Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 2

1. Mycosphere Essays 3. Myxomycete spore and amoeboflagellate biology: a review.

Authors: Clark J, Haskins EF

Recieved: 20 January 2016, Accepted: 22 February 2016, Published: 09 March 2016

The spore and amoeboflagellate stages of the heterothallic myxomycete life cycle are generally a uninucleate haploid alternative to the multinucleate diploid plasmodial stage. The spore is produced in a sporangium which develops from the plasmodium, and is a dispersal and resistant stage which has ornamentations that can be used in taxonomy. These small spores have thick pigmented walls and are generally wind dispersed and require water and other biological and physical conditions in order to germinate; this dispersal can occur over long distances and the germination conditions apparently vary between and within a species. The amoeboflagellate stage has three alternative phases: myxamoeba, swarm cell and cyst. The myxamoeba is a typical pleomorphic amoeboid cell that is the major phase, since it is the vegetative phase that ingests bacteria and yeasts, and divides mitotically to form a clonal population of cells. The myxamoeba of heterothallic strains can also, after reaching a certain cell density, become sexually competent and fuse to produce the plasmodial stage. The swarm cell phase develops from the myxamoebal stage when free water is present; it also feeds on bacteria but does not divide unless it reconverts to the myxamoebal phase. The cyst phase develops from the myxamoebal stage, when growth conditions become adverse, by the condensing of the cell and the formation of a resistant wall

Keywords: cyst – myxamoebae – spore dispersal – swarm cell


2. Fungi as endophytes in Chinese Artemisia spp.: juxtaposed elements of phylogeny, diversity and bioactivity

Authors: Cosoveanu A, Cabrera R, Hernandez M, Iacomi-Vasilescu B, Zhang X, Shu S, Wang M 2016

Recieved: 03 January 2016, Accepted: 27 February 2016, Published: 18 March 2016

Fungal endophytes were isolated from Artemisia lavandulifolia, A. tangutica, A. brachyloba, A. subulata, A. argy and A. scoparia in two Chinese localities, Qichun and Wuhan. 21 species were identified as belonging to one of the following: Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Nigrospora, Botryosphaeria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Neofusicoccum, Cercospora, Rhizoctonia, Alternaria and Curvularia. The evolutionary relationships were estimated through a phylogenetic tree using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences. Members of the Diaporthaceae family were not clustered with Trichosphaeriaceae and Glomerellaceae though all are members of the Sordariomycetes class. Analysis of fungal diversity engaged various indices with results revealing contradictory aspects. Two new genera and two new species were reported as endophytes in Artemisia spp. (Nigrospora, Curvularia, Neofusicoccum parvum and Penicillium chrysogenum). Only two fungal species were found common in both localities. In dual culture assays with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum, Nigrospora endophytes provoked lysis, parasitism and had the highest values as antagonists against all pathogens. Fungal endophyte extracts were assayed against the mentioned pathogens. The three extracted fungi with the highest activity were: Botryosphaeria dothidea and Curvularia geniculata against A. alternata and Curvularia spicifera against S. sclerotiorum.

Keywords: evolutionary relationships – fungal endophytes – medicinal plants – phytopathogens


3. Exploration of wild medicinal mushroom species in Walayar valley, the Southern Western Ghats of Coimbatore District Tamil Nadu.

Authors: Venkatachalapathi A, Paulsamy S

Recieved: 02 January 2016, Accepted: 15 March 2016, Published: 29 March 2016

The present study explored the medicinal mushroom species used by the Irula tribal community in Walayar Valley, the southern Western Ghats of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India. The study was between May 2013 to August 2014 and reportson30medicinal mushroom species belonging to 23 genera in 13 families. The fungi occurred between 421 to 834m above m.s.l. Mushrooms were recorded in separate field data sheets, including binomial name, local name, medicinal uses and quantitative assessment of mushroom species collected per season per Kg based on information provided by the Irula community. These species included treatment of eight different illness categories. The study concludes their nutritional and medicinal potential, as well as ethno medicinal uses, which may have future pharmaceutical application.

Keywords: Irula – medicinal mushroom – Walayar valley – Western Ghats


4. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Volvariella volvacea and Schizophyllum commune mycelia cultured in indigenous liquid media

Authors: Dulay RMR, Vicente JJA, Dela Cruz AG, Gagarin JM, Fernando W, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG

Recieved: 02 February 2016, Accepted: 20 March 2016, Published: 29 March 2016

In the current work, we evaluated the different indigenous liquid culture media for mycelial production and antioxidant property based on radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content of Volvariella volvacea and Schizophyllum commune. In V. volvacea culture, the maximum mycelial biomass was significantly achieved in coconut water with 12.2 g, while S. commune efficiently grew on rice bran broth that produced the highest yield of 12.5 g.  Similarly, the highest volume loss of spent was significantly recorded in these media for both mushrooms. Mycelia of V. volvacea grown in coconut water and S. commune in rice bran broth showed the most potent radical scavenging activity with 21.19% and 19.45%, respectively. The highest total phenolic content were found in rice bran broth with 23.19 mg AAE/g sample for V. volvaceamycelia and in coconut water with 25.52 mg AAE/g sample for S. commune mycelia. Therefore, mycelia these edible mushrooms may have potential as natural antioxidants which are affected by the liquid media.

Keywords: S. commune – V. volvacea – total phenolic – antioxidant – liquid media


5. Endophytic fungi associated with bamboo as possible sources of single cell protein using corn cob as a substrate

Authors: Paynor KA, David ES, Valentino MJG

Recieved: 18 February 2016, Accepted: 24 March 2016, Published: 30 March 2016

This study was undertaken to determine the potential of nine endophytic fungi associated with bamboo namely: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Monascus ruber, Fusarium semitectum, Fusarium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 2 as sources of single cell protein. In addition, proximate composition of the fungal enriched corn cob which includes moisture, ash, crude fat and crude fiber were also determined. Lastly, cytotoxicity of the treated corn cob was also evaluated to determine their feasibility as safe substitute to animal feeds.


Results of the study revealed that inoculation of endophytic fungi could enhance the proximate composition of corn cob. Cladosporium cladosporioides – treated corn cob obtained the highest crude protein content (CPC) of 3.23%, while, Aspergillus niger treated corn cob registered the least CPC of 2.51%. For the percentage increase CPC, Cladosporium Cladosporioides treated corn cob registered the highest percentage increase of 13.64%. For the moisture content, Fusarium sp.2 treated corn cob obtained the highest moisture content with 2.45%, while the uninoculated corn cob had the lowest moisture of 1.48%. For the ash content, Penicillium citrinum treated corn cob obtained the highest % ash with 2.94% while A. ochraceus – treated corn cob had the least % ash of 2.25. For the crude fat, Fusarium sp. 1 – treated corn cob obtained the highest crude fat of 0.76% while the Aspergillus ochraceus, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium citrinum – treated corn cob obtained the least crude fat of 0%. For the crude fiber, Fusarium sp. 1 – treated corn cob recorded the highest crude fiber with 33.09% while the uninoculated corn cob with 30.93% had the least crude fiber content. For the cytotoxicity test, 3.33% mortality rate was recorded after 6 hours of incubation as observed in Aspergillus niger, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium sp. 1 – treated corn cob. At 12 hours of incubation, Fusarium semitectum had the highest mortality rate of 6.67%. Lastly, after 18 hours and 24 hours of incubation, 3.33% mortality rate was observed in Fusarium sp. 1 and Aspergillus flavus treated corn cob.

Keywords: corn cob – crude protein content – endophytes – fungi – single cell protein – solid state fermentation


6. Neosporidesmium subramanianii sp. nov. from Vietnam

Authors: Mel’nik VA, Popov ES, Braun U

Recieved: 10 March 2016, Accepted: 27 March 2016, Published: 04 April 2016

Vietnam is a tropical country with high but little explored fungal diversity. Within the scope of a research program of the Vietnamese-Russian Tropical Research and Technological Centre, in recent years numerous fungi of different taxonomic groups have been collected and published in a series of papers (Mel’nik 2011, 2012a, b, Mel’nik & Braun 2013, Mel’nik et al. 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015). Recently a synnematous hyphomycete was collected on dead leaves of Saccharum spontaneum, critical morphological examination revealed it to be an undescribed species of Neosporidesmium Mercado & J. Mena (Mercado & Mena 1988). Attempts to cultivate this fungus in vitro, in order to be able to carry out molecular analyses, failed, but due to striking morphological characters and clear differences to all similar and comparable species it is justified to introduce a new species of Neosporidesmium.

Keywords: ascomycetes – asexual morph – South East Asia – synnematous hyphomycetes – taxonomic novelty


7. Schizothyriaceae

Authors: Phookamsak R, Boonmee S, Norphanphoun C, Wanasinghe DN, de Silva NI, Dayarathne MC, Hongsanan S, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD

Recieved: 26 February 2016, Accepted: 14 April 2016, Published: 22 April 2016

Schizothyriaceae is a poorly understood family which was introduced to accommodate epiphytes belonging to the class Dothideomycetes. Sixteen sexual and asexual genera have at various times been accommodated in Schizothyriaceae. However, modern taxonomic descriptions, molecular data and phylogenetic investigation of the genera in this family are limited. We therefore revisit the genera in Schizothyriaceae by loaning and examining the type and other specimens from herbaria worldwide. Circumscriptions of the genera previously placed in Schizothyriaceae are provided with illustrations and their higher level placements are determined based on modern descriptions. Based on morphology, we currently accept Hexagonella, Lecideopsella, Mycerema, Plochmopeltis and Schizothyrium in Schizothyriaceae. Kerniomyces, Metathyriella and Myriangiella are treated in Schizothyriaceae, genera incertae sedis, while Chaetoplaca is transferred to Ascomycetes, genera incertae sedis. Neopeltella is excluded from Schizothyriaceae, based on its thyriothecial ascomata and tentatively placed in Micropeltidaceae. Henningsiella is placed in Saccardiaceae due to its discoid ascomata. Linopeltis and Orthobellus are tentatively treated in Dothideomycetes, genera incertae sedis. Hysteropeltella which has elongate apothecial or hypothecia-like ascomata, is placed in Patellariaceae due to its similar morphology with Baggea. Mendogia is transferred to the family Myriangiaceae based on a morphologically similar specimen which is phylogenetically placed in Myriangiaceae. The hyphomycetous, Zygophiala is reported as the asexual morph of Schizothyrium. Hence, the genus is currently treated as a synonym of Schizothyrium. Nevertheless, representative species of the genera in Schizothyriaceae, including the type species, need to be recollected and sequenced to clarify the natural placement in Schizothyriaceae.

Keywords: asexual morph – epifoliar fungi – epiphytic fungi – Schizothyrium– taxonomy


8. Mycosphere Essays 4. Mycorrhizal-associated nutrient dynamics in key ecosystems and their response to a changing environment

Authors: Heng G, Hyde KD, Jianchu X, Valentine AJ, Mortimer PE

Recieved: 20 January 2016, Accepted: 12 April 2016, Published: 27 April 2016

Environmental change incorporates the full range of natural and anthropogenic changes currently affecting the planet. These changes include fluxes within the carbon and nutrient cycles, resulting in disturbances at the ecosystem level, which may affect plant species distribution as well as soil systems. Mycorrhizal fungi form an important link between plants and soil systems, functioning at the root-soil interface, contributing towards nutrient cycling processes, and, ultimately, influencing the plant composition of terrestrial ecosystems. A more integrated and systemic understanding of these mycorrhizal associations can help us predict, and thus mitigate, the impact of environmental change on biotic communities. In this review we present the latest research on how the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics of arbuscular and ectomycorrhiza vary in their representative ecosystems. Furthermore, we also demonstrate how they respond to environmental change, which relates to both biotic and abiotic factors, such as CO2-enrichment, nitrogen-depletion, and the impact of invasive species. This review provides insight on the role of mycorrhiza in offsetting the negative effects of environmental change.

Keywords: CO2 enrichment – environmental change – mycorrhiza – nutrient cycling – soil community


9. Two new Seimatosporium species from Italy

Authors: Wijayawardene NN, Goonasekara ID, Camporesi E, Wang Y, An YL

Recieved: 20 March 2016, Accepted: 22 April 2016, Published: 28 April 2016

Two taxa resembling Seimatosporium and Seiridium were collected from Italy. Mega blast results of ITS and LSU sequence data, showed that new collections are related to Seimatosporium. Parsimonious analyses based on LSU and ITS sequence data showed that new taxa reside in Seimatosporium sensu stricto. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the new collections are introduced as new species and compared with taxa with similar morphological characters and host association.

Keywords: Coelomycetes – morphology – multi-gene – phylogeny


10. The phenotypic and metabolic properties of Metarhizium guizhouense on Corcyra cephalonica

Authors: Thaochan N, Chandrapatya A

Recieved: 15 March 2016, Accepted: 24 April 2016, Published: 28 April 2016

An entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium guizhouense, used as biological control agent for insect pests. The phenotypic (mycelial growth and sporulation) and metabolic properties (enzyme production and virulence) of M. guizhouense PSUM02 and PSUM04 were compared after successive subcultures on an artificial medium (5 or 10 cycles), and after passages through larvae of an insect host, Corcyra cephalonica (3, 5 or 7 cycles). The mycelial growth rates were not significantly affected, with the exceptions of PSUM02 subcultured 10 times and PSUM04 subcultured 5 times, both of which had slightly reduced mycelial growth rates. Passages through an insect host gave the highest spore production, similar to the original fungal culture, while subculturing on an artificial medium reduced spore production several fold. Only after 5 and 7 passages through an insect host did PSUM02 have chitinase activity, while with other treatments (including no treatment of the original fungal culture) it had no chitinase activity. Successive subculturing of M. guizhouense PSUM02 and PSUM04 on an artificial medium for 10 cycles decreased the virulence of the fungus compared to the original culture, while passages through an insect hosts increased the virulence. The results indicate that the virulence of M. guizhouense PSUM02 and PSUM04 passages through an insect host for 3 times suitable for restoring the phenotypic and metabolic properties for biological control agent in insect pest control.

Keywords: enzyme production – passage through insect – repeated subcultures – virulence


11. Selection of a highly productive strain of Pholiota adiposa

Authors: Rong CB, Song S, Niu YR, Xu F, Liu Y, Zhao S, Wang SX

Recieved: 14 March 2016, Accepted: 25 April 2016, Published: 30 April 2016

Comparative studies on mushroom strains from various localities are one of the best ways to screen for strains with improved yield and quality. The current study was conducted to evaluate the mycelial growth rate, primordial initiation time, biological efficiency, and nutritional components of four domesticated and one cultivar (Control) strain of Pholiota adiposa. Strain JZB2116005 exhibited the highest mycelial growth rate (2.56 ± 0.03 mm/d), whereas the control strain JZB2116001 was lowest (2.34 ± 0.01 mm/d). The mycelial colonization time and primordial initiation time of different strains were not consistent with the mycelial growth rates. It took approximately 89 days and 1112 days longer for control strain JZB2116001 to colonize the whole bags and to form primordial, than strain JZB2116005. The highest biological efficiency (67.88 ± 1.33%) was observed in strain JZB2116005 while the control strain JZB2116001 was worst (41.35 ± 1.72%). Fruiting bodies of strain JZB2116005 showed better morphological traits and higher chemical contents as compared with the control strain JZB2116001. Therefore, from a commercial point of view, it was necessary to replace strain JZB2116001 with strain JZB2116005 in production.

Keywords: biological efficiency – cultivation – nutritional components – yield


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering