Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 5


1. Cultural studies of Psilocybe sensu lato species (Agaricales, Strophariaceae).

Authors: Silva PS, Guzmán-Dávalos L, Silveira RMB

Recieved: 14 July 2016, Accepted: 26 August 2016, Published: 08 September 2016

In searching for additional taxonomic characters, cultural characteristics of five strains belonging to five different species of Psilocybe s.l. were studied. A strain of Stropharia venusta was included for comparison. Some macro and micromorphological characteristics, such as growth rate, mat texture, mycelial cystidia and some hyphae modifications may be useful as taxonomic characters. Cultural characters of Deconica horizontalis, D. neorhombispora and S. venusta are described for the first time.

Keywords: Deconica – mycelia cystidia – strains

 

2. Mycosphere Essays 9: Defining biotrophs and hemibiotrophs.

Authors: De Silva NI, Lumyong S, Hyde KD, Bulgakov T, Phillips AJL, Yan JY

Recieved: 27 July 2016, Accepted: 24 August 2016, Published: 14 September 2016

Fungi are ubiquitous and exhibit diverse life-styles. Many exhibit a continuum of life-styles ranging from biotrophy, through to necrotrophy and ultimately to saprotrophy. This paper was initiated to establish a set of definitions for fungal life-styles, in an attempt to achieve better documentation in scientific publications of the roles played by taxa. Biotrophism is a life-style where a taxon shows high dependency on a host plant, but causes minimum damage. Biotrophs have total dependency upon living plant cells, whereas hemibiotrophs have an initial biotrophic life-style and a subsequent necrotrophic phase. The necrotrophic life-style involves actively killing host plant cells by secreting cell wall degrading enzymes and phytotoxins. Biotrophic fungi have developed an intimate relationship with the host plant using haustoria for nutrient assimilation. It is believed that biotrophy evolved when fungi developed an ability to modulate plant defense mechanisms. Therefore, biotrophs utilize different strategies to overcome host plant defenses. This paper defines the terms biotrophs and hemibiotrophs in relation to fungi and provides a discussion on its significance, role and life history.

Keywords: appressoria – endophyte – haustorium – necrotroph – saprotroph

 

3. Characterization of an az0-dye-degrading white rot fungus isolated from Malaysia

Authors: Cheng WN, Sim HK, Ahmad SA, Syed MA, Shukor MY, Yusof MT

Recieved: 13 July 2016, Accepted: 28 August 2016, Published: 25 September 2016

Sixty-three local white-rot fungi were isolated from soil and wood samples on potato dextrose agar (PDA). All these isolates were screened for their ability to degrade 4 textile azo dyes; Ponceau 2R (C.I. 16450), Orange G (C.I. 16230), Direct Blue 71 (C.I. 34140) and Biebrich Scarlet (C.I. 26905). Out of 40 isolates that gave positive results, only 1 promising isolate which completely degrades all 4 dyes in the minimum amount of time was selected for further investigation. This isolate was sourced from University Putra Malaysia (UPM) Serdang campus. The isolate was tentatively identified as Coriolopsis sp. Strain arf5 based on the analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Nutritional studies on defined solid medium showed that this isolate was only able to degrade the 4 azo dyes under nitrogen-limiting conditions and an additional carbon source (glucose) need to be added to provide sufficient energy for the degradation to occur. Various parameters were optimized.

Keywords: Azo dye – biodegradation – Coriolopsis sp. – white rot fungus

 

4. Mycosphere Essays 12. Progress in the classification of the water–cooling tower ascomycete Savoryella and a tribute to John Savory: a review

Authors: Jones EBG, To-anun C, Suetrong S, Boonyuen N

Recieved: 09 August 2016, Accepted: 05 September 2016, Published: 25 September 2016

The genus Savoryella belongs in the family Savoryellaceae (Savoryellales, Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetes) and its species have a worldwide distribution. A natural classification was not possible when the genus was introduced, since it predated molecular phylogenetic studies; therefore morphology-based descriptions only were provided. In this review we discuss the history and significance of the genus, illustrate its morphology and discuss its role in the colonization and biodeterioration of lignocellulosic materials. Molecular analyses of SSU, LSU and RPB2 sequence data placed the genus in the Hypocreomycetidae with high support and resulted in the introduction of the order Savoryellales. The role of Savoryella in the soft rot decay of wood is also discussed.

Keywords: Phylogeny – Savoryellaceae – taxonomy – water cooling towers – wood decay

 

5. Mycosphere Essays 13 – Do xylariaceous macromycetes make up most of the Xylariomycetidae?

Authors: Daranagama DA, Jones EBG, Liu XZ, To-anun C, Stadler M, Hyde KD.

Recieved: 12 July 2016, Accepted: 05 September 2016, Published: 26 September 2016

In this essay, we focus on the micro-xylariaceous genera (with inconspicuous ascomata and asexual morphs) in the Xylariomycetidae, with special emphasis on Xylariaceae. Are micro-xylariaceous less diverse than macro-xylariaceous genera (with conspicuous stromata) genera? This paper also reviews their taxonomic significance and current systematic relationship and evaluates different characters used in their taxonomic placement. So far, only a few micro-xylariaceous taxa have been studied in detail in comparison with the stromatic macroscopic xylariaceous taxa and the reasons for this are discussed. It is hoped that further sampling and study of different substrata and habitats, with greater emphasis on sequence data, may lead to the discovery of many more micro-xylariaceous genera.

Keywords: Ascomycetes – micro-Xylariaceae – taxonomy – phylogeny – Xylariales

 

6. T-DNA activation-tagged mycelia producing fruiting bodies-specific triterpenoids in Antrodia cinnamomea - a medicinal fungus

Authors: Chen ECF, Agrawal DC, Wang HY, Chen WP, Tsay HS

Recieved: 15 July 2016, Accepted: 19 September 2016, Published: 11 October 2016

Antrodia cinnamomea, a medicinal fungus native to Taiwan is used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of several critical illnesses including cancer. It was reported that the medicinal properties of this fungus are mainly due to the presence of certain triterpenoids in fruiting bodies, which are generally absent in mycelia. Fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea carry an exorbitantly high price due to a short supply and ever increasing demand. In the present study, we report the development of activation tagged transgenic mycelia lines of A. cinnamomea. HPLC analysis of three transgenic lines showed production of both mycelia and fruiting bodies (FB) specific triterpenoids (dehydrosulphurenic acid, dehydroeburicoic acid, antcin A, B and C). The discovery of FB-specific triterpenoids in these transgenic lines of A. cinnamomea has significance since mycelia of this fungus are becoming increasingly popular as a functional food for the treatment of several diseases including cancer

Keywords: A. cinnamomea – antcin A – antcin B – antcin C – dehydroeburicoic acid - dehydrosulphurenic acid – transgenic fungus

 

7. Halodiatrype, a novel diatrypaceous genus from mangroves with H. salinicola and H. avicenniae spp. nov.

Authors: Dayarathne MC, Phookamsak R, Hyde KD, Manawasinghe IS, To-anun C, Jones EBG

Recieved: 07 September 2016, Accepted: 06 October 2016, Published: 13 October 2016

Collections of diatrypaceous taxa from mangroves in southern Thailand yielded two novel species from intertidal habitats. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined ITS and β-TUB sequence data, showed their placement in a well-separated lineage in Diatrypaceae (Xylariales). We therefore introduce a novel genus, Halodiatrype to accommodate the new species, H. salinicola and H. avicenniae. Cryptosphaeria mangrovei is morphologically similar to this genus, and thus it is synonymized as Halodiatrype mangrovei. Morphological descriptions, Fig.s. and molecular data are provided for the new taxa. Our studies show that the molecular data for Diatrypaceae is highly confused with species of the same genera scattered across the tree. The family therefore needs a detailed monograph with molecular data and multigene analyses with so far unpublished genes.

Keywords: β-TUB – Diatrypaceae – ITS – marine fungi – phylogeny – taxonomy

 

8. Phomatosporales ord. nov. and Phomatosporaceae fam. nov., to accommodate Lanspora, Phomatospora and Tenuimurus, gen. nov.

Authors: Senanayake IC, Al-Sadi AM, Bhat JD, Camporesi E, Dissanayake AJ, Lumyong S, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD

Recieved: 19 July 2016, Accepted: 12 October 2016, Published: 17 October 2016

In an ongoing study on Sordariomycetes from Italy we identified three Phomatospora-like species, which we selected for further study. Morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, using combined LSU, SSU and ITS sequence data, showed them to be related to other Phomatospora species in a distinct clade in Sordariomycetes. The Phomatospora species clustered in three clades, including P. viticola in Phomatospora sensu stricto, Lanspora coronata, and the new genus Tenuimurus. These new taxa together with Lanspora coronata and other Phomatospora species form a distinct clade which we introduce as a new family Phomatosporaceae and a new order Phomatosporales, which is sister to the order Amplistromatales. The new genus and species are introduced and compared.

Keywords: Diaportheomycetidae – multigene analysis – new taxa – Phomatospora-like species

 

9. Additions to the quadrate-spored Entoloma (Agaricales) in Kerala State, India

Authors: Pradeep CK, Vrinda KB, Bijeesh C, Baroni TJ

Recieved: 14 July 2016, Accepted: 15 October 2016, Published: 21 October 2016

Two new quadrate spored species of Entoloma are described from Kerala, India based on morphological characters. Complete morphological descriptions along with photographs of habit and microstructures are provided. The new species are compared and discussed with morphologically similar species.

Keywords: Agarics – Basidiomycota – entolomatoid fungi – quadrate spores – taxonomy

 

10. Phanerochaete porostereoides, a new species in the core clade with brown generative hyphae from China

Authors: Liu SL, He SH

Recieved: 15 July 2016, Accepted: 14 October 2016, Published: 22 October 2016

A new species, Phanerochaete porostereoides, is described and illustrated from northwestern China based on the morphological and molecular evidence. It is characterized by a effused brown basidiocarp, a monomitic hyphal system, yellowish brown generative hyphae without clamp connections, numerous hyphal ends in hymenium and subhymenium, and small ellipsoid basidiospores 4.7–5.3 × 2.5–3.1 µm. Morphologically, P. porostereoides resembles Porostereum, but phylogenetic analyses inferred from the combined sequences of ITS and nLSU show that it is nested within the Phanerochaete s.s. clade, and not closely related to Porostereum spadiceum, type of the genus

Keywords: Porostereum – taxonomy – wood-inhabiting fungi

 

11. Checklist of fungi on teak

Authors: Doilom M, Taylor JE, Bhat DJ, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD, To-anun C, Jones EBG

Recieved: 27 July 2016, Accepted: 05 October 2016, Published: 28 October 2016

This publication provides an updated checklist of fungi on teak. This is a compilation of information on substrate and locality from where fungi have been recorded on teak, or original descriptions available. In total, 152 species with 34 hitherto unidentified species are listed here on teak, from 39 countries. The fungi recorded from teak are distributed in 32 orders, 69 families, 134 genera, which can be divided into two taxonomic groups: (i) Ascomycota: 23 orders, 54 families, 114 genera, 132 species identified and 29 unidentified species, and (ii) Basidiomycota: 9 orders, 15 families, 20 genera, 20 species identified and 5 unidentified species.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Basidiomycota – fungi – Tectona grandis

 

12. Molecular phylogeny of Speiropsis pedatospora

Authors: Pratibha J, Bhat DJ, Prabhugaonkar A

Recieved: 06 August 2016, Accepted: 24 October 2016, Published: 31 October 2016

Speiropsis pedatospora, an aero-aquatic fungus, was isolated from submerged plant litter in freshwater streams from India. Based on analysis of combined ITS and LSU sequence data, the species was positioned in the family Weisneriomycetaceae, as a sister group to Tubeufiales in the Dothideomycetes, instead of its current placement in the order Jahnulales. Speiropsis pedatospora, is the type species of the genus Speiropsis, is morphologically characterised by macronematous, mononematous, erect, branched conidiophores, polyblastic, denticulate, discrete conidiogeneous cells and long catenate conidia linearly joined by narrow, small isthmi. All asexual morph members of Weisneriomycetaceae with isthmospores are morphologically similar to the genus Speiropsis

Keywords: aquatic fungi – Dothideomycetes – fungal diversity – phylogeny of asexual fungi – Western Ghats

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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