Volume 14 - 2023 Issue 1
17. Beyond observation: genomic traits and machine learning algorithms for predicting fungal lifestyles
Chen YP et al. (2023)
16. Mycosphere Notes 413–448: Dothideomycetes associated with woody oil plants in China
Li WL et al. (2023)
15. Diversity of fungal communities associated with grapevine trunk diseases in China
Zhou YY et al. (2023)
14. Lasiodiplodia: Generic revision by providing molecular markers, geographical distribution and haplotype diversity
Rathnayaka AR et al. (2023)
13. The relevance of fungi in astrobiology research – Astromycology
Simões MF et al. (2023)
12. Annotated notes on Diaporthe species
Hongsanan S et al. (2023)
11. Updated systematics of Trichaptum s.l. (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota)
Zhou M et al. (2023)
9. New taxa of Boletaceae from China
Wu G et al. (2023)
8. Mycosphere notes 387–412 – novel species of fungal taxa from around the world
Hyde KD et al. (2023)
Volume 8 - 2017 - Issue 10 (November/December) - Closed
1. Lignicolous freshwater fungi from China I : Aquadictyospora lignicola gen. et sp. nov. and new record of Pseudodictyosporium wauense from northwestern Yunnan Province
Authors: Li WL, Luo ZL, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Bao DF, Su HY, Hyde KD
Recieved: 18 September 2017, Accepted: 06 October 2017, Published: 08 November 2017
This is the first in a series of papers on lignicolous freshwater fungi from China. In this paper, eight fresh collections of taxa of Dictyosporiaceae from submerged wood in freshwater are characterized based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU and TEF1α sequence data. A new monotypic genus Aquadictyospora, with A. lignicola as the type species is introduced based on its distinct morphology and evidences from molecular phylogeny. In addition, detailed description and illustration of Pseudodictyosporium wauense from the fresh collection are provided and it is a new record for China.
Keywords: Asexual fungi – Dictyosporiaceae – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
2. Neophyllachora gen nov. (Phyllachorales), three new species of Phyllachora from Poaceae and resurrection of Polystigmataceae (Xylariales)
Authors: Dayarathne MC, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Jones EBG, Goonasekara ID, Bulgakov TS, Al-Sadi AM, Hyde KD, Lumyong S and McKenzie EHC
Recieved: 12 October 2017, Accepted: 14 October 2017, Published: 08 November 2017
We collected six “tar spot” disease specimens from various hosts and these were subjected to morpho-phylogenetic studies. In this paper, a new genus, Neophyllachora is introduced to accommodate N. cerradensis, N. myrciae, N. myrciariae, N. subcircinans and N. trucantispora, which are related to Phyllachora species but constitutes an independent strongly supported monophyletic clade within Phyllachoraceae of the Phyllachorales. Three novel Phyllachora species; P. chloridis, P. cynodonticola and P. panicicola on Poaceae are also introduced. Phenotypic comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of partial SSU, LSU and ITS sequence data with homologous taxa, confirm the placement of the novel species in Phyllachoraceae. The family Polystigmataceae is re-established to accommodate Polystigma within the order Xylariales. The asexual morph of Polystigma rubrum was re-collected from Russia and is provided as a reference specimen with a description, illustrations and molecular data. Further studies with multiple gene analysis are recommended to provide a natural and stable classification system for members of Phyllachorales.
Keywords: biotrophs – phylogeny – tar spots – taxonomy
3. Metabolomics reveals changes in metabolite concentrations and correlations during sexual development of Eurotium cristatum (synonym: Aspergillus cristatus)
Authors: Ren CG, Tan YM, Ren XX, Liu YX and Liu ZY
Recieved: 24 April 2017, Accepted: 06 November 2017, Published: 08 November 2017
Eurotium cristatum is the main probiotic fungus involved in fermentation of Chinese Fuzhuan brick tea, and the amount of E. cristatum is an important indicator of tea quality. Sexual development of E. cristatum consists of three main stages, hypha and ascogonium (at 36 hours post-inoculation), cleistothecium formation (at 48 hours), and cleistothecium ripening (at 72 hours), and each stage exhibits a unique metabolite profile. In this study, developmental changes were analyzed by GC–MS based untargeted metabolomics. Ninety-nine metabolites involved in multiple biochemical pathways were identified. Principal component analysis separated developing E. cristatum into 36, 48 and 72 hour groups. Hierarchical cluster analyses showed that the relative contents of organic acids and amino acids peaked at 36 hours and decreased thereafter, while alcohol and carbohydrate levels peaked at 48−72 hours. Statistical analysis revealed 401 significant metabolite−metabolite correlations (Pearson’s |r|>0.8 at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.05), of which 213 were positive and 188 negative. The early increases in organic acid and amino acid metabolites as well as certain phosphate and amine metabolites favor ascogonium formation. Conversely, increased alcohol and carbohydrate concentrations favor cleistothecium formation. These results provide a foundation for further exploration of the biochemical mechanism underlying sexual development in E. cristatum.
Keywords: Eurotium cristatum – Fungus – Metabolite – metabolite correlation – Metabolomic
Authors: Zhang MZ, Li GJ, Dai RC, Xi YL, Wei SL and Zhao RL
Recieved: 01 June 2017, Accepted: 20 September 2017, Published: 13 November 2017
Agaricus is a genus of macrofungi containing species with highly edible and medicinal values. A mushroom survey was recently carried out in Qilian Mountain National Natural Reserve, in Gansu Province of China, and yielded 21 Agaricus specimens. The morphological examination and phylogenetic analysis based on four-gene sequences from those specimens were conducted. The result shows they belong to four species in A. section Bivelares: A. sinotetrasporus sp. nov. and A. qilianensis sp. nov. are new species for science; A. devoniensis is a new record from China; and the famous button mushroom, A. bisporus is found in the wild. All of them are described and illustrated in details. A brief comparison with similar taxa or previous records are addressed too.
Keywords: Agaricaceae – Multi–gene – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
5. Mycosphere Essays 20: Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma species: Insights into its use as traditional medicine
Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Cheng CR, Wen TC, Jeewon R and Kakumyan P
Recieved: 14 August 2017, Accepted: 13 November 2017, Published: 16 November 2017
The genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) has a long history in traditional medicine to improve longevity and health in Asia. Ganoderma has been widely used in multiple therapeutic activities as well as dietary supplements to prevent and treat many diseases. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from Ganoderma, such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, nucleosides, sterols, fatty acids, protein and alkaloids. There are numerous research publications, which report the abundance and variety of biological actions initiated by the metabolites of Ganoderma. Investigation on different metabolic activities of Ganoderma species has been performed both in vitro and in vivo. In many cases, however, it has been questioned whether Ganoderma is solely a nourishment supplement for wellbeing or merely a helpful "medication" for restorative purposes. There has been no any conclusive report of human trials using Ganoderma species as a direct control agent for diseases. In addition, there is no evidence supporting the usage of Ganoderma species (excluding G. lucidum) as potential supplements for cancer or other diseases in humans since no preclinical trials have been performed up to date. In this review, the beneficial medicinal properties of several species of Ganoderma (excluding G. lucidum) and their secondary metabolites are discussed. Ganoderma species can be used as a therapeutic drug, but more direct scientific evidence should be made available in the future. The efficiency of Ganoderma in clinical treatments should be substantiated with more biomedical research and their true impact assessed on human health with more standardized clinical evaluations so that the feasibility of biologically active extracts of Ganoderma species in alternative treatments can be recommended.
Keywords: clinical evidence – medicinal properties – secondary metabolites
6. Mycosphere notes 51–101. Revision of genera in Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae and other Ascomycota genera incertae sedis
Authors: Boonmee S, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Doilom M, Mapook A, McKenzie EHC, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD
Recieved: 19 August 2017, Accepted: 13 November 2017, Published: 22 November 2017
This is the second in a series, Mycosphere notes, wherein we provide notes on various fungal genera. In this set of notes we deal with genera of the families Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae. These families have traditionally accommodated taxa associated with dead and living leaves of mostly tropical plants and comprised pathogens, saprobes or epiphytes. Most genera are poorly understood with only brief Latin descriptions, but molecular sequence data are needed to establish their taxonomic placements. In this study, 50 genera and 51 taxa are re-examined and their placements at the family level discussed. Thirteen new families Alinaceae, Balladynaceae, Cleistosphaeraceae, Dysrhynchisceae, Hyalomeliolinaceae, Lizoniaceae, Nematotheciaceae, Neoparodiaceae, Phaeodimeriellaceae, Pododimeriaceae, Polyclypeolinaceae, Stomatogeneceae and Toroaceae are introduced and Dimeriaceae is reinstated in this paper. One new species, Phaeostigme alchorneae is introduced. Nine genera are transferred to other families. However, fresh collections, epitypification or reference specimens including DNA sequence data, are required to confirm their phylogenetic placements.
Keywords: Alinaceae – Balladynaceae – Botryosphaeriaceae – Cleistosphaeraceae – Coccoideaceae – Dimeriaceae – Dysrhynchisceae – Epibryaceae – Hyalomeliolinaceae – Lizoniaceae – Massarinaceae – Mycosphaerellaceae – Myriangiaceae – Nematotheciaceae – Neoparodiaceae – Opegraphaceae – Parmulariaceae – Phaeodimeriellaceae – Phaeosphaeriaceae – Pododimeriaceae – Polyclypeolinaceae – Schizothyriaceae – Stomatogeneceae – Teratosphaeriaceae – Toroaceae – Venturiaceae
7. Nomenclatural and identification pitfalls of endophytic mycota based on DNA sequence analyses of ribosomal and protein genes phylogenetic markers: A taxonomic dead end?
Authors: Jeewon R, Wanasinghe DN, Rampadaruth S, Puchooa D, Zhou Li-Gang, Liu Ai-Rong, Wang Hong-Kai
Recieved: 10 July 2017, Accepted: 20 August 2017, Published: 23 November 2017
Fungal endophytes are considered ecologically important microorganisms, but their role is the subject of much speculation and the methods and approaches by which endophytes are detected and identified give rather different results. In this study, we isolated a specific endophyte from a traditional medicinal plant and investigated its phylogenetic relationships with other known fungi. Microscopic examination and cultural details of the strain are documented, but these did not provide adequate data to substantially identify the species, either to a genus or species level. To overcome this limitation, six different gene regions (SSU, LSU, ITS, TEF, RBP2 & β-Tubulin) were amplified, sequenced and analysed phylogenetically (either in individual or concatenated datasets) to identify and investigate the placement of this endophyte at different taxonomic ranks. Results obtained from the cultural morphology were insufficient to identify the species. DNA sequence analyses (either single gene or combined gene analyses) revealed that this endophyte belongs to the order Pleosporales, class Dothideomycetes. However, an accurate establishment of its generic or even familial position is unresolved and the problems associated with our current system of assigning endophytes to a particular rank are discussed.
Keywords: Dioscorea zingiberensis – endophyte – multigene phylogeny – Pleosporales – taxonomy
Authors: Karunarathna A, Papizadeh M, Senanayake IC, Jeewon R, Phookamsak R, Goonasekara ID, Wanasinghe DN, Wijayawardene NN, Amoozegar MA, Shahzadeh Fazeli SA, Camporesi E, Hyde KD, Weerahewa HLD, Lumyong S, McKenzie EHC
Recieved: 04 October 2017, Accepted: 13 November 2017, Published: 23 November 2017
We are studying Dothideomycetes from different hosts in different geographical regions and have introduced new taxa from China, Iran and Italy. In this paper, we introduce Yunnanensis gen. nov. on Poaceae from Yunnan Province, in China, to accommodate Y. phragmitis sp. nov. Neosetophoma iranianum sp. nov. recovered from soil in Iran is also introduced and a sexual morph of Wojnowicia dactylidis on Asperula sp. (Rubiaceae) collected in Italy is also reported. DNA sequence based phylogenies (ribosomal gene) are also generated to infer potential taxonomic relationships. Yunnanensis is morphologically distinct from other genera in Phaeosphaeriaceae in having ascomata with evenly thickened walls comprising with textura angularis and textura angularis to textura prismatica inner layers, broadly cylindrical to cylindric-clavate asci, muriform ascospores with a mucilaginous sheath and a coelomycetous asexual state with muriform conidia. Phylogeny also supports Yunnanensis as a novel genus basal to Neosetophoma. Neosetophoma iranianum is distinct from other species in having subglobose, ovoid to tear-drop shaped transversely septate;, biseptate to triseptate conidia. Neosetophoma iranianum is closely related to N. lunariae but DNA sequence data differences are sufficient to segregate them as two species. Another interesting finding are the asexual/sexual morph connections in Yunnanensis phragmitis and Wojnowiciella dactylidis. All novel taxa investigated herein belong to the family Phaeosphaeriaceae.
Keywords: Dothideomycetes – graminicolous fungi – muriform – Neosetophoma – Pleosporales – soil fungi –Yunnanensis – Wojnowiciella
9. Novel taxa of Diatrypaceae from Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in northern Thailand; introducing a novel genus Allocryptovalsa.
Authors: Senwanna C, Phookamsak R, Doilom M, Hyde KD, Cheewangkoon R
Recieved: 18 September 2017, Accepted: 12 October 2017, Published: 27 November 2017
Species of Diatrypaceae are widespread on dead wood of plants worldwide. The delineation of this family is rather problematic because the characters of ascostromata are extremely variable and the names of taxa with sequence data are often misleading. In this paper, species of Diatrypaceae were collected from Para rubber in northern Thailand for examination and illustrations. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses, a new genus, Allocryptovalsa, is introduced to accommodate a new species A. polyspora and two species, A. cryptovalsoidea and A. rabenhorstii are transferred to the new genus. The new species, Diatrypella heveae and Peroneutypa longiasca are also introduced in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS and β-tubulin sequence data show their phylogenetic affinities in Diatrypaceae. Our study also shows that phylogenetic analyses of taxa of Diatrypaceae are highly confused as some genera are shown to be polyphyletic.
Keywords: Phylogeny – Sordariomycetes – taxonomy – unitunicate fungi – Xylariales
10. Establishment of Zygosporiaceae fam. nov. (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes) based on rDNA sequence data to accommodate Zygosporium.
Authors: Li JF, Phookamsak R, Jeewon R, Tibpromma S, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ, Chukeatirote E, Lumyong S, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC
Recieved: 20 September 2017, Accepted: 13 November 2017, Published: 28 November 2017
Zygosporium species are widespread on hosts and usually associated with monocotyledonous plants including Arecaceae (palms) and Pandanaceae. Zygosporium forms colonies as darkened spots on the host surface. This study recovers two Zygosporium species from China and Thailand and makes an attempt to clarify the systematic placement of Zygosporium based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on rDNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU and ITS sequence data generated under Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian criteria indicate that Zygosporium species form a strongly supported monophyletic lineage basal to the Coniocessiaceae and not to the Microdochiaceae as previously assumed. Given the distinct morphological features of Zygosporium and its strongly supported monophyletic nature, a new family, Zygosporiaceae is introduced within the Xylariales.
Keywords: Asexual fungi – hyphomycetes – multigene phylogeny – new family
11. Can ITS sequence data identify fungal endophytes from cultures? A case study from Rhizophora apiculata
Authors: Doilom M, Manawasinghe IS, Jeewon R, Jayawardena RS, Tibpromma S, Hongsanan S, Meepol W, Lumyong S, Jones EBG, Hyde KD
Recieved: 11 November 2017, Accepted: 29 November 2017, Published: 04 December 2017
Culture-based studies have recovered fungal endophytes from numerous plant hosts, while direct examination of sporulating cultures has enabled identification. However, many endophytes cannot be identified due to the fact that they only form mycelia sterilia in culture. Although next generation sequencing (NGS), as well as ITS sequence analyses have been used to identify endophytes, identification is still rudimentary. In this study, we isolated fungal endophytes from Rhizophora apiculata in Thailand and established how many can be identified to species level based on ITS sequence data. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, petioles and aerial roots of R. apiculata in four provinces of Thailand. One hundred and fifty four isolates were obtained and initially grouped into 20 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics. Nine were sporulating morphotypes, which were assigned to seven genera (Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Hypoxylon, Neopestalotiopsis, Neodevriesia, Pestalotiopsis and Phyllosticta), and eleven morphotypes were non-sporulating mycelia sterilia. Sequence similarity comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS regions were further used to identify taxa. While ITS sequence data is reliable to assign isolates at the generic rank, and can be useful to identify taxa to species level in a small number of fungal genera, it cannot generally be used to determine specific species in most genera. ITS analysis classified 30 representative isolates into 20 taxonomic units residing in 15 known genera: Allophoma sp., Colletotrichum spp., Diaporthe spp., Hortaea werneckii, Hypoxylon griseobrunneum, Hypoxylon sp., Pestalotiopsis sp., Phanerochaete sp., Phyllosticta spp., Pseudopithomyces maydicus, Preussia sp., Nemania sp., Neodevriesia sp., Neopestalotiopsis sp., Rigidoporus vinctus, Schizophyllum sp. and one unidentified genus. Of the morphotypes, four were identified to species. The results from Blast searches and ITS phylogeny of the 15 genera and the one unidentified genus are discussed. Twenty-five of the 30 isolates could not be identified and thus an estimated 20 isolates are likely to be new species and one a new genus. This is remarkable, as endophytes of a single host in Thailand, may yield 75% or more of new species. This is not akin to the OTUs generated in NGS platforms, which are generally short sequences with high possibility to not match with sequences in GenBank, not because they are new, but because of the quality of the sequence data.
Keywords: cultural characteristics – culture-dependent technique – ITS – mangrove – morphotype – mycelia sterilia – phylogenetic analysis
Authors: Yang J, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu ZY
Recieved: 15 November 2017, Accepted: 18 December 2017, Published: 21 December 2017
A survey of freshwater fungi in Thailand resulted in the discovery of two new species in Fuscosporellaceae, herein described as Fuscosporella aquatica and Mucispora phangngaensis. Fuscosporella aquatica has sporodochial colonies, irregular ellipsoidal and dark brown conidia with vesicular conidiogenous cells. Mucispora phangngaensis has macronematous, solitary conidiophores with percurrent proliferations and dark brown obovoid conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined LSU and ITS sequence data support their placement in Fuscosporella and Mucispora (Fuscosporellaceae, Fuscosporellales). Both species formed distinct clades from their type species and present as the second species in each genus. Descriptions and illustrations of the new taxa are provided. DNA sequence data of Parafuscosporella mucosa (from ex-type strain) are provided in this study, and confirmed its phylogenetic placement.
Keywords: Asexual fungi – Phylogeny – Sordariomycetes – Taxonomy
13. DNA barcoding as a tool for identification of plasmodia and sclerotia of myxomycetes (Myxogastria) appearing in moist chamber cultures.
Authors: Shchepin ON, Dagamac NH, Sanchez OM, Novozhilov YK, Schnittler M, Zemlyanskaya IV
Recieved: 04 December 2017, Accepted: 22 December 2017, Published: 27 December 2017
Moist chamber culture experiments are one of the basic methods of detection of myxomycete diversity that is usually employed to complement field datasets based on fruit bodies (sporocarps). However, often a large fraction of plasmodia that appear in moist chamber cultures does not yield sporocarps that can be determined to species based on morphological traits. Instead, plasmodia convert to a dormant stage called sclerotium. Both structures essentially lack taxonomically valuable morphological characters, preventing assignment to a species. Here we report the results of application of DNA barcoding as a method of taxonomical identification of plasmodia and sclerotia that develop in moist chamber cultures. The first ca. 600 bp of 18S rRNA gene were successfully amplified for 38 sclerotium and 32 plasmodium samples. Comparison to a large collection of reference sequences and phylogenetic analysis allowed identifying sequences up to species (45), genus (15) or order (10) following several formal criteria. Additionally four partial EF1A gene sequences were obtained, demonstrating that single-copy nuclear genes can also be easily amplified from plasmodia and sclerotia. The outlined methodology could facilitate future studies of myxomycete diversity and ecology based on moist chamber cultures, effectively increasing diversity estimates.
Keywords: 18S rRNA – Amoebozoa – hidden diversity – molecular taxonomy – plasmodial slime molds – SSU – substrates
Authors: Zhang YB, Zhuang WY
Recieved: 17 November 2017, Accepted: 21 December 2017, Published: 28 December 2017
Collections of Trichoderma were made from southwest China and examined. Four new species producing hyaline ascospores, T. fructicola, T. medogense, T. palidulum and T. virgineum, were found, and are described and illustrated. Their phylogenetic positions were allocated based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha genes. Trichoderma fructicola, appearing as a lone lineage among hyaline-ascospored groups, is diagnostic by cortical tissues of textura epidermoidea, remarkable colour change of peridium in KOH, and verticillium- to trichoderma-like conidiophores. As a sister of T. voglmayrii, T. medogenseis similar to T. voglmayrii in having yellow-brown to purplish red stromata and trichoderma-like conidiophores, but differs in apapillate ostioles, subcortical tissues of textura intricata, narrow phialides, andsmaller conidia. Trichoderma palidulumis located in the Viride clade andis distinct from its alliesin stroma and colony morphology. Trichoderma virgineum is closely associated with T. henanense and T. odoratum. The three species are similar in having yellowish stromata, monomorphic ascospores, white colonies produced on three standard media, simple-branched conidiophores, and hyaline conidia for which anew clade is proposed. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives are discussed.
Keywords: 4 new species – Hypocreales – Morphology – Sequence analysis – Taxonomy
Authors: Hongsanan S, Hyde KD
Recieved: 27 November 2017, Accepted: 26 December 2017, Published: 29 December 2017
“Microthyriaceae-like” taxa are fungal epiphytes which appear as black dots on the host surface. The families Micropeltidaceae and Microthyriaceae have been poorly studied, particularly with molecular data, due to the difficulty in obtaining pure cultures. The two families were placed in Microthyriales in many studies based on thyriothecial characters. Two species of Micropeltidaceae (Micropeltis dendrophthoes and M. zingiberacicola ) clustered at the base of Dothideomycetes and were unrelated to Microthyriaceae in previous phylogenetic trees. Their placements were treated as unresolved. We restudied sequence data of Micropeltidaceae and its related strains to clarify the current placement using authentic strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses generated from maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses (used ITS, LSU, RPB2, SSU and TEF1 sequence data) including Blast results, indicate that the current placement of Micropeltidaceae is in Ostropales (Lecanoromycetes), although it is not strongly supported. A revised phylogenetic tree for Micropeltidaceae and selected families from Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes is provided with discussions in this paper.
Keywords: Dothideomycetes– Lecanoromycetes– Microthyriales – Phylogeny
16. Leptosporella (Leptosporellaceae fam. nov.) and Linocarpon and Neolinocarpon (Linocarpaceae fam. nov.) are accommodated in Chaetosphaeriales.
Authors: Konta S, Hongsanan S, Eungwanichayapant PD, Liu JK, Jeewon R, Hyde KD, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Boonmee S
Recieved: 26 November 2017, Accepted: 21 December 2017, Published: 29 December 2017
In this paper we introduce the new species Leptosporella arengae and L. cocois, Linocarpon arengae and L. cocois, and Neolinocarpon arengae and N. rachidis from palms in Thailand, based on morphology and combined analyses of ITS and LSU sequence data. The phylogenetic positions all these new taxa are well-supported within the order Chaetosphaeriales (subclass Sordariomycetidae), but in distinct lineages. Therefore, a new family, Leptosporellaceae is introduced to accommodate species of Leptosporella, while Linocarpaceae, which constitutes a well-supported monophyletic clade is also introduced to accommodate Linocarpon and Neolinocarpon species. Both families are characterised by specific traits, such as the shape of ascomata and filiform, hyaline ascospores, which may be pale brown-yellowish in mass, that demarcate it from other families.
Keywords: 2 new families – 6 new species – filiform ascospores – palm fungi – Phylogeny – Taxonomy – Sordariomycetes
Authors: Hoppe T
Recieved: 16 October 2017, Accepted: 21 December 2017, Published: 30 December 2017
Myxomycetes are mono-cell eukaryotic protists with a sexual and asexual life cycle. A morphological system was established within the last 200 years and most of the species are easily distinguishable. During the last decades, however, a number of gene sequences have been made available for many myxomycete species with different gene markers. Forty-three specimens of the myxomycete species Fuligo septica, including its three varieties, were used for a comparison of phylogenetic relations with four different gene markers namely: (i) elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha), (ii) small ribosomal subunit (18S rRNA), (iii) ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and (iv) mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit (mtSSU). Phylogenetic trees calculated for the four different gene markers all showed similar results. Haplotype networking for the gene markers showed differences between the networks of the different varieties for the 18S rRNA and mtSSU, but not for EF-1alpha and ITS2.
Keywords: 18S rRNA – EF-1alpha – ITS2 – haplotype analyses – morphological analysis – mtSSU – population study