Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 3


1. Biodiversity and molecular characterization of yeast and filamentous fungi in the air of citrus and grapevine plantations in Assiut area, Egypt

Authors: Moubasher AH, Abdel-Sater MA, Soliman Zeinab SM 2016

Recieved: 19 February 2016, Accepted: 30 April 2016, Published: 13 May 2016

A total of 218 species and 3 varieties belonging to 83 genera of filamentous and yeast fungi were recovered from the air of both citrus and grapevine plantations. A relatively higher numbers of genera and species were recovered from the air of citrus plantations compared with those recovered from grapevine plantations. The peak of total propagules of fungi caught from the air of citrus plantations was shown in February on both media and from the air of grapevine in December and August on DYM and DRBC, respectively. Their troughs were shown in June and October on DYM and DRBC, respectively for both citrus and grapevine plantations. The widest spectrum of species recovered from the air of citrus plantations was registered in June on both media and from the air of grapevine plantations in February and in April on DYM and DRBC, respectively. The air of citrus plantations shared the air of grapevine plantations in some highly encountered filamentous fungi on both media (Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria) or on one medium (Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Phoma and Pleospora). Eighty-four fungal species were isolated from the air of citrus only, while 46 species were isolated from the air of grapevine only.Yeast fungi showed their peak of total propagules from the air of citrus plantations in October and April and from the air of grapevine plantations in June and December on DYM and DRBC, respectively. Fifteen genera and 26 species of yeasts were collected. Two genera of yeasts were encountered in high frequency on one medium and moderate or low on the other medium in the air of both citrus and grapevine plantations and these were Cryptoccocus (4 species) and Rhodotorula (3 species).

Keywords: Aerobiota – characterization – genotypic – phenotypic - seasonal fluctuation

 

2. A new species of Amanita growing under Eucalyptus is discovered in South Brazil

Authors: Wartchow F, Cortez VG 2016

Recieved: 16 February 2016, Accepted: 05 May 2016, Published: 25 May 2016

In South Brazil, Amanita Pers. has been studied more recently. Wartchow et al. (2013a) reported two subspecies of A. muscaria (L.) Lam. (subsp. muscaria and subsp. flavivolvata Singer), and Wartchow et al. (2013b) described A. petalinivolva Wartchow (subgenus Amanita). Other six taxa also are referred from this region: A. chrysoleuca Pegler, A. multisquamosa Peck (subgen. Amanita), A. grallipes Bas & de Meijer, A. strobiliformis (Paulet ex Vittad.) Bertill. (subgen. Lepidella), A. rubescens Pers. and A spissa (Fr.) Bertill. (subgen. Validae) (Rick 1906, 1937, Bas & de Meijer 1993, Giachini et al. 2000, Sobestiansky 2005, de Meijer 2006). It is notable that most recorded species of Amanita from South Brazil (e.g., A. muscaria, A. multisquamosa and A. rubescens) are ectomycorrhizal partners of exotic Pinus and Eucalyptus, the most cultivated trees in that region (Sulzbacher et al. 2013). During mycological fieldwork in South Brazil, an interesting species of Amanita growing under Eucalyptus plantation was collected, which could not be determined at that time. This material was considered as belonging to a new taxonomic entity, which is described in the present paper.

Keywords: Amanitaceae – Agaricales –Agaricomycetes – taxonomy

 

3. One hundred and five species of lichenicolous biota from India: An updated checklist for the country

Authors: Joshi Y, Falswal A, Tripathi M, Upadhyay S, Bisht A, Chandra K, Bajpai R, Upreti DK

Recieved: 24 February 2016, Accepted: 12 May 2016, Published: 27 May 2016

The knowledge about lichenicolous fungi and lichenicolous lichens occurring in India is summarized. Data on altogether 105 taxa are presented of which 51 species viz. Abrothallus parmeliarum, Acremonium lichenicola, Arthonia clemens, A. epiphyscia, A. phaeophysciae, A. subconveniens, Bellemerella acarosporae, Briancoppinsia cytospora, Buelliella lecanorae, B. minimula, B. protoparmeliopseos, Caeruleoconidia ochrolechiae, Carbonea aggregantula, C. assimilis, Cercidospora caudata, C. werneri, Dactylospora homoclinella, D. saxatilis, Didymocyrtis ramalinae, Endococcus propinquus, E. perpusillus, Geltingia associata, Intralichen lichenicola, Kalchbrenneriella cyanescens, Labrocarpon canariensis, Lichenochora verrucicola, Lichenoconium lecanorae, Lichenostigma maureri, L. triseptatum, Lichenothelia convexa, Monerolechia badia, Muellerella lichenicola, M. ventosicola, Odontotrema pertusariae, Opegrapha brigantina, Polycoccum microsticticum, P. peltigerae, Polysporina subfuscescens, Rhymbocarpus pertusariae, Sclerococcum simplex, S. sphaerale, Sphaerellothecium atryneae, S. contextum, S. propinquellum, S. reticulatum, Spirographa fusisporella, Stigmidium cerinae, S. frigidum, S. xanthoparmeliarum, Taeniolella delicata and Zwackhiomyces lecanorae are recorded for the first time from India. Of these 105 species, 103 species are lichenicolous fungi and two species of lichens occur on other lichens, which makes the country one of the best-studied areas in Asia regarding lichenicolous mycobiota. Nine species of lichenicolous fungi or lichens are reported from new host genera. Dendriscocaulon umhausense, reported from Kerala and Tamil Nadu, is excluded from the study, since it is not lichenicolous but forms a photomorph.

Keywords: Anamorphic fungi – Asia – Ascomycetes – Basidiomycetes – Biodiversity – Coelomycetes – Hyphomycetes

 

4. Phaeotremella foliacea comb. nov. (Tremellales, Tremellomycetes, Agaricomycotina)

Authors: Wedin M, Zamora JC, Millanes AM

Recieved: 28 March 2016, Accepted: 06 May 2016, Published: 09 June 2016

Recently, Liu et al. (2016) presented a major reclassification of the Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina) and a number of substantial changes to the ordinal, family and generic delimitations were made, based on recent progress in the understanding of the phylogeny of this large and important basidiomycete group. Liu et al. (2016) were the first to attempt a full integration of the classifications of yeasts and filamentose representatives, and presented a seven-marker phylogeny including the majority of yeast-forming and filamentous taxa. Among many new discoveries was that the Tremella foliacea-group should be recognized as a distinct genus, something quite clear already in Millanes et al. (2011). For this group, the name Phaeotremella Rea (Rea 1912) was available and taken up by Yurkov & Boekhout in Liu et al. (2016). Seven species were also combined into Phaeotremella in Liu et al. (2016), but despite pointing out that the type species of Phaeotremella Rea (Phaeotremella pseudofoliacea Rea) is currently by most authors treated as a synonym to the older “Tremella” foliacea Pers. (Donk 1966, Roberts 1999), the necessary combination based on the older name was unfortunately omitted. Here we rectify this, and include a brief discussion on the current species taxonomy of Phaeotremella.

Keywords: Tremella – nomenclature

 

5. Mycophagy by small mammals: new and interesting observations from Brazil.

Authors: Trierveiler-Pereira L, Silva HCS, Funez LA, Baltazar JM.

Recieved: 03 April 2016, Accepted: 07 June 2016, Published: 20 June 2016

Events of mycophagy by Brazilian native mammals are not often reported in literature, and the identity of the consumed fungal species is not always available. Therefore, the aim of this article is to report two field observations of mycophagy in Southern and Northern Brazil, involving the black-capped squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) and the Azara’s agouti (Dasyprocta azarae). The primates were observed eating ascomata of Ascopolyporus sp. (Cordycipitaceae, Hypocreales), while the rodents were consuming immature stages (‘eggs’) of Itajahya galericulata (Phallaceae, Phallales).

Keywords: feeding behavior – fungivory – mushroom – mutualism – primates – rodents

 

6. Mycosphere Essays 7: Ganoderma lucidum - are the beneficial anti-cancer properties substantiated?

Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Wu XL, Kang JC, Hyde KD

Recieved: 11 May 2016, Accepted: 19 June 2016, Published: 25 June 2016

Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom that has been used particularly in China, Japan and Korea for millennia to improve longevity and health. Research on various metabolic activities of G. lucidum have been performed in both in vitro and in vivo studies. There are a vast number of publications that show the abundance and variety of biological actions triggered by the primary metabolites of G. lucidum such as polysaccharides, proteins and triterpenes. However, it is debatable whether G. lucidum is a food supplement for health maintenance or is a therapeutic "drug" for medical purposes. There has been no report of human trials using G. lucidum as a direct control agent for cancers, however, some evidence showing the usage of G. lucidum as potential supplements for cancer patients and a small number of preclinical trials have suggested that it carries promising anti-cancer and immunomodulatory properties. In this review, the beneficial anti-cancer properties of G. lucidum, the evidence for medicinal uses and secondary metabolites, and the effects on human cancer are discussed. G. lucidum and related products can be used as a therapeutic drug, but more direct scientific evidence should be made available in the future. The efficiency of G. lucidum in clinical treatments can be proven by systematic translational research programs using, only standardized preclinically evaluated and biologically active G. lucidum extracts in alternative treatments. Hence, studies on G. lucidum should focus on improving methods and further clinical research on human subjects should be performed with more scientific reproducibility. Furthermore research should target pharmacologically active constituents of G. lucidum that contribute to positive immune responses, as well as the mode of action of G. lucidum at the molecular level at target organs.

Keywords: Anti-cancer activity – clinical evidence – Ganoderma lucidum – Lingzhi

 

7. Extensions of known geographic distribution of aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) in Finland

Authors: Kunttu P, Kulju M, Kekki T, Pennanen J, Savola K, Helo T, Kotiranta H

Recieved: 02 May 2016, Accepted: 17 June 2016, Published: 30 June 2016

This article contributes the knowledge of Finnish aphyllophoroid funga with nationally or regionally new species, and records of rare species. Ceriporia bresadolae, Clavaria tenuipes and Renatobasidium notabile are presented as new aphyllophoroid species to Finland. Ceriporia bresadolae and R. notabile are globally rare species. The records of Ceriporia aurantiocarnescens, Crustomyces subabruptus, Sistotrema autumnale, Trechispora elongata, and Trechispora silvae-ryae are the second in Finland. New records (or localities) are provided for 33 species with no more than 10 records in Finland. In addition, 76 records of aphyllophoroid species are reported as new to some subzones of the boreal vegetation zone in Finland. Notes on substrata and habitats of each record are given, and the ecology and distribution of some species are discussed.

Keywords: aphyllophorales – biogeography – boreal forest – clavarioids – corticioids – polypores – wood-inhabiting fungi

 

8. Dark-spored species of Agaricineae from Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa

Authors: Desjardin DE, Perry BA

Recieved: 14 April 2016, Accepted: 19 June 2016, Published: 30 June 2016

Eighteen dark-spored species representing members of the lineages Bolbitiaceae (Conocybe–1), Crepidotaceae (Crepidotus–2, Simocybe–1), Gymnopileae (Gymnopilus–2), Hymenogastraceae (Galerina–2), Psathyrellaceae (Coprinellus–2, Coprinopsis–2, Psathyrella–3), and Strophariaceae (Deconica–2, Hypholoma–1) are reported from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. Of these species, 4 are new species (Crepidotus kangoliformis, Coprinopsis afronivea, Psathyrella cacao, Psathyrella oboensis) and 11 are first reports for the Republic. New combinations are proposed for Deconica overeemii (Bas. Psilocybe overeemii) and Deconica protea (Bas. Agaricus proteus). Comprehensive descriptions, color photographs, ITS sequences and comparisons with allied taxa are provided.

Keywords: Basidiomycota – fungal diversity – mushrooms – Gulf of Guinea

 

About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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