Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 7 (SI Botryosphaeriaceae)


1. Special issue on Botryosphaeriaceae

Authors: AJL Phillips

Recieved: 31 January 2016, Accepted: 05 February 2016, Published: 05 February 2016

Keywords:

 

2. Botryosphaeriaceae from palms in Thailand - Barriopsis archontophoenicis sp. nov, from Archontophoenix alexandrae.

Authors: Konta S, Phillips AJL, Bahkali AH, Jones EBG, Eungwanichayapant PD, Hyde KD, Boonmee S

Recieved: 16 February 2016, Accepted: 05 May 2016, Published: 27 May 2016

During our studies of palm fungi in Thailand we identified a new species of Barriopsis on a petiole of Archontophoenix alexandrae, which we introduce herein as B. archontophoenicis. The new species is compared with other species in the genus Barriopsis and differs in its epapillate ostiole and smaller ascospores. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, SSU and TEF1-α sequence data also show the species to be distinct. 

Keywords: ascospores – molecular phylogeny – morphology – palm fungi – taxonomy

 

3. Phaeobotryon negundinis sp. nov. (Botryosphaeriales) from Russia

Authors: Daranagama DA, Thambugala KM, Campino B, Alves A, Bulgakov TS, Phillips AJL, Liu XZ, Hyde KD

Recieved: 15 March 2016, Accepted: 31 May 2016, Published: 14 June 2016

A new species of Phaeobotryon was collected from Acer negundo, Forsythia × intermedia and Ligustrum vulgare from European Russia. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, β-tubulin and EF1-α sequence data revealed that these collections differ from all other species in the genus. Therefore it is introduced here as Phaeobotryon negundinis sp. nov. It is characterized by immersed-erumpent, uniloculate conidiomata, bearing brown, ovoid, aseptate conidia, with broadly rounded apices and truncate bases. Conidia form a single septum at germination. Phaeobotryon negundinis is morphologically similar to P. cupressi, but has smaller conidia. This is the first time a Phaeobotryon species is reported on Acer negundo, Ligustrum vulgare and Forsythia × intermedia.

Keywords: Botryosphaeriaceae – Dothideomycetes – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy

 

4. Mycosphere Essays 5: Is it important to name species of Botryosphaeriaceae?.

Authors: Chethana KWT, Phillips AJL, Zhang W, Chen Z, Hao YY, Hyde KD, Li XH, Yan JY

Recieved: 07 March 2016, Accepted: 31 May 2016, Published: 20 June 2016

Botryosphaeriaceae is species rich family comprising numerous plant pathogens and endophytes. Due to their importance, many studies have focused on this family and as a result, the family, genera and species are relatively well defined. Plant pathologists as well as workers involved in the agricultural and forestry sections rely heavily on accurate information concerning species. Scientific names are the primary means of communication concerning these fungal taxa. Names are linked to information such as their biology, ecological niches, distribution, possible threats and even control measures. Hence, naming Botryosphaeriacae species is of utmost importance.

Keywords: cryptic species – disease control – nomenclature – one name – quarantine

 

5. Botryosphaeriaceae – Dothideomycetes – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy

Authors: Zhang M, He W, Wu JR, Zhang Y

Recieved: 03 June 2016, Accepted: 25 July 2016, Published: 04 August 2016

Spencermartinsia is a genus in Botryosphaeriaceae characterized by brown, 1-septate ascospores with an apiculus at either end, and usually found on woody hosts. Conidia are two-celled and become brown and 1-septate prior to dehiscence from conidiogenous cells. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogeny of DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and part of the translation elongation factor 1–α (tef1-α) gene, two new species, namely Spencermartinsia alpina and S. yunnana are described from Yunnan province in China.

Keywords: Asia – Dothideomycetes – phylogeny – taxonomy

 

6. Sardiniella urbana gen. et sp. nov., a new member of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from declining Celtis australis trees in Sardinian streetscapes

Authors: Linaldeddu BT, Alves A, Phillips AJL

Recieved: 05 July 2016, Accepted: 25 July 2016, Published: 11 August 2016

During a survey carried out in 2013 throughout the streets of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy) aimed at clarifying the causes of a decline affecting European hackberry, a collection of a Botryosphaeriaceous taxon was isolated from 14 trees showing sunken cankers with wedge-shaped necrotic sectors and a progressive dieback of shoots and branches as well as collar rot and stem exudates. Although morphologically similar to Diplodia and Dothiorella, these strains differed from all known species of Botryosphaeriaceae in their colony appearance and conidial shapes. A phylogenetic analysis based on combined LSU, ITS and tef1 sequence data showed that these strains form a distinct lineage within the Botryosphaeriaceae. Based on molecular phylogeny and morphology, a new genus named Sardiniella is herein introduced to accommodate the new taxon Sardiniella urbana. Pathogenicity was verified by wound inoculation of 3 year-old seedlings of European hackberry using four different strains. All strains caused sunken cankers and necrotic lesions on inner bark and sap wood tissues in the stems of inoculated seedlings and in all cases the fungus was successfully re-isolated, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Results from the pathogenicity test suggest that this new species is directly involved in the aetiology of the observed decline in European hackberry trees as well as representing a potential risk to public safety in urban environments.

Keywords: urban forestry – emerging pathogen – morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy

 

7. Botryosphaeriaceae from palms in Thailand II - two new species of Neodeightonia, N. rattanica and N. rattanicola from Calamus (rattan palm)

Authors: Konta S, Hongsanan S, Phillips AJL, Jones EBG, Boonmee S, Hyde KD

Recieved: 09 August 2016, Accepted: 05 September 2016, Published: 14 September 2016

A large number of ascomycetes have been described from the palm Calamus. In this study, we report on Neodeightonia species (Botryosphaeriaceae) from the rachides of Calamus spp. collected in Phang-Nga Province, Thailand. Morphological characters were studied and with support from phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, SSU and TEF1-α sequence data we introduce two new species Neodeightonia rattanica, and N rattanicola The new species are introduced with descriptions and illustrations and compared with other Neodeightonia species.

Keywords: ascomycetes – Dothideomycetes – hyaline ascospores – palm fungi

 

8. Mycosphere Essays 14: Assessing the aggressiveness of plant pathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae

Authors: Manawasinghe IS, Phillips AJL, Hyde KD, Chethana KWT, Zhang W, Zhao WS, Yan JY, Li XH

Recieved: 01 August 2016, Accepted: 28 September 2016, Published: 18 October 2016

Species of Botryosphaeriaceae (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) have been reported as endophytes, pathogens and saprobes on a wide range of plants. Their roles in different life forms are not well-defined and should be studied in more detail. It is of interest to understand how these fungi become pathogenic on living tissues. Previous studies have proposed that the pathogenicity of botryosphaeriaceous species is triggered by the changes in environmental conditions. It is assumed that, external stimuli caused by above ground and below ground factors, extensive physical damage due to management practices or from pests, impose stress on the host plant. Due to these stresses, these botryosphaeriaceous taxa activate their biochemical mechanisms and become plant pathogens, causing disease. These diseases may ultimately result in plant death and thus cause economic losses. Since the aggressiveness of Botryosphaeriaceae species depends on changes in their surrounding environmental factors, species in this group are regarded as opportunistic pathogens. Nevertheless, it is still debatable, whether it is the changing environment that triggers pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae, or disease development is a result of weakening of the host defences. Therefore, it is important to design experiments to understand the factors involved in pathogenesis.

Keywords: Botryosphaeria dieback – endophytic fungi – opportunistic fungal pathogens – pathogenicity test – virulence

 

9. Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased loquat trees in Italy and description of Diplodia rosacearum sp. nov.

Authors: Giambra S, Piazza G, Alves A, Mondello V, Berbegal M, Armengol J, Burruano S

Recieved: 15 September 2016, Accepted: 20 October 2016, Published: 28 October 2016

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a fruit tree cultivated in several countries in the Mediterranean region. A survey of a loquat orchard in Sicily (Italy) revealed the presence of plants showing dieback symptoms and cankers with wedge-shaped necrotic sectors. Fungi from the genera Diplodia and Neofusicoccum were isolated from symptomatic plants. On the basis of morphological characters and DNA sequence data four species were identified, Neofusicoccum parvum, N. vitifusiforme, Diplodia seriata and a novel Diplodia species, which is here described as D. rosacearum sp. nov. Inoculation trials of loquat plants cv Sanfilipparo showed that N. parvum, D. seriata and D. rosacearum were pathogenic to this host. Although variability was observed between isolates, N. parvum and D. rosacearum were the most aggressive species

Keywords: Diplodia – Neofusicoccum – phylogeny – pathogenicity

 

10. Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with lentisk dieback in Italy and description of Diplodia insularis sp. nov.

Authors: Linaldeddu BT, Maddau L, Franceschini A, Alves A, Phillips AJL

Recieved: 01 August 2016, Accepted: 19 October 2016, Published: 29 October 2016

Lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus L.) is an evergreen shrub that is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. Since spring 2012, a severe and unusual disease of unknown aetiology has been observed on lentisk in six islands of the La Maddalena archipelago (Italy). The affected plants showed leaf chlorosis, crown thinning, branch dieback and sunken cankers. When branches with sunken cankers were cross-sectioned, internal wood symptoms included characteristic V-shaped necrotic sectors. Frequently, the necrotic lesions girdled the branches resulting in death of the upper crowns. Since there is no information about the aetiology of this disease and given the high ecological importance of these natural ecosystems, from spring 2012 to summer 2014, 37 samples of twigs and branches of lentisk showing sunken cankers were collected and processed. Symptomatic woody samples yielded fungal isolates representing two distinct genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae. On the basis of morphological features and DNA sequence data three distinct species: Diplodia olivarum, Neofusicoccum cryptoaustrale and N. luteum were identified. In addition, another Diplodia species morphologically distinct from all known species was isolated. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequences of ITS and tef1-α regions showed that this new Diplodia species is most closely related to D. pseudoseriata and D. alatafructa. Pathogenicity trials carried out in field conditions on asymptomatic branches of lentisk showed that all four species are aggressive pathogens on this host and therefore directly involved in the severe dieback that is currently threatening this typical shrub of the Mediterranean maquis.

Keywords: Diplodia – Mediterranean maquis – Neofusicoccum – pathogenicity – phylogeny

 

11. Diversity and phylogeny of Neofusicoccum species occurring in forest and urban environments in Portugal

Authors: Lopes A, Barradas C, Phillips AJL, Alves A

Recieved: 22 August 2016, Accepted: 19 November 2016, Published: 26 November 2016

A collection of Neofusicoccum isolates was obtained from a large number of plant species, showing dieback and canker symptoms, in forest and urban environments in Portugal. A total of 351 isolates was characterised by BOX-PCR fingerprinting to evaluate their overall genetic diversity. Representatives of each group identified in this analysis were selected for multilocus sequence analyses, using sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA) and partial sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2). Phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence data identified five species within the collection of isolates, namely N. australe, N. eucalyptorum, N. kwambonambiense, N. luteum, and N. parvum. Of these N. australe and N. eucalyptorum were the most frequent representing the vast majority of the isolates. Several new fungus-host associations were established for all of the Neofusicoccum species found. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of N. eucalyptorum on a host outside the family Myrtaceae. The results of this study show that the genus Neofusicocccum appears to be common and widespread on a broad range of hosts representing a potential threat to susceptible plants. Additionally, ornamental plants in urban environments are shown to be hosts of a diverse assemblage of Neofusicoccum species.

Keywords: Botryosphaeriaceae – endophytic – host-association – ornamentals – pathogenic

 

12. Sexual morph of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes) from China

Authors: Tennakoon DS, Phillips AJL, Phookamsak R, Ariyawansa HA, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD

Recieved: 31 October 2016, Accepted: 14 November 2016, Published: 27 November 2016

The sexual morph recorded here for Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, was collected from dead leaves of Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Yunnan Province, China. The sexual-asexual connection in Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS and tef1-α sequence data. This is the first report of a sexual morph with molecular evidence for this species. The important characteristics of this species are immersed to erumpent ascomata, papillate ostioles, cylindric-clavate asci with a short pedicel, well-developed ocular chamber and ellipsoidal to fusiform, golden to dark brown, aseptate ascospores. The sexual morph of this species is compared with other Lasiodiplodia sexual morphs and a comprehensive description and micrographs are provided.

Keywords: Morphology – phylogeny – taxonomy

 

13. Botryosphaeriaceae: Current status of genera and species

Authors: Dissanayake AJ, Phillips AJL, Li XH, Hyde KD

Recieved: 18 November 2016, Accepted: 15 December 2016, Published: 23 December 2016

The Botryosphaeriaceae comprises endophytes, saprobes and plant pathogens. Recently, some taxa in Botryosphaeriaceae have undergone nomenclatural changes. This paper represents the first comprehensive overview of Botryosphaeriaceae since 2013. Twenty three genera and 187 species of Botryosphaeriaceae are listed alphabetically, brief notes for species in each genus are provided. Information is provided for the location of ex-type isolates, new host records and geographical distribution of species. Available DNA sequences from ex-type isolates are listed in a table and multilocus phylogenetic trees for major genera in Botryosphaeriaceae are provided.

Keywords: Botryosphaeriales – phylogeny – systematics – taxonomy

 

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