Volume 6 - 2015 - Issue 2

1. The mycosociology of macrofungi as indicators of the presence of stipitate hydnoids

Authors: Feest A, Smith JH

Recieved: 23 January 2015, Accepted: 09 February 2015, Published: 02 March 2015

Using a biodiversity quality approach to measuring the biodiversity of macrofungi (entailing the use of a standardised survey methodology and the creation of a set of Biodiversity quality indices) has allowed sites to be compared and the relationship between species shown. The example of stipitate hydnoids may be a guide to future studies on other species groups.

Keywords: Biodiversity quality – mycorrhizal fungi – standardized sampling – Twinspan


2. Leptoxyphium kurandae - New record of insect gut associated sooty mould fungus from India

Authors: Kajale SC, Sonawane MS, Sharma R, Shouche YS

Recieved: 21 October 2014, Accepted: 28 February 2015, Published: 11 March 2015

During a survey to study insect associated fungi, a sooty mould fungus, Leptoxyphium kurandae found in a gut of insect (Dusky Cotton bug) from Western Ghats, Junnar, India was isolated. It is characterized by elongated synnemata consisting of hyphae with bulbous base and at apex an open terminal funnel shaped conidiogenous zone. The hyphae composed of cylindrical cells, constricted at septa and covered with thick mucilaginous layer. Based on morphological characters and sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA and large subunit of ribosome (LSU), the fungus was identified as Leptoxyphium kurandae, a species not previously known from India.

Keywords: Dusky cotton bug – ITS – LSU – Synnemata


3. Molecular identification of leaf litter fungi potential for cellulose degradation

Authors: Waing KGD, Gutierrez JM, Galvez CT, Undan JR

Recieved: 27 January 2015, Accepted: 28 February 2015, Published: 20 March 2015

In plant litter decomposition in forest ecosystem, fungi play a central role through nutrient cycling and humus formation in soil because they colonize the lignocellulose matrix in litter that other organisms are unable to decompose. It has been described that cellulase is an adaptive enzyme in most fungi and had the most common carbohydrate on earth. For this reason, the study provided information about the fungal species isolated in leaf litters contributing to its biodiversity database.
In this study, there are five species of fungi found to have cellulose degrading ability. The five species were identified using molecular approach and identified as Aspergillus eucalypticola, Aspergillus fumigatus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicilliun echinulatum. BLAST analysis showed the species of fungi ITS sequence from leaf litters, supported by 100% (A. fumigatus), 74% (A. eucalypticola), 100% (C. gloeosporioides), 100% (F. oxysporum) and 100% (P. echinolatum) sequence similarity.

Keywords: Cellulase – cellulose – ITS – lignocellulose


4. Lead accumulation in oyster mushroom, Pleurotus tuber-regium (Sing) from a continuously lead contaminated soil

Authors: Anyakorah CI, Nwude D, Jinadu T

Recieved: 11 December 2014, Accepted: 10 March 2015, Published: 27 March 2015

The effect of continuous lead contamination on lead accumulation, growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium and its implication for bioremediation is studied. P. tuber-regium sclerotium was grown in soil continuously contaminated with lead at 50, 55 and 60ppm respectively. Dried soil and mushrooms were acid digested and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead in soil increased as the contamination level was increased. The highest lead accumulation in soil and mushroom were 500±0.41 ppm and 85±0.03 ppm respectively. Fruit body emergence was faster in contaminated soil except at 60ppm. Contaminated soil recorded higher mushroom fresh weight (9.2±1.79 -15.9±1.55 g) and %ash (10.83±0.03 - 18.85±0.04 %) than the control (6.6±0.49 g and 8.48±0.02 %). Bioaccumulation factor was 0.12 to 0.48 indicating that P tuber-regium cannot be employed in bioremediation of a continuously lead contaminated soil.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation – fruit body – growth – heavy metal – sclerotium


5. Diversity and species composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Clerodendrum species

Authors: Songachan LS, Kayang H, Moinao P

Recieved: 21 October 2014, Accepted: 28 February 2015, Published: 27 March 2015

Two Clerodendrum species viz., Clerodendrum colebrookianum and Clerodendrum buchananii were studied for diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A rhizosphere soil was found to be acidic and soil phosphorus was low for both the plant species. AMF colonization in the form of arbuscules, vesicles and hyphae were observed. Hyphal colonization was high compared to vesicles and arbuscules. The percent of AMF colonization in C. colebrookianum was 29.77 %, whereas in C. buchananii it was 25.83 %. However, AMF colonization in trap culture from C. buchananii derived inoculum source was found to be higher (18.07 %) as compared to C. colebrookianum (16.31 %). On the basis of morphological characteristics, a total of 20 AMF species belonging to two genera viz., Acaulospora and Glomus were isolated from the two studied plant species, whereas from trap culture, 14 AMF species were isolated. This study gives the gist of AMF status of two Clerodendrum species and it revealed that the AMF composition and diversity varies in the two Clerodendrum species.

Keywords: colonization – diversity – mycorrhiza – rhizosphere soils


6. Alectoria spinosa, a new lichen species from Hengduan Mountains, China

Authors: Wang LS, Liu D, Shi HX, Zhang YY, Ye X, Chen XL, Wang XY

Recieved: 06 February 2015, Accepted: 16 March 2015, Published: 27 March 2015

Based on inferences from morphological, chemical and phylogenetic analysis using ITS sequences, a new species of Alectoria is described from the Hengduan Mountains in southwestern China, A. spinosa Li S. Wang & Xin Y. Wang sp. nov, it has dull yellowish fruticose thallus with abundant pseudocyphellae, which is the main character of Alectoria, and differs from all the other Alectoria species by having isidia-like spinules on the soralia. Two species of Alectoria are confirmed in China, their morphological and chemical traits, together with their geographical distributions in China, are discussed, and a key to the species is provided.

Keywords: Lichenized fungi – Parmeliaceae – phylogeny – taxonomy


7. Species of Gymnopilus P. Karst: New to India

Authors: Kaur H, Kaur M, Rather H

Recieved: 03 December 2014, Accepted: 20 March 2015, Published: 28 March 2015

Two species belonging to genus Gymnopilus P. Karst i.e. G. pampeanus (Speg.) Singer and G. russipes Pegler have been taxonomically described and illustrated for the first time from India and one species G. spectabilis (Weinm.) A.H. Sm. has been first time recorded from North India.

Keywords: India – Gymnopilus – ornamented spores – taxonomy


8. Fungi fimicola Aegyptiaci: I. Recent investigations and conservation in arid South Sinai

Authors: Abdel-Azeem AM, Salem FM

Recieved: 02 December 2014, Accepted: 19 March 2015, Published: 29 March 2015

Sixty one species of coprophilous fungi distributed in 39 genera were recorded from dung of goat, feral donkey and one-humped camel collected from the arid desert areas of the Saint Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from October 2012 to March 2013, dried, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers for 6 to 20 weeks. Morphological features of sporulating ascomycetes were used to characterize and identify the species. Higher number of taxa was observed in feral donkey dung, followed by camel and goat dung. On the generic level, Chaetomium came first, accommodating the highest number of species (7), followed by Fusarium, Pilobolus and Thielavia. Coprinopsis stercorea is apparently a new record for Egypt. Collections are described and the occurrence and distribution of species is discussed, supplemented with a dichotomous key to all reported taxa.

Keywords: Ascomycota – basidiomycota – biogeography – coprophilous – protectorate – Saint Katherine


9. New records and an updated checklist of lichenicolous fungi from India

Authors: Joshi Y, Upadhyay S, Shukla S, Nayaka S, Rawal RS

Recieved: 02 November 2014, Accepted: 25 February 2015, Published: 30 March 2015

The present paper describes three new records of lichen inhabiting fungi belonging to the genera Biatoropsis, Homostegia and Lichenodiplis, and also report new hosts for Homostegia hertelii and range extensions of Lichenodiplis lecanorae, Pyrenidium actinellum and Sphinctrina tubaeformis in India. An updated checklist of all lichenicolous fungi known so far from India is also provided.

Keywords: Biodiversity – checklist – distribution – mycobiota – parasymbiont


10. The genus Podospora (Lasiosphaeriaceae, Sordariales) in Brazil

Authors: Melo RFR, Miller AN, MAIA LC

Recieved: 06 February 2015, Accepted: 20 March 2015, Published: 03 April 2015

Coprophilous species of Podospora reported from Brazil are discussed. Thirteen species are recorded for the first time in Northeastern Brazil (Pernambuco) on herbivore dung. Podospora appendiculata, P. australis, P. decipiens, P. globosa and P. pleiospora are reported for the first time in Brazil, while P. ostlingospora and P. prethopodalis are reported for the first time from South America. Descriptions, figures and a comparative table are provided, along with an identification key to all known species of the genus in Brazil.

Keywords: Ascomycota – coprophilous fungi – taxonomy


11. Characterization of myxomycetes in two different soils by TRFLP-analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences

Authors: Hoppe T, Schnittler M

Recieved: 21 January 2015, Accepted: 31 March 2015, Published: 06 April 2015

Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) as a molecular technique was adapted to compare myxomycete communities based on genomic DNA extracted from soil. The 18S rRNA gene was amplified by universal primers for dark-spored myxomycetes and digested with the restriction enzyme HhaI to obtain fragment polymorphisms. To establish a database for the identification of fragments, we analyzed 167 specimens representing 96 myxomycete species. The specific restriction sites for HhaI were determined and a data bank was constructed. Expected fragment sizes were verified by digesting a mock sample generated from DNA aliquots of seven different species. TRFLP profiles were generated from two soil samples. Differences in the composition of the respective myxomycete communities can be shown by comparison of the generated fragment length pattern community. The potential of the technique and difficulties in species identification from fragment sizes are discussed.

Keywords: Community analysis – dark-spored myxomycetes – environmental PCR – Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism


12. Occurrence and diversity of mycobiota in heavy metal contaminated sediments of Mediterranean coastal lagoon El-Manzala, Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Azeem AM, El-Morsy EM, Nour El-Dein MM, Rashad HM

Recieved: 09 March 2015, Accepted: 01 April 2015, Published: 20 April 2015

An investigation was conducted to assess the concentration of heavy metals in sediments in five selected locations along Manzala lagoon and correlate the effect of metal concentrations on benthic fungal population. Physiochemical analysis showed that pH values ranged between 7.93 and 8.1 while electric conductivity ranged between 5.64 and 12.76 dSm−1. The mean values of organic matter percentage ranged between 1.0 and 2.6%. The parent material of studied sediment samples is classified as fluviolacustrine type. Different concentrations of heavy metals (Zinc, lead, cadmium, iron, manganese and copper) recorded in soil samples reflect the degree of pollution in all studied sites. The concentrations of heavy metals are relatively high in all sites e.g. Zinc (6.4 to 17.3 μg/g), lead (0.6 to 7.2 μg/g), copper (1.1 to 2.1 μg/g), manganese (98.5 to 150.3 μg/g) and iron (560.8 to 694.1 μg/g) respectively. Site 4 showed the highest absolute value for Zn content (17.3 μg/g), while site 5 recorded the highest absolute value of lead (7.2 μg/g). Site 1 and 2 were recorded the highest value of cadmium and copper content respectively. Taxonomically, 30 taxa of fungi were isolated and assigned to three phyla with five classes, eight orders and families. In view of species richness, site no.1 showed the highest richness index of fungi species (species richness=12) among all studied sites and followed by site no.5 (11 species). Other sites showed moderate to low species richness e.g. site no.4 (9 species), site no.2 (8 species) and site no.3 (7 species) respectively. Based on recovered total CFU site number 4 came first among all studied sites by recording (6870 CFU), while site number 3 showed the lowest count (4360 CFU). Based on the results of mycobiota isolated from the different sites throughout the study, site no. 1 showed the highest Simpson’s species diversity index of 0.859 while site no. 3 showed the lowest value (0.690). The values for heavy metals for all zones are of public health significance and pose a threat to the survival of both humans and aquatic life. An immediate attention from concerned authorities is required in order to protect the Manzala lagoon and its dependants from further pollution and diseases.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation– biosorption – clean up-fungi – legislation – metal tolerance


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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