Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 4


1. Analysis of wood decay and ligninolysis in Polyporales from the Nile Delta region of Egypt

Authors: El-Gharabawy HM, Detheridge AP, El-Fallal AA, El-Sayed AKA, Griffith GW

Recieved: 05 May 2016, Accepted: 30 June 2016, Published: 14 July 2016

Wood decay fungi found on living or dead trees in fruit orchards in the Nile Delta region of Egypt were isolated into pure culture and their ligninolytic capabilities examined. Growth on ash sawdust was monitored by quantification of ergosterol and laccase/peroxidase activities using the model substrate ABTS. Two species from the polyporoid clade of order Polyporales exhibited faster growth and greater enzymatic activity than two isolates from the phlebioid clade but these differences were not reflected in dry weight loss of wood. Cellophane strips impregnated Remazol Brilliant Blue dye and MnCl2 impregnated plates were used to show the distinctive spatiotemporal patterns for the four species.

Keywords: Class II peroxidases – dye decolourisation – tree pathogens – white rot fungi

 

2. Characterization of four species including one new species of Agaricus subgenus Spissicaules from Eastern China

Authors: Dai RC, Li GJ, He MQ, Liu RL, Ling ZL, Wu JR, Zhao RL

Recieved: 04 May 2016, Accepted: 09 July 2016, Published: 19 July 2016

Four species of Agaricus subgenus Spissicaules, including a new species A. catenariocystidiosus, are identified from Eastern China based on morphological and molecular data. All of the species are introduced with full descriptions. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The known species A. inthanoensis, A. parasubrutilescens and A. planipileus are compared with their original descriptions, and several supplementary morphological characters are provided.

Keywords:

 

3. Mycosphere Essay 8: A review of genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia

Authors: Karunarathna SC, Chen J, Mortimer PE, Xu JC, Zhao RL, Callac P, Hyde KD

Recieved: 24 June 2016, Accepted: 19 July 2016, Published: 26 July 2016

The genus Agaricus includes both edible and poisonous species, with more than 400 species worldwide. This genus includes many species, which are enormously important as sources of food and medicine, such as the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the almond mushroom (Agaricus subrufescens). This paper reviews the genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia, including the history, characteristics, pertinent morphological and organoleptic taxonomic traits, molecular phylogeny and taxonomy advances, toxicity and edibility. This review includes Agaricus species that are known to be highly valued as edible and medicinal mushrooms, and provides a comprehensive checklist of species described from the tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia until the end of 2015.

Keywords: check list – edible mushroom– medicinal mushroom – molecular phylogeny – poisonous mushroom

 

4. Aplosporella thailandica; a novel species revealing the sexual-asexual connection in Aplosporellaceae (Botryosphaeriales).

Authors: Ekanayaka AH, Dissanayake AJ, Jayasiri SC, To-anun C, Jones EBG, Zhao Q, Hyde KD

Recieved: 27 June 2016, Accepted: 20 July 2016, Published: 26 July 2016

Aplosporella thailandica sp. nov. was collected from a dead stem in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand and identified by morphological characteristics and analyses of combined ITS and EF1-α sequence data. This is the first report of a sexual morph with molecular evidence for this genus and the first record of spermatogenesis and chlamydospore associated with the asexual state of this family. The sexual morph of Aplosporella thailandica resembles Bagnisiella and the asexual morph resembles Aplosporella, thus proving the sexual-asexual connection for the first time for this family.

Keywords: Asexual morph – Bagnisiella – multiloculate – sexual morph

 

5. Two new cheirosporous asexual taxa (Dictyosporiaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) from freshwater habitats in Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Aziz FA

Recieved: 13 June 2016, Accepted: 20 July 2016, Published: 26 July 2016

Cheirosporium vesiculare and Dictyosporium palmae spp. nov. were collected from submerged wood in the River Nile, Sohag, Egypt. Cheirosporium vesiculare is characterized by macronematous conidiophores, and non-complanate conidia, that are circular in vertical view with seven rows arranged in six peripheral rows and one in the center. Conidia are equipped with 2 to 5 balloon-like large appendages with long necks that penetrate through the peripheral rows and connect to the central row. Phylogenetic analyses of LSU sequence data place C. vesiculare in a monophyletic clade with C. triseriale in the family Dictyosporiaceae. Dictyosporium palmae is distinguished from the previously described species by its different conidial dimensions and the variable shapes of the gelatinous conidial appendages. Phylogenetic analyses of LSU sequence data place D. palmae in Dictyosporium sensu sticto in a clade with D. digitatum and D. stellatum with high statistical support.

Keywords: Cheirosporium – Dictyosporium – lignicolous fungi – taxonomy – phylogeny

 

6. Spatiotemporal diversity of macrofungi in the coastal sand dunes of Southwestern India

Authors: Ghate SD, Sridhar KR

Recieved: 01 July 2016, Accepted: 04 August 2016, Published: 11 August 2016

Spatial and temporal inventory yielded 64 species of macrofungi belonging to 34 genera in five coastal sand dunes (CSDs) of southwest India. Marasmius was the major genus (7 spp.) followed by Agaricus (5 spp.), Lentinus (4 spp.) and Lepiota (4 spp.). Thirty six species were confined to any one of the CSDs, while only Termitomyces striatus distributed in all dunes. Correlation between biotic (species richness, sporocarp richness and diversity) and nine abiotic (air, 2 factors; soil, 7 factors) factors revealed positive correlation of total species (r = 0.396, p = 0.05) and total exclusive species (r = 0.407, p = 0.043) against humidity. Sandy soil was preferred substrate of macrofungi (34 spp.) followed by woody substrate (22 spp.). Some preferred twigs, grass and herbivore dung, while others grew on dual substrates (soil/leaf litter; soil/wood; leaf litter/twig). Twenty two species of macrofungi are economically valuable as edible, medicinal and ectomycorrhizal. Amanita sp., Termitomyces schimperi and T. striatus are delicacy for coastal dwellers. Major hindrances for perpetuation of macrofungi in CSDs include sand extraction, wood extraction and clearing vegetation and debris by fire. Preservation of virgin dunes and rehabilitation of degraded dunes will provide ample scope to follow assemblage, divesity and ecological services of macrofungi in coastal habitats.

Keywords: Abiotic factors  disturbance  economic value  human interference  mushrooms  substrate preference

 

7. A guide to the biology and taxonomy of the Echinosteliales

Authors: Haskins EF, Clark J

Recieved: 13 July 2016, Accepted: 12 August 2016, Published: 17 August 2016

This guide is an attempt to consolidate all information concerning the biology of the Echinosteliales, including uniform species descriptions for all of the species, and to make this available to interested persons in an open access journal. The Echinosteliales are a small group of myxomycetes with relatively minute sporangia and a unique plasmodial trophic stage (a protoplasmodium).  These protoplasmodia, which are a defining characteristic of the order, are relatively small (20-150 μm in diameter) amoeboid stages with sluggish protoplasmic streaming and plasmodial movement which, as far as it is known, do not form a reticulum or undergo fusion with other plasmodia, but do undergo binary plasmotomy after reaching an upper size limit with each plasmodium produces a single sporangium. The minute sporangia produce a relatively limited number of spores and, except for one stalk-less species, they have a distinctive stalk consisting of a fibrillose tube having amorphous material in the lower region and closing at the upper end to produce a solid region. This morphology, along with developmental and DNA studies indicate that this order is probably the evolutionary basal group of the dark-spored myxomycetes. 

Keywords: amoeboflagellate – Barbeyella – Clastoderma – Echinostelium – plasmodium – Semimorula – sporangia

 

8. Colletotrichum siamense causes anthracnose on the fruits of Pongamia pinnata in India

Authors: Dwarka DJ, Sharma G, Rajasab AH

Recieved: 13 July 2016, Accepted: 13 August 2016, Published: 21 August 2016

Pongamia pinnata is an economically important biodiesel yielding plant. The growth and yield of this plant is inhibited by infections caused by fungal pathogens. In this study, we investigated the association and pathogenicity potentials of Colletotrichum siamense on fruits of P. pinnata collected from Gulbarga University Campus, Karnataka, India. The pathogen was isolated from pericarp (epicarp and endocarp) of P. pinnata by blotter and carpoplane method. Fungal characterization and identification was performed based on morphology and multi-locus phylogeny. Pathogenicity testing on P. pinnata fruits confirmed the pathogenic potential of the isolate. This is the first report of C. siamense as a causative agent of anthracnose on the fruits of P. pinnata from Karnataka, India. 

Keywords: Biofuel – disease – germination pattern – identification – morphology – multigene phylogeny

 

9. Comparative evaluation of total peroxidase and catalase activities during light emission of luminous fungus Neonothopanus nambi

Authors: Mogilnaya OA, Ronzhin NO, Bondar VS

Recieved: 01 July 2016, Accepted: 21 August 2016, Published: 26 August 2016

Submerged cultivation of luminous fungus Neonothopanus nambi under orbital stirring causes formation of pellets with smooth or rough surfaces. The experiments showed that luminescence of the pellets washed in water increased considerably. Previous studies suggested possible participation of peroxidases in the light emitting reaction. In this study, oxidative azo coupling reaction accompanied by formation of chromogen was used to evaluate peroxidase activity in vivo, in brightly luminescent pellets and in pellets with low luminescence intensity (dim ones). Staining of the brightly luminescent pellets took a few minutes, and their staining intensity was several times higher than that of the dim pellets. From the results of in vivo experiments it was concluded that the bright pellets differed from the dim ones in the production of hydrogen peroxide, or, possibly, other peroxides. Measurements of total peroxidase and catalase activities in pellet extracts also showed an increase in enzyme activities along with an increase in luminescence intensity of native pellets. However, results of the in vitro experiments do not definitively suggest a direct relationship between luminescence and activity of these enzymes. We assume that luminescence of this fungal species may be an additional way to neutralize peroxide compounds under stress.

Keywords: basidiomycetes – hydrogen peroxide – luminescence – stress

 

10. Towards a natural classification of Dothideomycetes: clarification of Aldona, Aldonata and Viegasella (Parmulariaceae)

Authors: Tian Q, Hongsanan S, Dai DQ, Alias SA, Hyde KD and Chomnunti P

Recieved: 23 June 2016, Accepted: 22 August 2016, Published: 27 August 2016

Species of Parmulariaceae are biotrophic, plant-parasitic microfungi that develop on the surface of living plants. We collected Aldona stella-nigra during a survey of foliar epiphytes in the Philippines and thus we restudied this poorly reported species around the world and re-examined some similar taxa. In this paper we re-describe and illustrate the type species of some similar genera, Aldona, Aldonata and Viegasella in Parmulariaceae which are leaf parasites and also provide details of the spermatial state of these unusual fungi. By re-illustrating the genera we anticipate fresh collections of these genera to be obtained for further studies so that molecular data can be analyzed to obtain a natural classification.

Keywords: Foliar epiphytes – Parmulariaceae – types

 

11. An Asian edible mushroom, Macrocybe gigantea: its distribution and ITS-rDNA based phylogeny

Authors: Razaq A, Nawaz R, Khalid AN

Recieved: 27 July 2016, Accepted: 24 August 2016, Published: 30 August 2016

An updated phylogeny of Macrocybe, a rare pantropical genus, is presented, and new insights regarding the distribution of M. gigantea are given. At the end of last century, this genus was segregated from Tricholoma on morphological and molecular data yet it is still being treated under Tricholoma. In the phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-rDNA, we observed the monophyletic lineage of Macrocybe from the closely related genera Calocybe and Tricholoma. Six collections of M. gigantea, a syntype, re-collected and sequenced from Pakistan, clustered with Chinese and Indian collections which are available in GenBank under Tricholoma giganteum, an older name. The purpose of this work is to support Macrocybe as a separate genus from Tricholoma and Calocybe using ITS-rDNA based phylogeny.

Keywords: Calocybe – macro fungi – Siderophilous granulation – Tricholoma

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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