Volume 7 - 2016 - Issue 1

1. The use of glowing wood as a source of luminescent culture of fungus mycelium

Authors: Puzyr AP, Medvedeva SE, Bondar VS

Recieved: 15 October 2015, Accepted: 03 January 2016, Published: 15 January 2016

In studies of fungal bioluminescence, not only fruiting bodies and spores of the fungus, but also samples of luminescent wood, leaf litter or soil may need to be used to derive pure mycelial culture. This study describes an approach to isolating the culture of luminescent fungal mycelium from samples of light-emitting wood found on Borneo Island in November-December 2013. A GelDoc XR Imaging System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., U.S.) was used for the first time to monitor luminescence and select luminous samples. This study shows that for successful isolation of the culture of luminescent mycelium out of the luminescent wood found in the forest, it is imperative to keep the samples moist (mycelium alive until there is water), while immediate and aseptic delivery of the samples to the laboratory is not a crucial condition (inner layers of wood is "sterile"). Investigation of the growth features of the isolated mycelium in various growing conditions revealed some peculiar properties of its luminescence in comparison with the known luminescent cultures of basidiomycetes. When grown on solid nutrient media, mycelium exhibits low growth rates, long-lasting luminescence (140 days or longer), and emergence and disappearance of local zones with high levels of light emission. Mycelium produced in submerged culture does not emit light, and this effect must be caused by the absence or a very low level of the luminescent reaction substrate in the biomass. The luminescence system isolated from mycelial biomass did not induce luminescent reaction in vitro upon the addition of NADPH (recording intensity is 60 – 100 URL/sec). We found that enzymes of the luminescence systems isolated from mycelium pellets retained their activity and catalyzed luminescent reaction when a hot extract of the luminous fungus Armillaria sp. (IBSO 2360) was added (near 1900 URL/sec). The same effect was obtained after addition of hot extracts from the fruiting bodies of nonluminous higher fungi Pholiota squarrosa, Cortinarius sp., Hypholoma capnoides and Chroogomphus rutilus (near 3500 URL/sec). The pure culture of luminescent mycelium has been registered in the Culture Collection of IBP SB RAS as IBSO 2371; now it can be used for various in vivo and in vitro studies, including identification of the fungus.

Keywords: Bioluminescence – culture of luminous mycelia – kinetics of luminescent reaction – light emitting wood – luminous fungus


2. Diversity and distribution of myxomycetes in coastal and mountain forests of Lubang Island, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines

Authors: Macabago SAB, Stephenson SL, dela Cruz TEE

Recieved: 09 October 2015, Accepted: 29 December 2015, Published: 18 January 2016

A study of the distribution and ecology of myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) was carried out in the coastal and mountain forests of the geographically isolated island of Lubang in Occidental Mindoro of the Philippines. A total of 44 species were identified from moist chamber cultures. Arcyria cinerea, D. leucopodia, D. effusum, L. scintillans, and P. cinereum were the most abundant species recorded. Most species were commonly associated with only one of the substrates examined in two forest types. The highest level of productivity (myxomycetes recorded as either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) and the highest value for taxonomic diversity were observed for samples of ground litter collected from the mountain forests. However, the highest yield of fruiting bodies was noted for samples of the same substrate collected from the coastal forests. Assemblages of myxomycetes on Lubang Island were found to be similar within a particular area or forest type. This study is the first to compare the diversity and distribution of myxomycetes from two island forest types in the Philippines

Keywords: forest types – myxomycete ecology – S/G ratio


3. Volvariella leucocalix (Pluteaceae), a new species from Brazilian semiarid region.

Authors: Sá MCA, Wartchow F

Recieved: 02 December 2015, Accepted: 15 January 2016, Published: 27 January 2016

Volvariella leucocalix sp. nov. is a new record from Brazilian semiarid region. It is characterized macroscopically by the plane and shallowly umbonate and fuliginous brown, 26 mm in diam. pileus and white volva. Microscopically the basidiospores are ellipsoid to elongate, 5–5.6 × 2.6–3.6 µm, pleurocystidia fusoid-ventricose, 36–49 × 6–11 µm and pileipellis as a trichoderm with cylindric elements.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – neotropic – fungal diversity – taxonomy


4. Recycling of spent Pleurotus compost for production of the Agrocybe cylindracea.

Authors: Noonsong V, Puttakun N, Tinsirisuk M, Seephueak P

Recieved: 13 November 2015, Accepted: 28 December 2015, Published: 29 January 2016

Spent Pleurotus mushroom compost and rubber sawdust were used as a substrate for a cultivation of Agrocybe cylindracea. The five mixed ratios for spawning media were entirely spent mushroom compost, spent mushroom compost and rubber sawdust (ratio 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 respectively) and entirely rubber sawdust. The comparisons were evaluated on number of days for full colonization of the mycelia, time to first flush, number of basidiocarp and yield on 850 g in plastic bag. The average higher yield of A. cylindracea for the formula spent mushroom compost alone were obtained 135.63 g/bag were not significant different when they were compared with  rubber sawdust only yield obtained 56.46 g/bag.

Keywords: agricultural waste – mushroom – supplement


5. Distribution and phylogeny of Mycosisymbrium cirrhosum

Authors: Pratibha J, Prabhugaonkar A

Recieved: 07 September 2015, Accepted: 06 January 2016, Published: 29 January 2016

It is important to place asexual fungi in families, orders and classes of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in order to move towards a natural classification. In this way asexual and sexual fungi can be linked and this reduces redundancy resulting from the dual naming system (Hyde et al. 2011; Wijayawardene et al. 2014). Our work on the phylogeny of asexual fungi (Pratibha & Prabhugaonkar 2015a, 2015b, Pratibha et al. 2014a, 2014b) yielded a rare collection of the monotypic asexual genus Mycosisymbrium, with M. cirrhosum Carris, originally described from dead leaves of Vaccinium macrocarpon from Massachusetts, USA (Carris 1994). The genus is characterized by a discrete aggregates of conidiophores terminating in sterile, filiform appendages and brown, one-septate conidia. There have been no further records of this fungus since it was described. In this study, M. cirrhosum was isolated from leaf litter of Gnetum ula Brongn. from the forests of Valpoi, Goa, India and was subsequently cultured. Single spore cultures readily sporulated. Multi-gene phylogenetic analysis was carried out to confirm the phylogenetic placement of Mycosisymbrium as a well-supported sister genus to Ochroconis and Verruconis in the family Sympoventuriaceae in the order Venturiales. 

Keywords: Asexual morph – Sympoventuriaceae – Venturiales – Western Ghats


6. Dothiorella species associated with woody hosts in Italy.

Authors: Dissanayake AJ, Camporesi E, Hyde KD, Phillips AJL, Fu CY, Yan JY , Li XH

Recieved: 29 December 2015, Accepted: 18 February 2016, Published: 22 February 2016

Dothiorella species are pathogens of many woody hosts but their host distribution is poorly known. In this study, a collection of Dothiorella isolates obtained from different woody hosts, including Acer, Cornus, Coronilla, Crataegus, Euonymus, Fraxinus, Laburnum, Laurus, Paliurus, Prunus, Salix, Sambucus and Ulmus species in Italy were identified. Morphological and cultural characteristics, as well as ITS and EF1-α sequence data, were used to identify the isolates. The results show the diversity of Dothiorella species associated with twigs and branches of these woody hosts. Four species were identified. Dothiorella sarmentorum was the dominant species (65% of isolates), followed by D. symphoricarposicola (20%), D. iberica (8%) and D. vidmadera (8%). A host-fungus index for all Dothiorella species with available molecular data from the literature is provided. 

Keywords: Botryosphaeriaceae – EF1-α – Hosts – ITS – Multigene phylogeny


7. Mycosphere Essays 2. Myrothecium

Authors: Chen Y, Ran SF, Dai DQ, Wang Y, Hyde KD, Wu YM, Jiang YL

Recieved: 02 January 2016, Accepted: 18 February 2016, Published: 29 February 2016

Myrothecium (family Stachybotryaceae) has a worldwide distribution. Species in this genus were previously classified based on the morphology of the asexual morph, especially characters of conidia and conidiophores. Morphology-based identification alone is imprecise as there are few characters to differentiate species within the genus and, therefore, molecular sequence data is important in identifying species. In this review we discuss the history and significance of the genus, illustrate the morphology and discuss its role as a plant pathogen and biological control agent. We illustrate the type species Myrothecium inundatum with a line diagram and M. uttaradiensis with photo plates and discuss species numbers in the genus. The genus is re-evaluated based on molecular analyses of ITS and EF1-α sequence data, as well as a combined ATP6, EF1-α, LSU, RPB1 and SSU dataset. The combined gene analysis proved more suitable for resolving the taxonomic placement of this genus. Results indicate that Myrothecium species are polyphyletic within Stachybotryaceae. We suggest future studies needed for the genus. 

Keywords: biocontrol – mycotoxins – opportunistic pathogens – phylogeny – Sordariomycetes – Stachybotryaceae


8. A preliminary study of the ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with introduced Eucalyptus in Kenya

Authors: Garrett Kluthe B, Ben Hassine Ben Ali M, Nelsen DJ, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 26 January 2016, Accepted: 22 February 2016, Published: 29 February 2016

The assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with introduced Eucalyptus in Kenya was characterized using molecular methods. DNA extracted from root-tips collected at 47 sites in the country yielded sequences of at least 21 taxa, with eight of these known to form ectomycorrhizal relationships with trees. Hydnangium carneum, a hypogenous fungus, and species of the agaric genus Laccaria appear to be the most common ectomycorrhizal associates of Eucalyptus. Other taxa recorded from the rhizosphere of Eucalyptus included two species of entomopathogenic fungi and a number of other species considered to be saprotrophic. As a general observation, based on the data obtained in the present study, the level of diversity of fungi associated with Eucalyptus appears to be relatively low. 

Keywords: Ectomycorrhizal fungi – Eucalyptus – DNA sequencing – Internal Transcribed Spacer – Kenya


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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