Volume 13 - 2022 Issue 2 (SI Fungal Evolution)
4. Large-scale genome investigations reveal insights into domestication of cultivated mushrooms
Fu YP et al. (2022)
2. Phylogenetic diversity and affiliation of tropical African ectomycorrhizal fungi
Houdanon RD et al. (2022)
1. On the evolution of ectomycorrhizal fungi
Ryberg M et al. (2022)
Volume 13 - 2022 Issue 1
9. Diaporthe: formalizing the species-group concept
Norphanphoun C et al. (2022)
8. The importance of culture-based techniques in the genomic era for assessing the taxonomy and diversity of soil fungi
Yasanthika WAE et al. (2022)
6. Ten important forest fungal pathogens: a review on their emergence and biology
Gomdola D et al. (2022)
5. Magnaporthiopsis species associated with patch diseases in turfgrasses in Australia
Wong PTW et al. (2022)
4. Taxonomy and ecology of epifoliar fungi
Marasinghe DS et al. (2022)
Volume 8 - 2017 - Issue 1 (January/February)- closed
Authors: Li Y, Tan P, Zhao DG
Recieved: 22 August 2016, Accepted: 15 December 2016, Published: 21 January 2017
One Diaporthe strain was isolated from diseased leaves of Camellia sinensis in Guizhou Province. It is characterized by the production of two types conidia (a, b-conidia). Morphologically the species is very similar to Phomopsis laurella (syn. Diaporthe nobilis) in producing cylindrical or ellipsoidal a-conidia with two oil drops. Phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, β-tubulin and tef1 sequence data shows that these strains are placed in D. eres species complex. Critical examination of the phenotypic characters indicated that this strain represents Diaporthe nobilis, a new record in Camellia sinensis.
Keywords: coelomycetes – phylogeny – taxonomy – tea
Authors: Puzyr AP, Medvedeva SE, Bondar VS
Recieved: 10 November 2016, Accepted: 25 December 2016, Published: 21 January 2017
Mycelium of Armillaria species exhibit bioluminescence in nature and when cultivated on artificial nutrient media. However, fruiting bodies do not emit visible light. The present study investigates biochemical changes which cause this phenomenon. Light emission was studied in experiments with mixtures of cold and hot extracts of the luminous mycelium of Armillaria borealis IBSO 2328 and nonluminous fruiting bodies of this fungus and an unidentified species of the genus (Armillaria sp.). Hot extracts of fruiting bodies of the nonluminous Pholiota squarrosa were used as the substrate analog of the luminescent reaction, as previously this fungus had been found to contain a high amount of this substance. Control experiments showed that cold extracts of A. borealis IBSO 2328 mycelium contained enzymes for the luminescent reaction, which is initiated after addition hot extracts of P. squarrosa fruiting bodies. Parallel experiments with extracts of the fruiting bodies of Armillaria showed that: (i) – cold extracts did not contain enzymes of the luminescent reaction or contain very small amounts of these enzymes and (ii) – hot extracts did not contain substrate of the luminescent reaction. Thus, the reason why fruiting bodies of Armillaria do not emit light is that they do not contain components required for visible luminescence. The study discusses possible causes why the enzymes and substrate of the luminescent reaction are not synthesized in fruiting bodies of Armillaria.
Keywords: luminous mycelia – nonluminous fruiting bodies of fungus – enzymes and substrate of luminescent reaction – kinetics of luminescenсe
Authors: Ilic J, Cosic J, Vrandecic K, Dugalic K, Pranjic A, Martin J
Recieved: 14 November 2016, Accepted: 05 January 2017, Published: 21 January 2017
In standard pathogenicity tests of Fusarium strains isolated from symptomless weeds of agricultural fields it was determined that several isolates have significant positive influence on growth and development of cultivated plants and act as beneficial endophytes. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of these isolates on several parameters of cherry plants grown in tissue culture. For this purpose two treatments with fungal inocula were used. The first treatment involved the addition of fungal inoculum into the tissue culture growing media. Cherry shoots were placed on the media and multiplied by tissue culture methods. The second treatment included root dipping of cherry explants into the fungal media. Plants were grown in the greenhouse for two months and after that growth parameters were recorded. Our results showed significant positive influence of the isolates on leaf width and length, stem length and plant fresh weight of cherry. There was almost no influence on number of leaves and root length of inoculated plants was lower as compared to the control. Identification of fungal secondary metabolites produced revealed several major compounds: beauverin, cyclosporines, enniatins, equisetin, fusaric acid, integracide A and trichosetin. Our conclusion is that endophytic Fusarium sp. isolated from weeds have a positive influence on growth and development of axenic cherry plants.
Keywords: endophyte – Fusarium – integracide A – secondary metabolites – tissue culture
Authors: Chen WH, Han YF, Liang JD, Liang ZQ, Jin DC
Recieved: 20 September 2016, Accepted: 05 January 2017, Published: 24 January 2017
A novel species of the genus Meatrhizium, Metarhizium dendrolimatilis, parasitic on Dendrolimus sp. larvae, collected in Huaxi, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China, is described based on morphological and phylogenetic evidences. This species differs morphologically from other species in the genus by its determinate synnemata, ellipsoidal conidia, and globose phialides. The phylogenetic analyses based on four loci (EF1a, RPB1, RPB2 and TUB), strongly support the novel species designation of this fungus within the Metarhizium genus, Metarhizium dendrolimatilis sp. nov.
Keywords: entomopathogenic fungi – morphology – multi-gene – phylogeny
Authors: Chen WH, Zeng GP, Luo Y, Liang ZQ, Han YF
Recieved: 02 November 2016, Accepted: 06 January 2017, Published: 24 January 2017
During a survey of the keratinolytic fungi from China, a new species, described here as Geomyces fujianensis, was isolated from the soil of a tree hole in the trunk of a tree in Drum Hill, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China. It differs from other Geomyces species by its obovoid and subglobose conidia (2.5–7.5 × 2.5–5.0 μm), and the absence of intercalary conidia and pigments. Phylogenetic analysis using the ITS region of ribosomal DNA confirmed that G. fujianensis is distinct from other species. A synopsis of the morphological characters of the new species is provided.
Keywords: acute angle branch – keratin – morphology – phylogeny
Authors: Chakraborty D, Parihar A, Nikita Mehta, Baghela A, Das K
Recieved: 26 October 2016, Accepted: 20 January 2017, Published: 24 January 2017
Xerocomus longistipitatus, collected from a broadleaf forest of the state of Sikkim, is described here as a novel species. It is typically characterized by pileate-stipitate basidiomata with a long stipe, a dry, brown pileus, presence of a sterile flap at the pileus margin, adnate to subdecurrent tubes, rounded, angular or irregular pores, a yellow context turning pale yellow then greyish turquoise on exposure and basidiospores with bacillate surface-ornamentations. Morphological description, illustrations, ITS-based phylogenetic placement and comparison with the allied taxa are given for this new species.
Keywords: Boletales – macrofungi – nrITS – phylogeny – Sikkim – taxonomy
Authors: Norphanphoun C, Doilom M, Daranagama DA, Phookamsak R, Wen TC, Bulgakov TS, Hyde KD
Recieved: 02 January 2017, Accepted: 27 January 2017, Published: 04 February 2017
Cytospora species are important plant pathogens causing dieback and canker diseases on a wide range of hosts, worldwide. However, species level identification is difficult due to poor phylogenetic understanding and lack of sequenced type species. ITS sequence data are only available for most Cytospora strains in GenBank. In this study, samples of Cytospora were collected from symptomatic twigs and branches in European Russia. A combination of morphological characters and multi-gene phylogenetic analysis (ITS, LSU, RPB2, ACT) were used to identify taxa. A total of 34 collections, representing 17 fungal species of Cytospora were studied. Of these, 14 new species are described and illustrated. Three species were known taxa and identified as C. nivea, C. parasitica, and C. salicicola. Newly introduced species are C. ampulliformis, C. curvata, C. donetzica, C. erumpens, C. longiostiolata, C. melnikii, C. parakantschavelii, C. paratranslucens, C. rusanovii, C. salicacearum, C. salicina, C. sorbi, C. sorbicola and C. ulmi. Descriptions, illustrations and notes are provided for all studied taxa in this study. The distribution patterns of Cytospora species on different hosts are discussed. The study represents a preliminary study of Cytospora species from a small region and provides an initial contribution to the understanding of the genus.
Keywords: Diaporthales – Morphology – Phylogenetic analyses – Plant pathogenic fungi – Russia – Valsaceae
Authors: Bernicchia A, Genovese R, Gorjón SP
Recieved: 16 January 2017, Accepted: 01 February 2017, Published: 08 February 2017
The very interesting finding of a subtropical species, Amylosporus campbellii, is reported from Sicily, Italy. Macro-, microscopical characteristics, photographs, and comments on distributional patterns are given.
Keywords: Italy – polypores – Russulales
9. Fungi from Asian Karst formations I. Pestalotiopsis photinicola sp. nov., causing leaf spots of Photinia serrulata
Authors: Chen YY, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Nanayakkara RR, Zhu GS, Liu ZY
Recieved: 01 November 2016, Accepted: 05 February 2017, Published: 09 February 2017
This is the first in a series of papers on the fungi growing on plants in the Karst formations of the Asian region. In this study, we collected leaf specimens of Photinia with numerous spots from Guiyang Botanical Gardens, Guiyang, China. A combination of morphological characters, together with analyses of combined ITS, TUB and TEF sequence data, distinguished the taxon as a new species of Pestalotiopsis. The new taxon is herein described as Pestalotiopsis photinicola and discussed in relation to the most related taxa.
Keywords: Karst fungi–new species–phylogeny–taxonomy
10. Trypanocidal activity, cytotoxicity and histone modifications induced by malformin A1 isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus tubingensis IFM 63452
Authors: Notarte KI, Nakao Y, Yaguchi T, Bungihan M, Suganuma K and dela Cruz TE,
Recieved: 25 January 2017, Accepted: 01 February 2017, Published: 10 February 2017
Malformin A1, a cyclic pentapeptide, was isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus tubingensis IFM 63452. The identity of the compound was established based on TOF-MS and 1H NMR data. Malformin A1 exhibited trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma congolense (IC50: 15.08 ng/mL). Interestingly, the compound was selective for T. congolense rendering a selectivity index value that ranged from 3.33 to 4.67. It also demonstrated cytotoxicity against HeLa (IC50: 50.15 ng/mL) and P388 (IC50: 70.38 ng/mL) cell lines. To further identify the possible mechanism of its cytotoxic effect, immunofluorescence staining was conducted to follow the epigenetic changes induced by the compound in the amino acid lysine of histone H3 and H4 in HeLa. The compound induced repressive levels of H3K27me3, H3K27ac and H4K5ac, and enhanced levels of H3K9me2, H3K9me3 and H4K16ac supporting the compound’s chemotherapeutic potential.
Keywords: bioactivities – epigenetics – fungal natural products – marine fungi
11. Two new records in Pestalotiopsidaceae associated with Orchidaceae disease in Guangxi Province, China
Authors: Ran SF, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Ren YL Liu H, Chen KR, Wang YX, Wang Y
Recieved: 19 January 2017, Accepted: 30 January 2017, Published: 10 February 2017
Two coelomycetous taxa belonging to Pestalotiopsidaceae were collected from dried stems and disease leaves of Orchidaceae, collected from Guangxi Province, China. After morphological observation, these two taxa were found to belong to Pestalotiopsis and Neopestalotiopsis, respectively. Analysis of combined ITS, β-tubulin and tef1 gene regions indicated that these two fungal strains are Neopestalotiopsis protearum and Pestalotiopsis chamaeropsis. Based on morphological evidence and phylogenetic analysis, Neopestalotiopsis protearum and Pestalotiopsis chamaeropsis are reported from China for the first time. The taxa are described and illustrated for ease in future disease identifications.
Keywords: morphology – orchid – phylogeny – taxonomy
Authors: Thirunavukkarasu N, Suryanarayanan TS, Rajamani T, Paranetharan MS
Recieved: 30 December 2016, Accepted: 03 February 2017, Published: 12 February 2017
A simple and rapid method to detect extracellular protease produced by fungi is described. This method is more sensitive than the conventional agar plate method and could be used for screening a large number of samples in a short time. It also enables the visualization of different types of proteases. This method could be used with suitable modifications to detect other extracellular enzymes.
Keywords: Agar plate assay– enzyme assay –fungal enzymes – fungal protease
13. A new species of Chaetothyrina on branches of mango, and introducing Phaeothecoidiellaceae fam. nov.
Authors: Hongsanan S, Zhao RL, Hyde KD
Recieved: 05 January 2016, Accepted: 25 January 2017, Published: 12 February 2017
The new family Phaeothecoidiellaceae, introduced in this paper, comprises several species which cause sooty blotch and flyspeck diseases of several economic fruits. This results in quality issues with fruits and plants, due to the black thallus and small black dots coating the surface. Most species of Phaeothecoidiellaceae are biotrophs and are unculturable without the host material, and direct-sequencing is difficult because of the very small and flattened thyriothecia. Therefore, this fungal group is relative poorly known due to limited sampling and few in-depth studies. "Microthyriales"-like taxa appearing as small black dots on the surface of mango trees were collected in northern Thailand. Taxa were studied based on morphological characters and molecular analyses. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined ITS, LSU and SSU sequence data, indicated that the collection from branches of mango is a previously undescribed species. The new species, Chaetothyrina guttulata, is introduced in this paper with descriptions and illustrations.
Keywords: Capnodiales – Dothideomycetes – Flyspeck – Phylogeny – Sooty blotch
14. Improvement of laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus by means of agroindustrial waste and fermentation kinetics
Authors: Zhao LH, Chen W, Wang LL, Sun HJ, Zhu Z
Recieved: 26 October 2016, Accepted: 20 January 2017, Published: 13 February 2017
The main challenges faced by laccase production are high cost and low laccase activity. In this work, optimization of laccase production was studied by addition of agroindustrial waste, and enzyme fermentation kinetics were analyzed to determine the reasons for the resulting enhancement of laccase production. The results revealed that among various types of agroindustrial waste, orange peel is the best inducer of laccase. The maximal laccase activity of cultures containing orange peel was 9-fold higher than that of cultures without any agroindustrial waste, and the fermentation duration was reduced from 12 to 8 days. A kinetic model of fermentation was devised, and the effects of agroindustrial waste, copper induction, and the agitation rate on fermentation kinetics were analyzed. The reasons for improvement of laccase production by copper and by regulating the rotation speed include improved characteristics of laccase-producing fungi and enhanced proliferation capacity, respectively.
Keywords: kinetic model – laccase – optimization – white rot fungi
Authors: Senanayake IC, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Jeewon R, Promputtha I, Al-Sadi AM, Camporesi E, Hyde KD
Recieved: 10 January 2017, Accepted: 08 February 2017, Published: 20 February 2017
Sydowiellaceae is a poorly studied family of the order Diaporthales, comprising a collection of morphologically diversified taxa. Eleven genera have been previously listed under this family. In this study, we provide a DNA sequence-based phylogeny for genera of Sydowiellaceae based on analyses of a combined LSU, ITS, RPB2 and TEF sequence dataset to establish the boundaries within the family. We introduce, describe, and illustrate three new genera, Italiomyces, Ranulospora, and Tenuiappendicula, based on newly collected specimens. Another three new genera, Alborbis, Breviappendix, and Paragnomonia are introduced to accommodate Cryptodiaporthe galericulata, Gnomonia rosae, G. rostellata, G. rubi, and G. fragariae. Alborbis galericulata comb. nov., Breviappendix rubi comb. nov., B. rosae comb. nov., B. rostellata comb. nov. and Paragnomonia fragariae comb. nov. are proposed. Two new species, Sydowiella centaureii and Sillia karstenii, are introduced with descriptions and illustrations. Winterella is replaced with a new genus Tortilispora typified by T. aurantiaca. Three new combinations are proposed in Tortilispora. We synonymize Stegophora under Lambro based on morphological similarities. An updated key for genera of Sydowiellaceae is presented.
Keywords: Alborbis, Breviappendix, Italiomyces, Paragnomonia, Ranulospora, Sillia karstenii, Sydowiella centaureii, Tenuiappendicula, Tortilispora
Authors: Zeng XY, Zhao JJ, Hongsanan S, Chomnunti P, Boonmee S, Wen TC
Recieved: 27 January 2017, Accepted: 04 February 2017, Published: 21 February 2017
Meliolales is the largest order of epifoliar fungi, characterized by branched, dark brown, superficial mycelium with two-celled hyphopodia; superficial, globose to subglobose, dark brown perithecia, and septate, dark brown ascospores. The assumption of host-specificity means this group a highly diverse and it is imperative to identify the host before attempting to identify a fungal collection. This paper has compiled information from fungal and plant databases, including all fungal species of Meliolales and their host information from protologues. Current names of plants and corresponding fungi with integration of their synonyms are made into an alphabetical checklist, and references are provided. Exclusions and spelling conflicts of fungal species are also listed. Statistics show that the order comprises 2403 species (including 106 uncertain species), infecting among 194 host families, with an additional 20 excluded records. This checklist will be useful for the future identifications and classifications of Meliolales.
Keywords: Armatellaceae – host range – identification - Meliolaceae – parasite – synonym