Volume 6 - 2015 - Issue 5


1. Exosporium gymnemae sp. nov. from India

Authors: Singh PN, Baghela A, Singh SK, Maurya DK

Recieved: 22 June 2015, Accepted: 12 July 2015, Published: 10 September 2015

A new species, Exosporium gymnemae is proposed as a saprobe associated with dead stems of Gymnema sylvestre. It has distinct morphological characters, especially the conidiophores which form large, compact, blackish brown synnemata with glazed surface and cylindrical to obclavate conidia with dark bands at the septa. A literature-based checklist of Exosporium species together with their respective hosts and geographic locations is also provided.

Keywords: microfungi – Pezizomycotina – taxonomy – Western Ghats

 

2. Clavarioid fungi and Gasteromycetes from Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa

Authors: Desjardin DE, Perry BA

Recieved: 22 July 2015, Accepted: 25 August 2015, Published: 12 September 2015

Nine clavarioid-coralloid fungi and 14 gasteromycetes are reported from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. Of these 23 species, 14 are first reports for the Republic. Minimal descriptions, color photographs and comparisons with allied taxa are provided.

Keywords: fungal diversity – mushrooms – Gulf of Guinea

 

3. The Genus Auricularia Bull. ex Juss. (Basidiomycota) in Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) areas of Goiás state and the Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Alvarenga RLM, Naves LRR, Xavier-Santos S.

Recieved: 14 May 2015, Accepted: 01 September 2015, Published: 27 September 2015

The present study reports species occurrence of the genus Auricularia found in areas of the Cerrado biome in Goiás state and in the Federal District, thereby expanding the occurrence records of this species in Brazil. A total of 101 samples were found, they are distributed into four species: A. delicata, A. fuscosuccinea, A. mesenterica and A. nigricans; the first three are being recorded for the first time for Goiás state and A. delicata are being registered for the first time for the Federal District.

Keywords: Auriculariales – Central Brazil – jelly fungi

 

4. Mycosphere Essays 1: Taxonomic confusion in the Ganoderma lucidumspecies complex

Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Deng CY, Kang JC, Hyde KD

Recieved: 24 August 2015, Accepted: 16 September 2015, Published: 27 September 2015

The genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) has been widely used as traditional medicines for centuries in Asia, especially in China, Korea and Japan. Its species are widely researched, because of their highly prized medicinal value, since they contain many chemical constituents with potential nutritional and therapeutic values. Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) is one of the most sought after species within the genus, since it is believed to have considerable therapeutic properties. In the G. lucidumspecies complex, there is much taxonomic confusion concerning the status of species, whose identification and circumscriptions are unclear because of their wide spectrum of morphological variability. In this paper we provide a history of the development of the taxonomic status of the G. lucidumspecies complex. We present a phylogeny for the G. lucidumcomplex based on multigene analysis with combined 5.8S–ITS rDNA, RPB1, and EF–1α sequence data for 17 taxa of the complex. The taxonomic standing of these species is briefly discussed. Further clarification is, however, required. Type specimens, epitypes, reference collections, fresh collections and vouchered multigene nucleotide sequence data of more informative DNA markers should be used to determine the taxonomy of species in the G. lucidum complex.

Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum complex – Lingzhi – morphology – phylogenetic analyses – taxonomic status

 

5. A new species of Marasmius sect. Globulares from Indian Himalaya with tall basidiomata

Authors: Dutta AK, Das K, Acharya K

Recieved: 13 July 2015, Accepted: 20 September 2015, Published: 30 September 2015

A marasmioid fungus: Marasmius indopurpureostriatus (Marasmiaceae, Basidiomycota) is proposed here as new to science from Sikkim, a small Himalayan state in India. A comprehensive description with illustrations to aid in the identification, comparisons with morphologically similar taxa and an artificial key to the species of Marasmius sect. Globulares, previously reported from India are provided.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – macrofungi – new species – taxonomy

 

6. Records of myxomycetes from Maine

Authors: Zoll V, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 22 June 2015, Accepted: 25 September 2015, Published: 09 October 2015

Historical records indicate that myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) have been collected in Maine since the 1850’s, with the efforts of Francis LeRoy Harvey during the last decade of the 19th century being of particular importance. A review of myxomycete collections cited in the literature and available data from herbarium records yielded a total of at least 166 species representing 42 genera reported from or known to occur in Maine. Although many records (especially early ones) were incomplete with respect to the exact locality where they were collected, the three counties with the highest numbers of collections are Hancock, Penobscot and Washington. This undoubtedly reflects, as least in part, the presence of Acadia National Park in Hancock County, the University of Maine in Penobscot County, and the Eagle Hill Institute in Washington County.

Keywords: boreal forests – Francis LeRoy Harvey – slime molds – taxonomy

 

7. Agaricales of the dunes of Galicia (IV): Marasmiellus ciesanus (Omphalotaceae), a new species found in the National Maritime-Terrestrial Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia

Authors: Blanco-Dios JB

Recieved: 24 July 2015, Accepted: 27 September 2015, Published: 13 October 2015

Marasmiellus ciesanus, collected in open dunes in the National Maritime-Terrestrial Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia, is illustrated and described as a new species from Spain on the basis of morphological features. This species is close to other taxa of the subsection Quercini, in which it occupies an isolated position due to its unusual small spores broadly ellipsoid to oblong-lacrimoid, versiform cheilo- and caulocystidia and specific substrata (dead stalks of  Helichrysum picardii var. virescens).

Keywords: Basidiomycota – Omphalotaceae – Marasmiellus – National Park – Cies – Spain – taxonomy

 

8. Some taxonomic novelties for pyrenomycetous fungi from south-eastern Russia

Authors: Vasilyeva LN, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 29 July 2015, Accepted: 07 October 2015, Published: 18 October 2015

One new species (Nemania corylina), one new genus (Nummauxia), and two new combinations (Nummauxia succenturiata and Sarawakus bicolor) are proposed in this paper. Being rather frequent in south-eastern Russia, two of these species display a biogeographic connection with Europe, and the third species is an example of the disjunction between north-eastern Asia and eastern North America.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Biscogniauxia – Nemania – Sarawakus – taxonomy

 

9. Antioxidant activity of mangrove-derived marine thraustochytrids

Authors: Kalidasan K, Sunil KS, Narendran R and Kathiresan K

Recieved: 14 August 2015, Accepted: 28 September 2015, Published: 19 October 2015

Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit the reaction caused by free radicals thereby preventing or delaying damage to the cells and tissues. Protection against free radicals can be enhanced by taking sufficient amounts of exogenous antioxidants. The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the mangrove-derived thraustochytrids for their potential health benefits. Thirteen thraustochytrid strains were isolated from mangrove leaf litter, extracted them separately in methanol and tested for their antioxidant activity by using six different assays: DPPH radical scavenging, total phenol content, hydrogen peroxide radical inhibition, nitric oxide radical assay and total reducing power activity. The antioxidant activity was found significant between the thraustochytrid strains and between concentrations of their extracts (P< 0.05). The activity also increased with concentration of the extracts. The strain TSKK1 exhibited highest (78.95±1.29) antioxidant activity and TSSK5 the lowest antioxidant activity (72.52±2.03). This study proved the potent free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of thraustochytrids.

Keywords: DPPH - free radicals – leaf litter - nitric oxide – total phenol

 

10. Coprinopsis novorugosobispora (Basidiomycota, Agricales), an ammonia fungus new to Canada

Authors: Raut JK, Fukiharu T, Shimizu K, Kawamoto S, Takeshige S, Tanaka C, Yamanaka T, Suzuki A

Recieved: 25 July 2015, Accepted: 12 October 2015, Published: 30 October 2015

Fruiting of Coprinopsis novorugosobispora was effectively stimulated by urea treatment in the soil collected from aspen forest in Canada. A complete description and illustration on the fungus with its phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear rRNA gene sequences in ITS regions are provided. The report represents a new record in American continent.

Keywords: Aspen – Coprinoid – saprobic – species complex – urea

 

11. Notes on mycophagy of Descomyces albus (Basidiomycota) in southern Brazil

Authors: Sulzbacher MA, Grebenc T, Köhler A, Antoniolli ZI, Giachini AJ, Baseia IG

Recieved: 15 July 2015, Accepted: 13 October 2015, Published: 30 October 2015

Descomyces albus is a truffle-like fungus in the Cortinariaceae collected for the first time in Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The morphological features, distribution and taxonomy of the collections are discussed. Additional observations of the external surfaces and gut contents of Balloniscus sellowii indicate D. albus is consumed by the species and its spores dispersed in the soil organic matter. This is the first published record of mycophagy involving B. selowii in Brazil. This information contributes to the knowledge on mycophagy and truffle-like fungi.

Keywords: Balloniscus sellowii – fungivory – hypogeous – Oniscidae – sequestrate

 

12. Modification to the Barber and Keane’s method of illustrating fungi

Authors: Almeida DAC, Gusmão LFP

Recieved: 16 September 2015, Accepted: 18 October 2015, Published: 30 October 2015

Although less common nowadays, line drawing still is useful to represent morphological characters, in many cases better than digital photographic images. In this paper we describe two modifications that can be applied to the Barber & Keane (2007) method, which combine computer hardware and software to make line drawings of fungi.

Keywords: line drawing – mycology – fungi

 

13. Phylogenetic and morphological appraisal of Leptosphaeria italica sp. nov. (Leptosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales) from Italy

Authors: Dayarathne MC, Phookamsak R, Ariyawansa HA, Jones EBG, Camporesi E and Hyde KD

Recieved: 06 October 2015, Accepted: 28 October 2015, Published: 31 October 2015

A fungal species with bitunicate asci and ellipsoid to fusiform ascospores was collected from a dead branch of Rhamnus alpinus in Italy. The new taxon morphologically resembles Leptosphaeria. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses of a combined LSU and ITS sequence dataset confirm its placement in Leptosphaeria sensu stricto.The new taxon is distinct from other species based on morphology and phylogeny and is thus introduced as a new species, viz. L. italica. The new species is compared with other Leptosphaeria species and a comprehensive description and micrographs are provided.

Keywords: ITS – LSU – molecular phylogeny – morphology – taxonomy

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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