Volume 5 - 2014 - Issue 5


1. Carbonea vitellinaria new to Japan, with a key to lichenicolous fungi growing on species of Candelariella

Authors: Ohmura Y, Yakovchenko L, Zhurbenko MP

Recieved: 12 May 2014, Accepted: 20 August 2014, Published: 04 September 2014

Carbonea vitellinaria is reported new to Japan growing on Candelariella vitellina. A key to lichenicolous fungi known on the species of Candelariella is provided.

Keywords: biogeography – Candelariella vitellina – parasite

 

2. Two new species of Russula (Russulales) from India

Authors: Das K, Dowie NJ, Li GJ, Miller SL

Recieved: 21 March 2014, Accepted: 23 August 2014, Published: 09 September 2014

Two species: Russula shingbaensis (R. subg. Heterophyllidia), characterized morphologically by greyish-green to slightly lilac pileus having tuberculately striate-sulcate margin, a stipe with a combination of white and vine colours, multichambered stipe context, indistinctive taste, spores ornamented with isolated warts, pilear elements with chains of globose to elongated inflated cells interspersed with comparatively narrow pileocystidia and R. thindii (R. subg. Russula), characterized by red viscid pileus, broadly adnate to adnexed lamellae, reddish to vinaceous stipe, acrid taste, pale yellow spore print and pileocystidia without any incrustations were collected from Shingba Rhododendron wildlife sanctuary of North Sikkim (India) and are proposed here as new to science based on their morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic tree. Macro- and micromorphological descriptions coupled with the illustrations are given for both the taxa. Their relationship with allied taxa are also discussed in the present paper.

Keywords: Macrofungi – new taxa – phylogeny – Russulaceae – Sikkim – taxonomy

 

3. The genus Pythiogeton (Pythiogetonaceae) in Brazil

Authors: Rocha JRS, Sousa NDC, Santos LA, Pereira AA, Negreiros NC, Sales PCL, Trindade-Júnior OC

Recieved: 13 May 2014, Accepted: 25 August 2014, Published: 17 September 2014

Little information can be found on the geographical distribution of the genus Pythiogeton in the world, particularly in South America. In research studies, the technique of multiple baiting has been used for the isolation of these organisms in order to identify the geographical distribution of the genus. One species, Pythiogeton utriforme Minden, has been reported for Argentina, occurring in Buenos Aires (Chascomús), and four for Brazil: P. dichotomum Tokunaga, in Piauí (Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades); P. ramosum Minden, in Rio de Janeiro (Parque Nacional de Itatiaia), Pernambuco (Reserva Florestal Dois Irmãos), São Paulo (Represa de Guarapiranga), Amazonas (Manaus) and Piauí (Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades); P. uniforme Lund, in Piauí (Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades); and P. utriforme Minden, in Piauí (Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades). Herein, thirteen new occurrences of these species are reported for six new localities (five in the state of Piauí and one in Maranhão), increasing the knowledge of the geographical distribution of Pythiogeton in the country. The occurrence of P. utriforme with a clearly aplerotic oospore as well as a plerotic oospore, a feature exclusive to Pythiogetonaceae M.W. Dick, is discussed. Internal proliferation of the oogonium, with the formation of a new oogonium with antheridia and oospore was also observed. Descriptions, with special emphasis on morphology, and a brief discussion on the taxonomy and distribution, including drawings and photographs, are presented.

Keywords: geographic distribution – mycobiota – Piauí – taxonomy – zoosporic organism

 

4. Infraspecific diversity of Beauveria bassiana from India based on DNA microsatellite markers

Authors: Agrawal Y, Mual P, Shenoy BD

Recieved: 08 August 2014, Accepted: 15 September 2014, Published: 21 September 2014

Beauveria bassiana is an insect-associated fungal species and it is economically important as an environment-friendly mycoinsecticide and a good source of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we employed DNA microsatellite markers to investigate the infra-specific diversity of 102 isolates of B. bassiana sensu stricto from India. All the microsatellite markers were easily amplifiable for all the isolates and provided a good genotype resolution. The microsatellite analysis indicated the presence of highly polymorphic, randomly distributed populations of B. bassiana with variable host range and apparently no host-specificity. We, however, observed region-wise clustering of the populations within B. bassiana sensu stricto from India.

Keywords: allelic diversity –biocontrol – genetic diversity – host relationships – insect-pathogenic fungi - polymorphism

 

5. Functional activities of Philippine wild strain of Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll. : Fr.) Pers and Pleurotus cystidiosus O. K. Miller grown on rice straw based substrate formulation

Authors: Kalaw SP, Albinto RF

Recieved: 08 August 2014, Accepted: 15 September 2014, Published: 29 September 2014

In order to determine the nutraceutical and pharmacological potential of Philippine wild strain of Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus, the antibacterial property, phytochemical composition, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Both ethanol and acetone basidiocarp extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcos aureus. Coprinus comatus ethanol extract produced wider zone of inhibition than acetone extract while Pleurotus cystidiosus acetone extract exhibited larger zone of inhibition than the ethanol extract. Moreover, the immobilized mycelia discs of both species did not exhibit antibacterial activity against Staphylococcos aureus and Escherichia coli. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids in both mushroom species. Steroids and cardiac glycosides were absent in Pleurotus cystidiosus while tannins were not detected in both species. Pleurotus cystidiosus registered higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lower total phenolic content than Coprinus comatus.

Keywords: antibacterial – antioxidant – phytochemical composition – rice straw

 

6. Munkovalsaria donacina from grapevines and Desert Ash in Australia

Authors: Pitt WM, Úrbez-Torres JR, Trouillas FP

Recieved: 08 September 2014, Accepted: 20 September 2014, Published: 30 September 2014

A bitunicate ascomycete bearing brown 1-septate ascospores consistent with the botryosphaeriaceous genera Dothiorella and Spencermartinsia was observed on discarded grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) canes, and in culture was purported to yield a coelomycetous asexual morph in Spencermartinsia. However, morphological studies and amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and portions of the small (18S) and large (28S) subunits of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene identified the ascomycete as Munkovalsaria donacina (Niessl) Aptroot, and revealed that the fungus is neither connected to an asexual morph in Spencermartinsia, nor related to the Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales). Instead, these findings provide the first report of M. donacina from grapevines and Desert Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. angustifolia Vahl), extending the range of the taxon to 38 species in 24 families.

Keywords: Botryosphaeriaceae – Botryosphaeria dieback – grapevine trunk diseases

 

7. Myxomycetes from three lowland tropical forests in Vietnam

Authors: Tran DQ, Nguyen HTN, Tran HTM, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 01 September 2014, Accepted: 01 October 2014, Published: 05 October 2014

The first report of myxomycetes from Vietnam was in 2009 by van Hooff, who listed 23 species, including one (Cribraria tecta) new to science, from moist chamber cultures prepared with samples of dead leaves, lychee husks, woody twigs and herbaceous stems. Two other species, both new to science, were reported in a recent paper. The project reported herein investigated the occurrence of myxomycetes in moist chamber cultures prepared with samples of various types of dead plant material collected in three lowland tropical forests in Vietnam. These samples were randomly collected from Cuc Phuong, Bu Gia Map and Nam Cat Tien national parks in the late dry season or between the dry season and the rainy season during 2012 and 2013. From 360 moist chambers, 43 species of myxomycetes representing 19 genera were recorded. The most abundant species were Arcyria cinerea, Collaria arcyrionema, Cribraria microcarpa, Cribraria violacea, Perichaena chrysosperma and Perichaena depressa. The taxonomic composition of the assemblage of species associated with the three study areas was found to be similar to what has been reported from Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, the other regions of SE Asia for which comparable studies have been carried out. In brief, the present project added 32 new records of myxomycetes for Vietnam, increasing the total number of species known from the country to 57.

Keywords: biodiversity – dead plant material – national parks – Southeast Asia – slime molds

 

8. Woody twigs as a microhabitat for myxomycetes in the upland forests of southwestern Virginia

Authors: Cedeño M, Clayton M, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 06 August 2014, Accepted: 10 October 2014, Published: 18 October 2014

The moist chamber culture technique was used to investigate the assemblages of myxomycetes associated with woody twigs in five different types of upland forest communities in the Mountain Lake area of southwestern Virginia. The myxomycetes of these same five forest communities had been studied intensively during the period of 1982–1986, but at that time woody twigs had not been recognized as a distinct microhabitat for this group of microorganisms. In the present study, samples of woody twigs collected in June 2013 were used to prepare a series of 60 moist chamber cultures. Fifty-nine of the 60 cultures (98%) yielded fruiting bodies of myxomycetes, and 23 species in 10 genera were recorded from 148 specimens. Arcyria cinerea was the single most common species and represented 35% of all records. Only nine other species were recorded from >5 cultures, and nine species were represented by only a single record.

Keywords: ecology – moist chamber cultures – Mountain Lake – slime molds

 

9. Lichen as indicator of metal pollution in the vicinity of SIPCOT industries in Cuddalore, southeast coast of India

Authors: Logesh AR, Upadhyay AK, Joshi S, Kalaiselvam M, Upreti DK, Shukla AC

Recieved: 01 September 2014, Accepted: 10 October 2014, Published: 23 October 2014

Lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclide of both natural and artificial origin. In present study, an active biomonitoring study was carried out with a commonly growing foliose species of Dirinaria applanata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi, collected from Pichavaram mangroves of Tamil Nadu. A total of twelve metal (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) accumulated in the transplanted lichen thalli of Dirinaria applanata at four sites (Parangipettai, SIPCOT, Cuddalore OT and NT) were targeted. The transplantation site near SIPCOT, being an industrial area exhibited highest concentration of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg and Mn than the other sites. Cr (1009.98±µg/g dw) and Ni (7.35± µg/g dw) were found to be more at Cuddalore OT having higher anthropogenic activities while Pb and Zn were recorded maximum at Cuddalore NT with more vehicular activity. The level of most of the metals reached above the EPA standard. The accumulation of metals in different transplanted sites clearly indicates a particular type of metal accumulation with an anthropogenic activity in that area.

Keywords: Dirinaria applanata – heavy Metal – monitoring Transplantation

 

10. Cystoderma castellanum, a new species from Spain

Authors: Blanco-Dios JB

Recieved: 02 August 2014, Accepted: 18 October 2014, Published: 28 October 2014

Cystoderma castellanum is described as a new species from Castilla y León (N of Iberian Peninsula). This new species is characterized by amyloid spores, cheilocystidia flexuous, utriform or lecithiform and KOH reaction brown or black.

Keywords: Basidiomycota – Agaricales – Agaricaceae – Cystoderma – Spain – taxonomy

 

11. Does habitat loss affect tropical myxomycetes?

Authors: Rojas C, Doss RG

Recieved: 16 October 2014, Accepted: 27 October 2014, Published: 29 October 2014

The effect of habitat loss on the dynamics of myxomycete assemblages has been poorly studied thus far. For this reason, a premontane moist forest surrounded by human-created pastures on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica was selected to carry out a pilot ecological evaluation using a systematic approach. In the area of study, a series of forest zones representing a gradual continuum of habitat variation was selected and characterized using structural forest parameters. Fruiting bodies of myxomycetes were surveyed across these zones and microhabitat variables were measured when fruiting bodies were found. Results indicated that species richness, species diversity and the number of unique species recorded as fruiting bodies increased linearly from areas without suitable habitat to areas with complete suitable habitats and such pattern was shown to be correlated with canopy openness. Since the latter factor is clearly dissimilar across areas with structural differences in the forest being studied, the results presented herein suggest that myxomycetes are affected by the modification and loss of suitable habitats.

Keywords: border effect – forest fragmentation – myxogastrids – Neotropics – rainforest dynamics

 

12. A new combination in Oudemansiella (Physalacriaceae, Agaricomycetes)

Authors: Wartchow F

Recieved: 15 October 2014, Accepted: 26 October 2014, Published: 30 October 2014

A new combination, Oudemansiella cephalocystidiata comb. nov. is provided. It is also reported for the first time from Bolivia. This species is characterized by the smaller basidiospores, scarcity of hymenial cystidia and presence of capitate caulocystidia at stipe apex.

Keywords: Agaricales – Basidiomycota – Neotropics – taxonomy

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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