Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 10 (SI Biotechnology)

1. Ethnomycological knowledge of wild edible mushrooms in Tlayacapan, Morelos

Authors: Álvarez-Farias ZJ, Díaz-Godínez G, Téllez-Téllez M, Villegas E, Acosta-Urdapilleta ML

Recieved: 17 December 2015, Accepted: 25 July 2016, Published: 15 September 2016

Different species of wild edible mushrooms are known in Mexico, which are harvested for consumption or sale in the weekly markets or street markets. Collectors have important knowledge of these species, then, the aim of this study was to determine which species are sold in the market and street markets of the town of Tlayacapan, Morelos. From June to November 2012, mushroom sellers were surveyed monthly to collate data regarding the physical characteristics used to identify mushrooms, as well as their common names. Eleven genus of edible fungi were obtained from weekly markets or street markets and a total of 10 species of wild edible mushrooms were identified, of which the phenology and ecology was determined. Pleurotus djamor y Pleurotus djamor var. roseus species are fungi that represent more cultural significance to the community as they were the most frequently occurring species (98.8%). They had seven different common names and are related to the beginning and the end of the rainy season. This information contributes greatly to the knowledge regarding the region and its culture.

Keywords: Edible mushroom – fungi – Mexico


2. Mycosphere Essay 11: Fungi of Pycnoporus: morphological and molecular identification, worldwide distribution and biotechnological potential

Authors: Téllez-Téllez M, Villegas E, Rodríguez A, Acosta-Urdapilleta ML, Díaz-Godínez G

Recieved: 17 December 2015, Accepted: 30 August 2016, Published: 24 September 2016

Fungi of the Pycnoporus are efficient degraders of lignocellulosic materials, so they are classified as white-rot fungi. A distinctive feature is its color ranging from orange to bright red, attributed to cinnabarin, cinnabarinic acid and tramesanguin mainly, compounds to which have been attributed some biological activities. This review updates the reports on morphological characteristics, the distribution of species of Pycnoporus, and the advantages of molecular techniques in species identification. Furthermore, the potential biotechnological applications of these fungi are mentioned with a focus on insecticidal and antibacterial activities. In addition, the production of hydrolytic enzymes including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases are discussed as well as phenoloxidases such as laccases and their participation in the degradation of agro-industrial waste. 

Keywords: Biotechnological applications – Pycnoporus sanguineus – Pycnoporus cinnabarinus – taxonomy – molecular identification


3. Vermicompost either alone or with amendment can enhance the shelf-life of P and Zn mobilizing fungal inoculants used in sustainable agriculture

Authors: Ashwin R, Bagyaraj DJ, Kale RD

Recieved: 20 December 2015, Accepted: 29 August 2016, Published: 24 September 2016

The shelf life of P solubilizing fungus Aspergillus awamori, Zn solubilizing fungus Aspergillus niger and AM fungus Glomus mosseae in enriched vermicompost was investigated. A. awamori and A. niger were mixed separately with vermicompost at 20% and 25% moisture levels and the population was enumerated periodically. The results showed that vermicompost supported population of A. awamori and A. niger to the level of 107/ g up to 360 days after storage (DAS) at 20% moisture level. The infective propagules (IP) of AM fungus G. mosseae mixed with vermicompost and in combination with agro products, coir pith and rice husk, was enumerated periodically. The results showed that vermicompost amended with rice husk (1:3) supported the propagation of G. mosseae better with highest number of IP 16 x 103/ g 405 DAS.

Keywords: Agro byproducts – Aspergillus awamori – Aspergillus niger – Glomus mosseae


4. Temperature dependent lipase production from cold and pH tolerant species of Penicillium

Authors: Pandey N, Dhakar K, Jain R, Pandey A

Recieved: 17 December 2015, Accepted: 25 July 2016, Published: 29 September 2016

The psychrotolerant microorganisms are receiving attention of the scientific community due to their ability to produce biotechnological products. The present study is focused on the diversity of cold and pH tolerant isolates of Penicillium spp with respect to their potential to produce cold active lipases. The characterization of the fungal isolates was done using polyphasic approach (morphological and molecular methods). The isolates were found to have tolerance for temperature from 4-35 ºC (opt.21-25 ºC) and pH 2-14 (opt. 5-7). Lipase production was investigated under the influence of temperature between 5-35 ºC. The fungal isolates were found to produce lipase, optimally at different temperatures, up to 25 days of incubation. Maximum lipase production was recorded at 15 and 25 ºC temperatures, whereas it was minimum at 5 and 35 ºC. Three fungal isolates, designated as GBPI_P98, GBPI_P150 and GBPI_P228, were found to produce optimal lipase at 25 ºC whereas seven isolates, GBPI_P8, GBPI_P36, GBPI_P72, GBPI_P101, GBPI_P141, GBPI_P188 and GBPI_P222, showed maximum lipase prodution at 15 ºC. In general, production of biomass showed no relation with the lipase activity. The study will have inference in production of cold active lipase for their versatile uses in biotechnological industries.

Keywords: Indian Himalayan region – fungi – Penicillium – psychrotolerants – lipase


5. Fungal secretomics of ascomycete fungi for biotechnological applications

Authors: Couturier M, Navarro D, Favel A, Haon M, Lechat C, Lesage-Meessen L, Chevret D, Lombard V, Henrissat B, Berrin JG

Recieved: 15 October 2015, Accepted: 20 September 2016, Published: 11 October 2016

The enzymatic degradation of plant biomass is of growing interest for the development of a sustainable bio-based industry. Ascomycete fungi, which degrade complex and recalcitrant plant polymers, secrete enzymes acting on the different components of plant cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). In this study, we present proteomic analyses of enzyme cocktails (secretomes) produced by five strains of Ascomycota (Aspergillus wentii, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus niger, Neocosmospora haematococca, Penicillium variabile) from different geographical origins. Expert annotation of enzymes secreted revealed a large array of carbohydrate-active enzymes targeting plant cell wall polysaccharides. This study reveals that systematic proteomic analyses of fungal secretomes can contribute to the phenotyping of fungal strains from different geographical origins.

Keywords: Ascomycete – biomass degradation – cellulase – proteomics – secretomes


6. Characterization of multiple xylanase forms from Aspergillus tamarii resistant to phenolic compounds

Authors: Monclaro AV, Aquino EN, Faria RF, Ricart CAO, Freitas SM, Midorikawa GEO, Miller RNG, Michelin M, Polizeli MLTM, Filho EXF

Recieved: 21 March 2016, Accepted: 20 September 2016, Published: 11 October 2016

Aspergillus tamarii was cultivated in different textile wastes. Xylanases with high levels of enzymatic activity were produced after two days cultivation, with constant production for up to seven days. Two xylanases, namely Xyl-1 and Xyl-2, with  molecular masses of 35.5 and 22 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the crude extract and purified by ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Xyl-1 and Xyl-2 were more active at pH 6.0, and 60° C and 40° C, respectively. The respective KM and Vmax values on soluble oat spelt xylan were 4.30 mg.mL-1 and 0.249 IU.mL-1 (Xyl-1) and 18.92 mg.mL-1 and 1.103 IU.mL-1.s-1 (Xyl-2). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to evaluate purification steps, effective in assessing the degree of purity of the samples, the presence of aggregations and the size of the enzymes. Tween-80 at 0.1% was an efficient dispersing agent for avoiding aggregation of proteins and did not influence enzyme activity. Purified and partially purified xylanases were activated with auto-hydrolysis liquor from corncob and with ferulic acid, a phenolic compound derived from lignocellulosic biomass. These findings of this study indicate that A. tamarii produces multiple forms of xylanases with considerable potential in different biotechnological applications.

Keywords: Corncob autohydrolysis liquor – dynamic light scattering – ferulic acid – textile wastes


7. Enzymatic activity of three wild mushrooms

Authors: Díaz-Godínez G, Cervantes-Muñoz P, Acosta-Urdapilleta ML, Villegas E, Gupta VK, Téllez-Téllez M

Recieved: 17 December 2015, Accepted: 25 September 2016, Published: 11 October 2016

Wild mushrooms are an important cultural patrimony, used since time immemorial as food and medicines according to traditional ecological knowledge. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wild mushrooms are of interest because they are a natural source of great importance for the production of compounds with potential biotechnological applications. Currently are potential producers of metabolites of biotechnological interest, including enzymes, many of which are of great importance in the food industry. In this study the intracellular and extracellular activity of six hydrolases and laccases produced by three wild mushrooms (Lentinula boryana, Pleurotus djamor var. roseus and Pycnoporus sp.) were determined. All strains were grown on potato-dextrose agar and wheat straw-dextrose agar.

Keywords: Basidiomycetes – hydrolytic enzymes – laccases – white rot fungi


8. Production and some properties of extracellular phytase from Thermomyces lanuginosus IMI 096218 on rice flour as substrate

Authors: Bujna E, Rezessy-Szabó JM, Nguyen DV, Nguyen DQ

Recieved: 01 September 2016, Accepted: 01 December 2016, Published: 28 December 2016

Thermophilic fungi Thermomyces lanuginosus IMI 096218 strain produces phytase enzyme on rice flour in submerged fermentation. The maximal activity was achieved on the 4th day of fermentation using 5 (w/v)% rice flour and at 220-rpm agitation speed. Additionally, the enzyme production was enhanced by supplementation of 0.1% Tween-80 detergent into fermentation medium. The phytase was purified about 9.1 fold with yield of 5.1%. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified phytase enzyme were pH 5.5 and 70°C, respectively. The half-life times of enzyme at temperature 54-58°C and pH range 5.0-7.5 were longer than 100 min. Kinetic parameters of phytase on sodium-phytate substrate were determined by linear Lineweaver-Burk plot: KM=0.285 mM, vmax=0.126 mM/min, and Hanes-Woolf plot: KM=0.312 mM, vmax=0.132 mM/min, respectively. The presence of 5 mM Zn2+, Ag+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions strongly inhibited the enzyme reaction. The residual activities were 55%, 49%, 38% and 34% respectively. This phytase can be considered as a potential candidate in animal feeding as well as in the production of some intermediates for clinical applications.

Keywords: characterisation – degradation of phytic acid – kinetic constants – submerged fermentation – natural substrate – purification


9. A competitive approach for the reduction of unsaturated compounds based on fungal ene-reductases

Authors: Romagnolo A, Spina F, Risso S, Brenna E, Crotti M, Varese GC

Recieved: 30 October 2015, Accepted: 10 December 2016, Published: 28 December 2016

The aim of this work was to select potential biocatalysts for the reduction of unsaturated compounds. The ability of Gliomastix masseei, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor plumbeus, Penicillium citrinum and Syncephalastrum racemosum to convert structurally diverse substrates was tested, also considering the role of substituents linked to the C=C bond on the process efficiency. All the tested fungi expressed ene-reductase activity when tested with several types of compounds; the ketone derivative was the best substrate, followed by the nitroalkene and the unsaturated aldehyde, whereas the ester was the most recalcitrant to bioreduction.


The results highlighted the potential of Mucor circinelloides MUT 44 and Mucor plumbeus MUT 2769 as versatile whole-cell systems; fast and efficient reduction was obtained using these biocatalysts for most of the compounds. Comparative analysis of the substrate spectrum was performed for three Mucor circinelloides strains, and reaction rates and timings were shown to vary, indicating a strong physiological diversity of ene-reductase activity at the intraspecific level.

Keywords: asymmetric bioreduction – filamentous fungi – Mucor circinelloides


10. Mycosphere Essay 10: Properties and characteristics of microbial xylanases

Authors: Álvarez-Cervantes J, Domínguez-Hernández EM, Mercado-Flores Y, Díaz-Godínez G

Recieved: 10 October 2015, Accepted: 29 July 2016, Published: 28 December 2016

Xylanases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze xylan which is a primary constituent of hemicellulose, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature. These enzymes are endo-β-1,4-xylanases, they include debranching enzymes such as xylosidases, glucoronidases, arabinofuranosidases and acetylxylan esterase. They are produced by algae, crustaceans, insects, bacteria, fungi and yeasts, with microbial sources being the most commercially important. There are multiple genes for its production, resulting in xylanases with different biochemical characteristics in terms of pH and temperature optimimum, pI and molecular weight. This review describes the importance of xylanases in the hydrolysis of xylan to obtain xylose and xylitol and their applications in pharmaceutical, paper and food industries.

Keywords: enzymes – hemicellulose – microorganisms – xylan


11. Biotechnological Innovations through Fungi

Authors: Gupta VK, Grigoriev IV, Berrin JG, Upadhyay RS, Zeilinger-Migsich S

Recieved: 30 November -0001, Accepted: 30 November -0001, Published: 28 December 2016



About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering