Volume 5 - 2014 - Issue 4


1. Scytinium pulvinatum comb. nov.(Collemataceae, Peltigerales)

Authors: Otálora MAG, Wedin M

Recieved: 26 May 2014, Accepted: 07 June 2014, Published: 21 July 2014

In this paper Collema pulvinatum Hoffm. is synonymized under Scytinium pulvinatum (Hoffm.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin, providing “Leptogiumpulvinatum with a formal name.

Keywords: Leptogium – synonymy

 

2. Two new species of Graphis (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae), from Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot

Authors: Singh P and Singh KP

Recieved: 26 May 2014, Accepted: 30 June 2014, Published: 23 July 2014

Graphis manipurensis and Graphis sirohiensis are described as new lichenized fungi from Manipur in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Graphis manipurensis is characterized by its very short and unbranched lirellae (cleistomma-morph), entire labia, laterally carbonized excipulum, heavily inspersed hymenium, 1-spored asci with muriform ascospores and presence of norstictic acid. Graphis sirohiensis is characterized by its prominent lirellae (marginata-morph), entire labia, completely carbonized excipulum, heavily inspersed hymenium, 8-spored asci with submuriform to muriform ascospores and presence of norstictic acid.

Keywords: Graphidaceae, Manipur, new species, lichens, taxonomy

 

3. A new combination in Phytopythium: P. kandeliae (Oomycetes, Straminipila)

Authors: Marano AV, Jesus AL, de Souza JI, Leaño EM, James TY, Jerônimo GH, de Cock AWAM, Pires-Zottarelli CLA

Recieved: 08 June 2014, Accepted: 18 June 2014, Published: 06 August 2014

Phytopythium is a new segregate genus of the diverse and polyphyletic oomycete genus Pythium. We analysed the morphology and phylogeny (partial large and small subunits and the complete internal transcribed regions of the ribosomal DNA and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I region of the mitochondrial DNA) of an authentic strain and three recent isolates of Halophytophthora kandeliae collected from a mangrove area in Brazil. Maximum likelihood trees showed that all isolates clustered within the clade provisionally named Phytopythium, which includes 13 species of Pythium from clade K, and the type species of the genus Phytopythium, P. sindhum. Based on the results presented in this paper and previous studies, we consider that H. kandeliae should be transferred to the genus Phytopythium and therefore we proposed a new combination, P. kandeliae.

Keywords: Halophytophthora kandeliae, morphology, phylogeny, Pythium clade K, taxonomy

 

4. Endophytic fungal diversity in coffee leaves (Coffea arabica) cultivated using organic and conventional crop management systems

Authors: Oliveira RJV, Souza RG, Lima TEF, Cavalcanti MAQ

Recieved: 11 June 2014, Accepted: 08 August 2014, Published: 13 August 2014

Endophytic fungidwell in the tissues of plants without causing disease symptoms. Coffee production can be performed using conventional or organic crop systems. Studies have been carried out to assess the endophytic fungal community in a conventional coffee crop system. However, little is known about them in organic conditions. Comparisons were made between an endophytic fungal community from leaves of Coffea arabica in organic and conventional crop systems. Mature and healthy leaves of C. arabica were collected from two crop systems during the wet and dry seasons, in the Northeast Brazil. A total of 432 fragments were analyzed and 336 specimens of endophytic fungi were isolated and distributed among 16 genera and 17 species. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex and Phyllosticta capitalensiswere the most common fungi in conventional and organic crop systems, respectively. The largest number of fungal endophytes was observed during the wet season, although the diversity index and species richness were higher in the dry season. The endophytic fungal communities in conventional and organic crop systems exhibited 50.61% similarity, with six species occurring uniquely in organic and five in conventional coffee. Therefore, more research is needed to confirm that the species could be used as indicators of these management systems.

Keywords: accumulation curves – Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex – Phyllosticta capitalensis

 

5. Revision of the genus Cyathus (Basidiomycota) from the herbaria of northeast Brazil

Authors: Cruz RHSF, Assis NM, Silva MA, Baseia IG

Recieved: 15 July 2014, Accepted: 06 August 2014, Published: 15 August 2014

Seventy exsiccates of the genus Cyathus deposited in JPB, UESC, URM and UFRN herbaria were studied and nine species were identified: Cyathus badius, C. berkeleyanus, C. earlei, C. gracilis, C. limbatus, C. pallidus, C. poeppigii, C. setosus and C. striatus. Cyathus berkeleyanus and C. poeppigii are recorded for the first time for northeastern Brazil. Descriptions, taxonomic remarks and illustrations of the studied material are presented.

Keywords: herbarium collection – Nidulariaceae – Gasteromycetes – taxonomic review

 

6. Cortinarius (Agaricales) revised taxonomy: new species names or combinations

Authors: Gasparini B

Recieved: 06 June 2014, Accepted: 02 August 2014, Published: 17 August 2014

Thirteen species are transferred to Cortinarius, either as new combinations: C. atratus Hysterangium atratum), C. cribbiae Hymenogaster cribbiae), C. canariusDermocybe canaria), C. kula Dermocybe kula), C. musisporus Quadrispora musispora), C. niphophilus Protoglossum niphophilum), C. oblongisporus Hymenogaster oblongisporus), and C. tubercularis Quadrispora tubercularis); or as replacement names, when the basionym epithet was proccupied: C.olens (=Hymenogaster aromaticus Velen.) C. oleosusHysterangium viscidum), C. rubroviolaceusHymenogaster purpureum), and C. subviolaceusHymenogaster violaceus). The illegitimate Cortinarius mastoideus Gasparini is renamed as C. acutipapillatus.

Keywords: Dermocybe − Hymenogaster − Quadrispora − synonymy

 

7. Occurrence and distribution of Kumaun Himalayan aquatic hyphomycetes: Lemonniera

Authors: Sati SC, Pathak R, Belwal M

Recieved: 23 May 2014, Accepted: 07 August 2014, Published: 17 August 2014

Five species of aquatic hyphomycetes belonging to the genus Lemonniera (L. alabamensis, L. aquatica, L. cornuta, L. pseudofloscula and L. terestris) collected from different submerged leaf litter and water foam accumulated in fast flowing fresh water bodies of Kumaun Himalaya,(India) are described. The taxonomic description, occurrence and worldwide distribution of each recorded species along with a simplified key are also provided.

Keywords: freshwater fungi − water foam − submerged leaf litter − taxonomy

 

8. New species of Diderma from Vietnam

Authors: Novozhilov YK, Mitchell DW, Okun MV, Shchepin ON

Recieved: 04 June 2014, Accepted: 09 August 2014, Published: 19 August 2014

During intensive studies of the taxonomy and ecology of myxomycetes in Cat Tien National Park (southern Vietnam), two species of Diderma (myxomycetes) were collected during surveys carried out in December 2010 and similar surveys carried out in November 2011 and 2012. These new species, D. cattiense and D. pseudotestaceum, are described and illustrated. D. cattiense resembles D. subasteroides in overall shape, colour and size of the sporocarps but has smaller spores and the ornamentation of spores and the capillitium are different. The main morphological differences between D. pseudotestaceum and D. testaceum lie in shape, colour of sporocarp, columella, spore size and ornamentation. A phylogeny based on the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) genes placed these new species in clades far apart from other species of Diderma.

Keywords: Amoebozoa – EF1a gene – molecular phylogeny – Myxogastria – plasmodial slime moulds – SSU rRNA gene – Southeast Asia – taxonomy – tropics

 

9. Growth and light emission of luminous basidiomycetes cultivated on solid media and in submerged culture

Authors: Medvedeva SE, Artemenko KS, Krivosheenko AA, Rusinova AG, Rodicheva EK, Puzyr AP, Bondar VS

Recieved: 03 June 2014, Accepted: 02 August 2014, Published: 21 August 2014

There are higher fungi that emit visible light; however, little is known about their requirements for good growth and bright luminescence. Knowledge of these requirements is extremely important for maintaining fungal cultures in laboratory conditions and preparation of luminous mycelia for research purposes. Luminous higher fungi Panellus stipticus, Armillaria sp. and Neonothopanus nambi isolated from different climatic areas and maintained in CCIBSO 836 (Collection of IBP SB RAS, Russia) were used for experiments. Techniques for static and submerged cultivation of mycelia of higher fungi have been developed and optimized for the production of samples of aerial and globular mycelia with prolonged and stable luminescence. We investigated the growth characteristics and luminescence of mycelia cultivated in/on different nutrient media, and the effects of deionized water and mechanical damage on the light emission of mycelia. An increase in luminescence intensity of fungal mycelia can be obtained during cultivation of fungi on a nutrient medium with a certain composition. A significant increase in light emission from N. nambi mycelium can also be obtained after its incubation in water and mechanical damage. The light emission from N. nambi mycelium was greatly enhanced after these treatments, in contrast to the myceliaof Armillaria sp. or P. stipticus. Cultivation conditions that enable growing mycelia with high levels of luminescence will expedite further studies to gain a better understanding of fungal bioluminescence.

Keywords: luminescence – luminous higher fungi – mycelium

 

10. Diversity studies on the endophytic fungi of Vitex negundo L.

Authors: Sunayana N, Nalini MS, Sampath Kumara KK, Prakash HS

Recieved: 07 June 2014, Accepted: 06 August 2014, Published: 21 August 2014

A total of 143 endophytic fungal isolates were recovered from 1350 bark, twig and leaf segments of Vitex negundo L. which has important traditional medicinal value in the Indian system of medicine. The isolates belonged to ascomycetes (%), coelomycetes (21%), hyphomycetes (51%) and mycelia sterilia (4%) groups. Lasiodiplodia sp. was the dominant endophyte in all the plant parts. The endophytic taxa were identified on the basis of morphology and DNA sequence data. Twig samples harboured higher number of endophytic taxa than the bark and leaf tissues of V. negundo. Phylogenetic relationships of the endophytic fungi were estimated from the sequences of the ITS region. Our studies indicate that diverse endophytic genera are grouped into six clades with respective fungal endophytes grouped in separate clades.

Keywords: colonization frequency – diversity indices – endophytes – ITS sequencing – phylogenetic analysis

 

11. Two new species and new records of hyphomycetes from Vietnam

Authors: Mel’nik VA, Alexandrova AV, Braun U

Recieved: 30 June 2014, Accepted: 07 July 2014, Published: 25 August 2014

The new species Craspedodidymum seifertii and Ityorhoptrum biseptatum (Ascomycota, hyphomycetes), collected in Vietnam on bark of unidentified trees, are described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Furthermore, first records of Kumanasamuha sundara, Leuliisinea bambusicola, Piricaudilium lobatum, Pseudogliophragma indicum and Xenosporium africanum from Vietnam are added, including brief discussions and some with illustrations.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Asexual morphs – Craspedodidymum seifertii sp. nov. – Ityorhoptrum biseptatum sp. nov. – Southeast Asia

 

12. Hydrophobicity of myxomycete spores: An undescribed aspect of spore ornamentation

Authors: Hoppe T, Schwippert WW

Recieved: 26 July 2014, Accepted: 08 August 2014, Published: 30 August 2014

Plasmodial slime molds are adapted to a number of different ecosystems. Spores could be classified into three different ornamentation types: spiny, reticulate and smooth surfaces. We examined three different hydrophobic effects for these surface types. The surface energy was calculated for Metatrichia floriformis (reticulate) = 25.61 J, Fuligo septica var. candida (spiny) = 50.81 J, Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (smooth) = 72.63 J and Licea parasitica (smooth) = 72.74 J. Spores with spines half-sink into the water surface. However, they float on the surface. Reticulate spores show super-hydrophobic effects and are refractive to the water surface. Spores without ornamentation sink after contact with water.

Keywords: dispersal strategies – spore morphology – surface-energy

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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