously proposed hypothesis in which light producing reaction of the fungus may be an additional way to neutralize active oxygen radicals under stress.

Keywords: basidiomycetes – bioluminescence – cell wall – β-glucosidase – chitinase – peroxidase

 

12. A preliminary checklist of Ascomycetous microfungi from Southern Uzbekistan

Authors: Gafforov YS

Recieved: 03 April 2017, Accepted: 19 April 2017, Published: 30 April 2017

This study is an update of the available data concerning species of ascomycetous microfungi from Southern Uzbekistan. This revision is based on literature and herbaria records and recent field trips in the region. Currently, there are 333 species and 107 genera of ascomycetous microfungi known from region. Among these taxa Anthostoma melanotes, Camarosporium mori, Cucurbitaria negundinis, C. rhamni, Gloeosporium populi-albae are newly reported for ascomycetous mycota of Uzbekistan, while 26 microfungal species are new to the Southern region. The most frequently collected species of the genera are Alternaria, Ascochyta, Cucurbitaria, Cytospora, Leptosphaeria, Mycosphaerella, Pleospora, Phyllosticta, Ramularia and Septoria which are widely known for their cosmopolitan nature. The checklist includes details of the location and substrate on which they were encountered. This data will be useful in the compilation of ascomycetous microfungal biodiversity of Uzbekistan. This region, characterised by arid and semi-arid and dry forest and xerophytic plants provides an excellent opportunity to unravel the species diversity with the possibility of discovering many new species.

Keywords: Ascomycetes – arid and semi-arid area – Central Asia – distribution – inventory – mycobiota – new records

 

13. Mycosphere notes 1-50: Grass (Poaceae) inhabiting Dothideomycetes

Authors: Thambugala KM, Wanasinghe DN, Phillips AJL, Camporesi E, Bulgakov TS, Phukhamsakda C, Ariyawansa HA, Goonasekara ID, Phookamsak R, Dissanayake A, Tennakoon DS, Tibpromma S, Chen YY, Liu ZY, Hyde KD

Recieved: 27 February 2017, Accepted: 15 April 2017, Published: 30 April 2017

This is a first of a series of papers where we bring collaborating mycologists together to produce a set of notes of 50 taxa of fungi, including the new genera Phaeopoacea, Kalmusibambusa and Neoramichloridium, 33 new species, three new combinations, two reference specimens, one epitype, an asexual report and new host records or distribution records for seven species. In this paper, we deal with 50 taxa on grasses (Poaceae or Gramineae). Grasses are ecologically dominant, monocotyledonous plants, which occur in almost every habitat worldwide. In this study, molecular sequence data and descriptions linked to morphological illustrations are used to show the diversity and taxonomy of grass-inhabiting fungal species. Sixty strains of newly collected dothideomycetous species on Poaceae in China, Italy, Russia and Thailand were identified based on morphological characters and analyses of sequence data. This research is expected to stimulate interest in grass fungi.

Keywords: Bambusicolaceae - Coniothyriaceae - Didymellaceae - Didymosphaeriaceae - Massarinaceae - Mycosphaerellaceae - Periconiaceae - Phaeosphaeriaceae - Pleosporaceae - Roussoellaceae - Sporormiaceae - new species

 

About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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