Volume 6 - 2015 - Issue 3

1. Mycota of distillery yeast sludge as source of single cell protein

Authors: Valentino MJG, Kalaw SP, Galvez CT, Reyes RG

Recieved: 23 February 2015, Accepted: 01 April 2015, Published: 03 May 2015

This study focused on the isolation, identification, and utilization of the mycota present in distillery yeast sludge as source of single cell protein. Seven fungal isolates were described and identified. These include three species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen, Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron and Talice, and Candida guilliermondii (Castellani) Langeron et Guerra) and four species of molds (Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger van Teigh, Aspergillus japonicus Saito var japonicus, and Rhizopus sp.).
The ability of the fungal isolates to produce single cell protein was evaluated by determining the crude protein content (CPC) of the distillery yeast sludge after 14 days of solid state fermentation. Results revealed that inoculation of the seven taxa produced significantly higher percentage CPC of the distillery yeast sludge. Apparently, S. cerevisiae-treated distillery yeast sludge had the highest percentage CPC of 33.7% and the highest percentage increase in CPC of 34.3%, while Rhizopus sp.-treated distillery yeast sludge had the lowest of 21.8%. Thus, the present study indicates the great potential of the seven taxa as source of single cell protein using the distillery sludge as substrate.

Keywords: crude protein content – distillery yeast sludge – fermentation – mycota – single cell protein


2. First record of two Ganoderma species from North East Nile Delta-Egypt

Authors: El-Fallal AA, El-Sayed AKA, El-Esseily SR

Recieved: 11 February 2015, Accepted: 20 April 2015, Published: 14 May 2015

Two Ganoderma species causing butt rot were collected and isolated from Ficus bengalensis tree at Mansoura and Citrus limon trees at Damietta, Egypt. The two species were identified, based on fruit bodies, culture characterization and taxonomic traditional methods. The DNA sequences analysis of the ribosomal 5.8S rRNA gene including the flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS) was also performed to confirm their taxonomic position among the other Ganoderma species. The species status was confirmed as G. resinaceum EGM and Ganoderma sp EGDA. For conserving the two Ganoderma species, they were cultivated in sawdust bags of citrus, beech and spruce trees for the first time in Egypt. Primordial initiation and basidiocarp maturation were observed as the sequence of fruit body development in both species. The antler–like formation was only observed in Ganoderma sp EGDA.

Keywords: Ganoderma – culturing – sawdust – phylogenetic tree – ITS DNA sequencing


3. Amanita psammolimbata,a new species from Northeastern Brazilian sand dunes

Authors: Wartchow F, Sulzbacher MA, Baseia IG

Recieved: 04 March 2015, Accepted: 28 April 2015, Published: 16 May 2015

Amanita psammolimbatula is described as a new species occurring on the sand dunes with ‘restinga’ vegetation from Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. This new and uncommon taxon is diagnosed by the small basidiomes (up to 42 mm in diam.), brownish yellow to pale whitish yellow toward margin, white lamella and stipe, white unchanging context, lack of narrow groove between the universal veil and the stipe base in the immarginate bulb, and basidiospores (8–) 9–11.5 × 5–7 (–7.5) µm. Description, discussion, photograph and drawings of the new species are given.

Keywords: Amanitaceae – Basidiomycota – Neotropics – taxonomy


4. Antibacterial activities of fungal endophytes associated with the Philippine endemic tree, Canarium ovatum

Authors: Torres JMO, dela Cruz TEE

Recieved: 01 March 2015, Accepted: 05 April 2015, Published: 16 May 2015

Fungal endophytes are sources of novel bioactive metabolites. Studies worldwide are tapping unique and interesting flora in search for endophytes that produce these metabolites. In the Philippines, there are more than 6,000 endemic plant species, one of which is the local “pili” tree (Canarium ovatum Engl.). This study investigates the occurrence of these fungal endophytes in C. ovatum and their potential in producing antibacterial metabolites. Results showed the presence of fungal endophytes in C. ovatum and that the “pili” tree is a good host for fungal endophytes regardless of geographical location. Results of the antibacterial assay showed that 10 mg/mL of the Colletotrichum sp. PFE31 crude extract exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against representative Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and spore-forming bacilli.

Keywords: bioactivity – fungal metabolites – pili tree – Sorsogon


5. A preliminary study on the occurrence of microscopic asexual fungi associated with bird nests in Brazilian semi-arid

Authors: Conceição LB, Marques MFO

Recieved: 18 March 2015, Accepted: 28 April 2015, Published: 22 May 2015

Bird nests are made up of twigs, leaves and bark, among other things, all substrates that are decomposed by fungi. Thus, the richness of microscopic asexual fungi associated with the plant substrates that make up the bird nests in a fragment of the semi-deciduous seasonal forest in the “Serra da Maravilha”, Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia, Brazil was studied. The plant substrates were collected between February to July 2014. Forty-four species of microscopic asexual fungi were identified distributed in 36 genera, associated with the decomposition of 11 birds' nests. Among the species cataloged, Actinocladium rhodosporium, Alternaria alternata, Cryptophiale kakombensis, Ellisembia adscendens, Gyrothrix circinata, Gyrothrix microsperma, Tetraploa aristata, Thozetella cristata and Torula herbarum were found throughout the study, while the other species were found sporadically. Dendryphion cubense constitutes a new record for South America, Endophragmiella valdiviana represents a new record for Brazil and Uberispora heteroseptata is a new record for Bahia.

Keywords: biodiversity – birds – conidial fungi – mycota


6. The first African record of Artolenzites acuta comb. nov. (Basidiomycota, Polyporaceae)

Authors: Ambit RT, Mossebo DC

Recieved: 11 March 2015, Accepted: 10 May 2015, Published: 22 May 2015

Lenzites acuta is recorded for the first time in Africa. Based on morphological and macrochemical features, the species is combined to the recently resurrected genus Artolenzites, and the new combination Artolenzites acuta is proposed here. Considering Artolenzites elegans, A. acuta constitutes the second known species in the genus Artolenzites.

Keywords: Artolenzites – taxonomy – new combination – species – wood rotting fungi – Africa


7. Patellariaceae revisited

Authors: Yacharoen S, Tian Q, Chomnunti P, Boonmee S, Chukeatirote E, Bhat JD, Hyde KD

Recieved: 25 April 2015, Accepted: 12 May 2015, Published: 30 May 2015

The Dothideomycetes include several genera whose ascomata can be considered as apothecia and thus would be grouped as discomycetes. Most genera are grouped in the family Patellariaceae, but also Agrynnaceae and other families. The Hysteriales include genera having hysterioid ascomata and can be confused with species in Patellariaceae with discoid apothecia if the opening is wide enough. In this study, genera of the family Patellariaceae were re-examined and characterized based on morphological examination. As a result of this study the genera Baggea, Endotryblidium, Holmiella, Hysteropatella, Lecanidiella, Lirellodisca, Murangium, Patellaria, Poetschia, Rhizodiscina, Schrakia, Stratisporella and Tryblidaria are retained in the family Patellariaceae. The genera Banhegyia, Pseudoparodia and Rhytidhysteron are excluded because of differing morphology and/or molecular data.

Keywords: Apothecia − cup fungi – discomycetes – hysterothecia – Patellaria − Patellariales


8. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi a canker causing pathogen on Castanea sativa: First report

Authors: Dar MA, Rai MK

Recieved: 04 December 2014, Accepted: 28 March 2015, Published: 13 June 2015

In India, sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is cultivated in temperate parts of Northern India. During 2009-2013, a regular survey of cankers of chestnut was made for presence of Cryphonectria and related genera. Almost 80% of orchards were infected by fungal pathogens causing cankers. The cankers formed long regular cracks in the bark which sometimes extends to xylem tissue. In the current study, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was identified using morphological and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA. The canker formation was clearly observed on the young sprouts, stems and branches. Here, we report Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi as canker associated fungus on chestnut trees in India. It appears that either geographic isolation or the unique growing conditions in India may have provided an effective barrier to the achievement or establishment of pathogenesis in G. smithogilvyi. Wounds caused by mechanical injuries or pruning possibly are providing routes for infection.

Keywords: Cryphonectria sp. – chestnut – cankers – India – ITS – Phylogeny


9. Morphological and molecular analyses in Scleroderma (Basidiomycota) associated with exotic forests in Pampa biome, southern Brazil

Authors: Montagner DF, Coelho G, Silveira AO, Baldoni DB and Antoniolli ZI

Recieved: 30 December 2014, Accepted: 08 April 2015, Published: 19 June 2015

Basidiomes of the mycorrhizal genus Scleroderma were collected on exotic forest soils (associated with Eucalyptus and Pinus) from Pampa biome, southern part of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three species were identified, using both morphological and molecular approaches as follows: S. albidum, S. citrinum, and S. verrucosum. New ITS rDNA sequences generated in this study, together with others retrieved from GenBank, showed the species nesting in two main clades headed by S. albidum and S. citrinum. Morphological descriptions are provided for these two species. Infrageneric dichotomy represents a separation into combinations of reticulate spores plus clamped hyphae and echinulate spores plus simple-septate hyphae.

Keywords: gasteroid fungi – phylogenetic analysis – soil symbionts


10. Endophytic fungi of marine algae and seagrasses: a novel source of chitin modifying enzymes

Authors: Venkatachalam A, Govinda Rajulu MB, Thirunavukkarasu N, Suryanarayanan TS

Recieved: 06 February 2015, Accepted: 16 April 2015, Published: 19 June 2015

Endophytic fungi (which infect living tissues of plants and reside in them without causing any visible disease symptoms) were isolated from 19 seaweed and 10 seagrass species growing in Mandapam (Palk Bay, 9°16ˊN, 79°7ˊE), Keezhakarai (Palk Bay, 9°13ˊN, 78°46ˊE), Kodiyakkarai (Palk Strait, 10°16ˊN, 9°49ˊE) and Kovalam (Bay of Bengal, 8°22ˊN, 76°59ˊE) along the eastern coast of Tamilnadu state, southern India and screened for the production of chitinase and chitosanase enzymes. This study was done during July 2012- December 2012. Of the 117 fungi screened, 14% was positive for chitinase, 41% was positive for chitosanase acting on chitosan of 56% degree of acetylation, 66% was positive for chitosanase acting on chitosan of degree of acetylation 38% and 56% was positive for chitosanase acting on chitosan of degree of acetylation 1.6%.  Among the isolates, a Penicillium sp. and a Cladosporium sp. showed high chitinase activity. Presence of NaCl in the medium influenced the production and activity of chitinase and chitosanase. This study identifies for the first time endophytic fungi of marine plants as a novel source of chitin modifying enzymes which find use in food, cosmetics, agriculture and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: chitinase – chitosanase – marine-derived fungi – marine angiosperms – seaweeds


11. What substrate cultures can reveal: Myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms from the Sultanate of Oman

Authors: Schnittler M, Novozhilov YK, Shadwick JDL, Spiegel FW, García-Carvajal E, König P

Recieved: 01 March 2015, Accepted: 31 May 2015, Published: 26 June 2015

A total of 299 substrate samples collected throughout the Sultanate of Oman were analyzed for myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms (MMLO) with a combined approach, preparing one moist chamber culture and one agar culture for each sample. We recovered 8 forms of Myxobacteria, 2 sorocarpic amoebae (Acrasids), 19 known and 6 unknown taxa of protostelioid amoebae (Protostelids), and 50 species of Myxomycetes. Moist chambers and agar cultures completed each other. No method alone can detect the whole diversity of myxomycetes as the most species-rich group of MMLO. A significant overlap between the two methods was observed only for Myxobacteria and some myxomycetes with small sporocarps. Our results support the hypothesis that substrate cultures work best for arid study regions, but fail to recover a part of the species diversity in regions with a pronounced rainy season. From the three climatic regions of Oman, the northern mountainous region with a Mediterranean flora and climate had the highest diversity for MMLO (66 taxa from 943 records). The adjacent central desert, receiving only sporadic rain, was much poorer (29 taxa from 156 records). The Dhofar region with an east-African flora and a monsoon climate was intermediate in species richness (53 taxa from 249 records). For all three regions a significant proportion of the diversity (95, 82 and 86% of the taxa to be expected according to the Chao2 estimator) could be recovered. Fast developing MMLO with minute, stalked fruit bodies were especially common in the northern mountains, less in the Dhofar region, and nearly absent in the central desert where slow developing MMLO with larger, often sessile fruit bodies prevailed.

Keywords: biodiversity – isolation – Myxobacteria – Myxogastria – protostelid amoebae – sorocarpic amoebae


12. Towards a backbone tree for Seimatosporium, with S. physocarpi sp. nov.

Authors: Norphanphoun C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Daranagama A, Bulgakov TS, Bhat DJ, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD

Recieved: 01 March 2015, Accepted: 31 May 2015, Published: 30 June 2015

The genus Seimatosporium is saprobic or pathogenic on plants, and are ‘pestalotioid fungi’. The genus presently belongs in Discosiaceae (Amphisphaeriales) and includes 78 species epithets. In this study, we observed three specimens of Seimatosporium from Russia and they are characterized by morphological and sequence data. We analyzed combined ITS and LSU gene sequence data of 42 species representing the genera Discostroma (7), Sarcostroma (2) and Seimatosporium (32, including the three new strains) with Pseudopestalotiopsis theae as the outgroup taxon. One isolate from dead branches of Physocarpus opulifolius is unique and is introduced as Seimatosporium physocarpi sp. nov., in this paper. Itcan be distinguished from similar and related species by phenotypic conidial characters and phylogenetic analyses. A specimen from Rosa kalmiussica Chrshan. & Lasebna (often included in Rosa canina sensu lato) is designated as an epitype for S. rosae,the type of the genus. In addition, a collection of S. lichenicola is described, illustrated and compared with other species in the genus.

Keywords: Discosiaceae – new species – phylogeny – epitype – combine gene – taxonomy


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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