Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 6

1. Mycosphere Essays 15. Ganoderma lucidum - are the beneficial medical properties substantiated?.

Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Wu XL, Kang JC

Recieved: 20 September 2016, Accepted: 01 November 2016, Published: 08 November 2016

Ganoderma lucidum, commonly treated as Lingzhi mushroom, is a traditional Chinese medicine which has been widely used over two millennia in Asian countries for maintaining vivacity and longevity. Numerous publications can be found reporting that G. lucidum may possess various beneficial medical properties and contributes to a variety of biological actions by primary metabolites, such as polysaccharides, proteins and triterpenes. Although G. lucidum still remains as a popular agent in commercial products, there is a lack of scientific study on the safety and effectiveness of G. lucidum in humans. There have been some reports of human trials using G. lucidum as a direct control agent for various diseases including arthritis, asthma, diabetes, gastritis, hepatitis, hypertension and neurasthenia, but scientific evidence is still inconclusive. In this paper, we discuss various aspects pertaining to the beneficial medical properties of G. lucidum (excluding anti-cancer activities). In particular, we have addressed some of the loopholes in previous studies that support G. lucidum and its secondary metabolites as effective agents to treat various human diseases. Most of the clinical trials were successful with G. lucidum preparation, however factors like small sample size, lack of a placebo control group, lack of information regarding long term treatment of the drug, age, patient’s gender and side effects, standard method of extraction of G. lucidum, standard dosage, and number of patients treated undermine the validity of the results. Hence, G. lucidum can be used as a therapeutic drug when more direct and supportive scientific evidence are available in near future.

Keywords: clinical evidence – Lingzhi – medicinal mushroom – secondary metabolites


2. Luminescence of wood samples during long-term storage

Authors: Puzyr AP, Medvedeva SE

Recieved: 07 September 2016, Accepted: 05 November 2016, Published: 08 November 2016

The present study describes changes in the mycelium of the fungus growing on the luminescent wood collected on Borneo Island in early December 2013 that occurred during 31 months of storage. The study shows that wood samples retain their ability to emit light, forming two types of luminescent mycelium: surface mycelium and aerial mycelium. The hyphae of the surface mycelium form on the surface of the wood sample and then spread over the surface of the polyethylene bag or over the surface of the bottom of tissue culture flasks containing the samples. The aerial mycelium develops later and only in tissue culture flasks, forming biomass composed of local interlaced hyphae, growing upward. The surface mycelium is characterized by non-uniform “flickering” luminescence along the hyphae. There is no diurnal periodicity in the luminescence of this fungus, but luminescence is increased by mechanical disturbance or exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The local impact of these factors causes an increase in luminescence of the mycelium regions that have not been directly affected. It has been assumed that the variable level of luminescence is an individual trait of this fungus species. The results obtained in this study suggest that luminescent wood found on Borneo Island contains mycelium of a fungus species, whose luminescent properties are essentially different from those of the fungi described in the scientific literature.

Keywords: light emitting wood – luminous mycelia


3. Drivers of macrofungal composition and distribution in Yulong Snow Mountain, southwest China

Authors: Luo X, Karunarathna SC, Luo YH, Xu K, Xu JC, Chamyuang S, Mortimer PE

Recieved: 17 September 2016, Accepted: 02 November 2016, Published: 10 November 2016

Although environmental factors strongly affect the distribution of macrofungi, few studies have so far addressed this issue. Therefore, to further our understanding of how macrofungi respond to changes in the environment, we investigated the diversityand community composition of fungi based on the presence of fruiting bodies in different environments along an elevation gradient in a subalpine Pine forest at Yulong Snow Mountain in southwest China. Two-hundred and twenty-eight specimens of macrofungi from twelve plots were identified using macro-morphological characteristics. We found that soil temperature had a significantly positive influence on total macrofungal and ectomycorrhizal species richness and diversity, while elevation gradients had a significantly negative influence. Furthermore, total macrofungal and ectomycorrhizal species community composition were significantly influenced by soil temperature and elevation gradients. No significant relationships were found between environment variables and the diversity and community composition of saprotrophic fungi in subalpine pine forest.

Keywords: ectomycorrhizal fungi – elevation gradient – soil temperature – species diversity – species richness


4. Freshwater fungi from the River Nile, Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Aziz FA

Recieved: 31 July 2016, Accepted: 29 October 2016, Published: 14 November 2016

This study represents the first published data of freshwater fungi from the River Nile in Egypt. Knowledge concerning the geographic distribution of freshwater ascomycetes and their asexual morphs in Egypt and in the Middle East is limited. Ninety-nine taxa representing 42 sexual ascomycetes, 55 asexual taxa and two basidiomycetes were identified from 959 fungal collections recorded from 400 submerged samples. Samples were randomly collected from the River Nile, in Sohag, Egypt in the winter and summer between December 2010 and August 2014. Fifty-eight taxa (22 sexual ascomycetes and 36 asexual taxa) were collected during winter, while 60 taxa (25 sexual ascomycetes, 33 asexual taxa and two basidiomycetes) were collected in summer season. Of the 99 taxa recorded, 50 are new records for Egypt, including five new genera and 30 new species., Three new genera and ten new species were described in previous articles. Fungi recorded from the two seasons were markedly different, with only 19 species common to both winter and summer collections. Asexual fungi dominated the fungal community during the two seasons. Taxonomical placements of 33 species were confirmed by molecular data based on LSU and SSU rDNA genes. Lolia aquatica (14.2%) was the dominant fungus in both winter and summer collections. Other dominant fungi were: Ceratorhiza sp. (19.5 %) and Limnoperdon sp. (13 %). These two basidiomycetes were the most common taxa in the summer, while they were absent in the winter. Common fungi were Coleophoma emperti (9.2 %), Zopfiella latipes (8 %), Discosporium tremuloides (5.5 %), Trematophoma lignicola (5.5 %) and Ophioceras commune (5 %). Specious genera recorded from the two seasons were Dictyosporium (6 species), Monodictys-like (3 species), Aniptodera (3 species), Lolia (3 species), Podospora (3 species), Zopfiella (3 species), and two species belong to each of the following genera: Achaetomium, Annulatascus, Lentithecium, Linocarpon, Cirrenalia, Ciliochora, Coleophoma, Colletogloeum, Clohesyomyces, Periconia, Pseudorobillarda and Stagonospora

Keywords: asexual fungi – coelomycetes – fungal diversity – fungal ecology – phylogeny


5. Enhanced polysaccharide production in mycelium of Ganoderma atrum by solid-state fermentation

Authors: Wen TC, Kang C, Wang F, Liang DQ, Kang JC

Recieved: 18 September 2016, Accepted: 31 October 2016, Published: 14 November 2016

Polysaccharides are some of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Ganoderma. In this study, effects of ratio of material to water, the liquid supplement medium including carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inorganic salts were also studied for the polysaccharide production in mycelium of Ganoderma atrum by solid-state fermentation. The seed of G. atrum was inoculated in 300 mL cylindrical glass bottles containing 60 g wheat grain at 28 °C for 20 days. One-factor-at-a time and an orthogonal design method were used to establish the optimal liquid supplement medium for maximum polysaccharide production in mycelium. The results showed that the highest polysaccharide production was achieved with ratio of material to water of 1:3, and the optimal liquid supplement medium contained 15 g/L maltose, 10 g/L peptone, 1 g/L KCl and 1.5 g/L K2HPO4·3H2O. The maximum polysaccharide yield in mycelium was 1.8 mg/g on 20 days. This method first provides an effective way for obtaining polysaccharides in mycelium by solid-state fermentation in G. atrum. The strategies used in this study could be widely practical to other fermentation processes.

Keywords: culture condition ¬– mycelium polysaccharide – Orthogonal design – optimization


6. Testing agricultural wastes for the production of Pleurotus ostreatus.

Authors: Thongklang N, Luangharn T

Recieved: 18 August 2016, Accepted: 08 November 2016, Published: 16 November 2016

An edible mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) has a worldwide cultivation and is popular in Thailand where rubber sawdust is traditionally used in its cultivation. However, rubber sawdust is a relatively expensive substrate that affects the price of P. ostreatus production. Six different grain media were tested for spawn production. The best spawn production was in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) media. Five different agricultural wastes for promoting mycelium growth for spawn production were tested. This was followed by sorghum mixed with corn cobs (16.8317 mm/day), and sorghum mixed with rice husks (11 mm/day). Agricultural wastes for P. ostreatus cultivation were also investigated. A comparative study using rubber sawdust, versus rubber sawdust mixed with different supplements of rice straw, rice husks or corncobs to grow P. ostreatus was carried out. The fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus were produced at room temperature and 70–80% humidity. The first primordia and fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus appeared on day 30 after inoculation. The optimal substrate to cultivate P. ostreatus is sawdust + rice husks with an average wet weight harvest of 277.50 ± 79.74 g in a 40 day production cycle

Keywords: alternative substrates – basidiomycota – optimal condition – Pleurotaceae


7. Neoclitocybe infuscata: a new species from Atlantic Forest of Pernambuco State, Brazil

Authors: Sá MCA, Silva NA, Wartchow F

Recieved: 06 September 2016, Accepted: 10 November 2016, Published: 21 November 2016

Neoclitocybe infuscata is a new species from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. It is characterized macroscopically by the grayish brown pileus with a shallow sulcate surface; microscopically by ellipsoid to elongate basidiospores, lacking pleuro- and caulocystidia, abundant cheilocystidia, a sarcodimitic context and pileipellis with rameales-structure and diverticulate terminal elements. 

Keywords: Agaricales – neotropics – taxonomy – Tricholomataceae


8. A novel species of Russula (Russulaceae) from Indian Himalaya

Authors: Ghosh A, Das K, Adhikari S, Bhatt RP

Recieved: 08 October 2016, Accepted: 18 November 2016, Published: 21 November 2016

Russula indoarmeniaca (R. subg. Russula sect. Paraincrustatae subsect. Lepidinae), which was collected from broadleaf forest of the state of Uttarakhand is presented in this communication as an undescribed species. It is characterized by apricot to orange colored pileus; rugose pileus surface; lamellae with different lengths of forkation; at least 3 lengths of lamellulae; branched, septate, hairlike cuticular hyphae (some hyphae encrusted) with blunt apex sand different types of cystidial apex. Morphological description coupled with the illustrations and phylogenetic placement is given for this new species. 

Keywords: India – macrofungi – new taxon – nrITS – Russulales – taxonomy


9. Production, partial purification and optimization of a chitinase produced from Trichoderma viride, an isolate of maize cob.

Authors: Ekundayo EA, Ekundayo FO, Bamidele F

Recieved: 16 August 2016, Accepted: 25 October 2016, Published: 21 November 2016

Trichoderma viride obtained from maize cob was investigated for chitinase production. Effects of temperature, pH and some metal ions on the chitinase produced were determined. The enzyme was then purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and sephadex G-100 gel filtration. There was progressive increase in the chitinolytic activity of T. viride from zero hour to the 50th hour. The optimum temperature and pH for chitinolytic activity of T. viride was 50oC and 5 respectively. There was reduction in the relative activity of chitinase produced by T. viride when EDTA and MnCl2 were used as metal ions. Trichoderma viride was most sensitive to EDTA followed by MnCl2. The activity was maximum when CaCl2 was used. The chitinase produced by T. viride was stable at temperatures of 40 and 50oC.The chitinase produced was also stable at pH 6 and 7.

Keywords: chitinolytic activity – metal ions – stable – T. viride


10. Lactocollybia subvariicystis, a new species of little known genus Lactocollybia from subtropical south China

Authors: Hosen MI, Li TH, Chen XN, Deng WQ.

Recieved: 03 October 2016, Accepted: 03 November 2016, Published: 22 November 2016

Lactocollybia is poorly known in China. Prior to this report, only a single species of this genus was reported from tropical Yunnan Province in the country. In this study, Lactocollybia subvariicystis is reported as a new species. It is characterized by its mycenoid habit with white basidiomata, white, adnate to sinuate lamellae, numerous gloeocystidia in pileus-stipe context, commonly present clamp connections, and association with living trunks of Acacia confusa. Although the phylogenetic relationships of Lactocollybia with other genera remain unclear to science, the taxonomic position of the new species within the genus is clear with morphological and molecular evidence. It is a member of genus Lactocollybia sect. Albae. Description, color photographs, comparison with phenotypically similar taxa and line drawings are presented.  

Keywords: Marasmiaceae – molecular phylogeny – subtropical fungus – taxonomy


11. Conidiobolus stilbeus, a new species with mycelial strand and two types of primary conidiophores

Authors: Nie Y, Tang XX, Liu XY, Huang B

Recieved: 20 September 2016, Accepted: 01 December 2016, Published: 08 December 2016

A new entomogenous fungus, Conidiobolus stilbeus is described and illustrated from China. The new species differs from other Conidiobolus species by forming mycelial strands with 2–6 aerial phototropic hyphae, and by its two types of primary conidiophores: one is shorter and differentiated from aerial hyphae, the other is often longer and inflated and arises from substrate mycelia. Molecular phylogeny inferred from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA supports C. stilbeus as a distinct species in the genus, most closely related to C. lachnodes, C. sinensis, C. stromoideus and C. thromboides.

Keywords: aerial hyphae – Conidiobolus –28S rDNA


12. Biocontrol of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus of leaf-cutting ants with the mycoparasitic agent Trichoderma koningiopsis

Authors: Castrillo ML, Bich GA, Zapata PD, Villalba LL

Recieved: 12 September 2016, Accepted: 02 December 2016, Published: 09 December 2016

Leaf-cutting ants are one of the main agricultural and agroforestry pests in the Neotropic region. The essential food source of these ants is Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Therefore one of the main biocontrol agents under study are Trichoderma species, because of their biocontrol activity against a diverse range of fungi. Here, Trichoderma koningiopsis, isolated from a leaf-cutting ants nest was tested against three Leucoagaricus gongylophorus strains from leaf-cutting ants by dual culture technique under laboratory conditions. The molecular analysis of ITS sequence data showed three well-separated main clades in which the isolated Trichoderma strain was assembled as a sole subclade among T. koningiopsis strains. The tests also showed that T. koningiopsis strain inhibited the growth of all L. gongylophorus strains tested. The values of radial inhibition of L. gongylophorus ranged from 58% to 69% with an average mean value of 65%. This is the first report on a strain of T. koningiopsis isolated from a naturally parasitized nest of leaf-cutting ants with biocontrol ability over L. gongylophorus tested in dual culturing method.

Keywords: biological control – leaf-cutting ants – Leucoagaricus gongylophorus – Trichoderma koningiopsis


13. Revision of the morphology and biogeography of Thysanorea papuana

Authors: Kirschner R

Recieved: 04 November 2016, Accepted: 02 December 2016, Published: 09 December 2016

The monotypic genus Thysanorea (Chaetothyriomycetes) is characterized by Periconiella-like penicillate conidiophores. The morphology and geographic distribution of Thysanorea papuana are revised based on fresh collections from Taiwan, literature research, and type studies. It is revealed that the original morphological generic characterization is based on cultivation artifacts. On the natural substrate and in fresh isolates, conidiophore heads appear less complex and are shed off and replaced by repeated percurrent regeneration. The species was previously known from Papua New Guinea and India, while this is the first record from Taiwan. Ramichloridium lignicola, which was recorded from Hong Kong and Thailand is recognized as synonymous and Alysidiopsis lignicola recorded from Mexico is a possible synonym. The distribution of this species appears to be paleotropical or even pantropical.

Keywords: dematiaceous hyphomycetes – ITS sequences – new record


14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates hormone and osmotic equilibrium of Lycium barbarum L. under salt stress

Authors: Liu HG, Wang YJ, Hart M, Chen H, Tang M

Recieved: 22 August 2016, Accepted: 08 December 2016, Published: 13 December 2016

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance salt tolerance of host plants via multiple mechanisms, but their effect on hormone mediated tolerance is unclear. The influence of AMF on hormone regulation and osmotic adjustment of Lycium barbarum L. (Goji) under salt stress was evaluated. AMF enhanced indol-3-acetic acid (IAA) in leaves and roots and abscisic acid (ABA) in leaves of Goji growing in saline soils. These changes resulted in enhanced osmotic adjustment in mycorrhizal plants, leading to higher leaf water potential despite saline conditions. AM symbiosis improved photosynthesis under 100 mM salt level and stimulated the growth of Goji plants, especially for roots under salt stress. These results enhance our understanding on how AMF contribute to salt tolerance of host plants via hormone regulation and highlight its promising role for sustaining crop production as bio-ameliorator.

Keywords: ABA – arbuscular mycorrhiza – IAA – photosynthesis – salt tolerance


15. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus versicolor and evaluation of their activity on plant pathogenic fungi

Authors: Elgorban AM, Aref SM, Seham SM, Elhindi KM, Bahkali AH, Sayed SR, Manal MA

Recieved: 25 September 2016, Accepted: 09 December 2016, Published: 18 December 2016

In the current study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using Aspergillus versicolor. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectrum, TEM, XRD, SEM, and EDS, which revealed that the synthesized NPs had a face-centred cubic similarity. The rapid synthesis of Ag NPs in fungal filtrate showed bright sunlight. The maximum absorbance of Ag NPs was observed at 620 nm which is a sign of Ag NPs. The TEM analysis revealed the spherical shape with the size ranged between 5 to30 nm and EDS showed the presence of Ag at 3kev. The antifungal activity of biogenic Ag NPs was evaluated against white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The results showed that synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibit significant antifungal potential on both pathogens in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximum reduction in both fungi was observed at 150 ppm of Ag NPs.

Keywords: Aspergillus versicolor – biomass – grey mould – Sclerotinia sclerotiorum – silver nanoparticles


16. Multigene phylogeny and HPLC analysis reveal fake Ophiocordyceps sinensis in markets

Authors: Wen TC, Wei DP, Long FY, Zeng XY, Kang JC

Recieved: 01 November 2016, Accepted: 05 December 2016, Published: 18 December 2016

Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps sinensis) has long been a Chinese Traditional Medicine and functional food in China. Because of its valued medicinal effect and improvement in the Chinese economy, market demand for O. sinensis has significantly increased in recent years. Here, we use multigene and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of specimens bought from markets to reveal the sale of fake O. sinensis in Traditional Chinese Medicine markets. The insect larvae (belonging to Lepidopteran) was a different species to that normally infected by O. sinensis. Combined sequence analysis of ITS, nrSSU, EF-1α and RPB1 gene markers also revealed the putative O. sinensis to be Metacordyceps taii. Producers had gone to great lengths to produce remarkably similar fake O. sinensis specimens. The insect body was infected with M. taii, but the fungus stromata were made from a Ligularia hodgsonii stem that had been molded into stromata and stuck into the insect body. We analyzed the nucleoside constitutes of the insect bodies and fake Cordyceps stromata which were very different to those of authentic wild O. sinensis samples from Tibet. It is not clear what the consumers of these products are actually ingesting and whether it may be harmful. In the future, sequence data should be used to test the authenticity of O. sinensis, and the development a real-time PCR assay for species-specific diagnosis is needed. The use of multi-gene phylogeny could have a wide application in verification of other Traditional Chinese Medicined and fungal biotechnology products.

Keywords: Chemical analysis – Combined sequence analysis – fake Cordyceps – Ligularia hodgsonii – Metacordyceps taii


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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    Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering,
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Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering