Volume 5 - 2014 - Issue 3

1. Optimization of culture conditions for mycelial growth and basidiocarp production of Philippine strains of Panaeolus antillarium and Panaeolus cyanescens

Authors: Bustillos RG, Dulay RMR, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG

Recieved: 06 March 2014, Accepted: 04 April 2014, Published: 11 May 2014

The domestication and optimization of cultural conditions for the secondary mycelial growth was determined to establish the production technology of Panaeolus species. Wild P. antillarum and P. cyanescens were collected and their cell lines were rescued. The mycelial growth performance was evaluated on different indigenous culture media (carabao, cow and horse dung) and physical factors (pH, aeration and illumination). The optimal growth condition for basidiocarp production using dung of domesticated ruminants was also determined. Both secondary mycelia of the two Panaeolus species evaluated grew best on solid culture media of carabao and cow dung decoction gulaman (local crude agar) at a pH range of 7.5 - 8.0, incubated in unsealed and dark condition. Carabao and cow dung as substrates favored the fast mycelial colonization of both mushrooms with means of 11.20 ± 4.24 and 11.50 ± 5.80 days, respectively.  However, regardless of the substrate, P. antillarum colonized the substrates in a shorter period of 9.37 ± 2.74 days. In terms of yield, carabao dung had the highest mean yield of 7.16 ± 0.75 g with 17.89 ± 1.88% bio-efficiency, which did not significantly vary with cow dung having a mean yield of 6.99 ± 1.89 g with 17.49 ± 4.73% bio-efficiency. These significant results suggest that P. antillarum and P. cyanescens are new Philippine strains of wild mushrooms with great potential for cultivation for nutraceutical purposes.

Keywords: Panaeolus species – hallucinogenic mushrooms – secondary mycelia – basidiocarp, coprophilous mushrooms


2. Leptocorticium gloeocystidiatum sp. nov. (Basidiomycota), a new corticioid fungus from Sicily, Italy

Authors: Gorjón SP, Saitta A

Recieved: 10 March 2014, Accepted: 28 April 2014, Published: 14 May 2014

A new corticioid species, Leptocorticium gloeocystidiatum is described from Sicily, Italy. It is characterized by a resupinate, buff-coloured basidiome and microscopically by the presence of filiform leptocystidia, gloeocystidia, dendrohyphidia, and small ellipsoid, smooth basidiospores, non-reacting in Melzer's reagent. The species is compared with closest relatives. A key to the accepted species of Leptocorticium is provided.

Keywords: cystidia – Fagus – Mediterranean area – wood inhabiting fungi


3. A new species, Lophiostoma versicolor, from Japan (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes)

Authors: Hirayama K, Hashimoto A, Tanaka K

Recieved: 25 March 2014, Accepted: 02 May 2014, Published: 17 May 2014

Hirayama K, Hashimoto A, Tanaka K 2014 – A new species, Lophiostoma versicolor, from Japan (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Mycosphere 5(3), 411–417, Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/5/3/3

Lophiostoma versicolor sp. nov. was found on Acer sp. in Japan. This species is characterized by ascomata with a laterally compressed apex; clavate, 2(–4)-spored asci with a long stipe; and verruculose, 3-septate, versicolored ascospores without a sheath or appendages. Phylogenetic analyses based on LSU nrDNA sequences supported the generic placement and species validity of L. versicolor.

Keywords: ITS – Lophiostomataceae – Lophiotrema – LSU nrDNA – Pleosporomycetidae – Systematics – Taxonomy


4. A new species of Manoharachariella (hyphomycetes) from Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Faruk SELÇUK, Kadriye EKİCİ

Recieved: 30 April 2014, Accepted: 09 May 2014, Published: 23 May 2014

Manoharachariella elsadii is described as a new species from Turkey. It differs from the two known species by possessing smaller conidia with fewer septa. In addition, it has shorter conidiophores than M. indica and longer conidiophores than M. lignicola.

Keywords: anamorphic fungi – Anatolian Peninsula – dematiaceous hyphomycete


5. Two new records of Cyathus species for South America

Authors: Barbosa MMB, Cruz RHSF, Calonge FD, Baseia IG

Recieved: 26 March 2014, Accepted: 21 May 2014, Published: 30 May 2014

Recent fieldtrips in semi-arid region on Araripe National Forest in Brazil revealed two Cyathus species that are reported for the first time to South America, C. gracilis and C. helenae. Both were found in a highland environment with an elevation about 900 m. Detailed descriptions and images are given.

Keywords: Brazil – Nidulariaceae – gasteromycetes – semi-arid regions – taxonomy


6. Tricholosporum caraibicum (Basidiomycota, Tricholomataceae), a new species from the Dominican Republic

Authors: Angelini C, Contu M, Vizzini A

Recieved: 10 March 2014, Accepted: 14 May 2014, Published: 31 May 2014

A new species in the genus Tricholosporum, collected in the Dominican Republic, is taxonomically delimited based on morphological data. A detailed description, microscopic drawings and a colour plate of fresh material are presented. The new species is well circumscribed by the small cruciform to stauriform spores and mucronate, fusiform to ampullaceous and pigmented cystidia. A key to the accepted species of Tricholosporum is provided.

Keywords: Agaricales – Agaricomycetes – Caribbean fungi


7. Edible mushrooms of the Northwestern Himalaya, India: a study of indigenous knowledge, distribution and diversity

Authors: Semwal KC, Stephenson SL, Bhatt VK, Bhatt RP

Recieved: 08 May 2014, Accepted: 04 June 2014, Published: 15 June 2014

In the present study, the diversity, edibility, indigenous knowledge and distribution of wild edible mushrooms in the Northwestern Himalaya are discussed. The information provided herein was derived from a study carried out in the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh during the period of 2000-2013. A total of 23 species of mushrooms considered as edible or used for trade were recorded. Twenty-one of these are basidiomycetes and two are ascomycetes. Certain species of Amanita, Agaricus, Astraeus, Hericium, Macrolepiota, Morchella, Pleurotus and Termitomyces are very commonly collected and consumed by the local people, whereas species of Auricularia, Cantharellus, Sparassis, Lactarius, Ramaria and Russula are less commonly collected and consumed. Cordyceps sinensis and several species of Morchella are collected specifically for trade purposes in the spring season in high elevation areas of the Himalaya. Among the edible wild mushrooms collected are a number of species involved in ectomycorrhizal symbiotic relationships with banj (oak), other broadleaf trees and several types of conifers. The results of the present study can be used to promote the domestication of those wild edible mushrooms not yet cultivated in India. These results also indicate the need to avoid over exploitation of these mushrooms and a reason to establish a ‘state germplasm bank’ to allow studies of tissue culture. The latter could serve as the basis of further scientific study into various ways of enhancing the livelihood of particular areas of northern India through increased mushroom domestication as well as assessing the possible bioactivity of mushrooms against certain human diseases.

Keywords: Ascomycetes – Basidiomycetes – Himachal Pradesh – Uttarakhand


8. A new species of Berkleasmium from Ulyanovsk, Russia

Authors: Hüseyin E, Selçuk F, Churakov BP

Recieved: 02 May 2014, Accepted: 20 May 2014, Published: 23 June 2014

A fungus belonging to the sporodochial, dematiaceous, dictyosporous hyphomycete genus Berkleasmium was found on bark of dead twigs of Rhamnus catharticus in Ulyanovsk Province of Russia. It is described as a new species, Berkleasmium dudkae, illustrated and compared with allied species.

Keywords: anamorphic fungi – Ascomycota – hyphomycetes – new taxon


9. Updates on the geographic distribution of three Geastrum species from Brazilian semi-arid region

Authors: Sousa JO, Morais LA, Nascimento YM, Baseia IG

Recieved: 22 April 2014, Accepted: 10 June 2014, Published: 24 June 2014

Taxonomic studies on Brazilian semi-arid collections of earthstars revealed the occurrence of three species: Geastrum floriforme (first record for Brazil), Geastrum violaceum (new for the tropical region) and Geastrum xerophilum (second record for the Neotropics). Detailed basidiomata descriptions with taxonomic remarks, photos and drawings of macro- and micro-morphological data are given.

Keywords: gasteromycetes – Geastrales – neotropical fungi – taxonomy


10. Checklist of Central and South American Agaricales (Basidiomycota) I: Entolomataceae

Authors: Coimbra VRM

Recieved: 23 April 2014, Accepted: 23 May 2014, Published: 24 June 2014

A literature-based checklist of Entolomataceae species (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) occurring in Central and South Americas is provided. In total, 271 species belonging to 13 genera are reported, representing roughly 18% of the known taxa worldwide. Here, Brazil (107 spp.) and Argentina (80 spp.) were the most representative countries. This list does not reflect the real diversity of Entolomataceae in Neotropics but covers only our limited and inconclusive knowledge.

Keywords: agarics – America – diversity


11. Additions to the myxobiota of Central America

Authors: Rojas C, Calvo E

Recieved: 17 May 2014, Accepted: 10 June 2014, Published: 25 June 2014

Given the fact that until recently the myxomycetes were an understudied group in Central America, it is not surprising that the number of new records for most countries is currently increasing at a steady pace. This is significant in light of the fact that Central America is located within the Mesoamerican Biodiversity Hotspot and is projected to lose an appreciable percentage of its biodiversity due to global phenomena before the middle of this century. In the present study, which was conceived as an approach to equilibrate the information on myxomycetes among Central American countries, 23 unlisted records for Honduras, El Salvador and Costa Rica are provided. In particular, a record of the myxomycete Cornuvia serpula from the last country is noteworthy due its rarity in tropical areas of the world. The type of regional distributional information presented in this study represents baseline data for ecological monitoring purposes, which are essential for the conservation of the microbial biota and ecosystem functioning worldwide.

Keywords: biogeography, Cornuvia serpula, distribution, myxogastrids, Neotropics


12. The genus Blumenavia (Clathraceae, Phallales)

Authors: Trierveiler-Pereira L, Alves CR, Silveira RMB

Recieved: 04 June 2014, Accepted: 12 June 2014, Published: 27 June 2014

In this manuscript we present descriptions, comments, illustrations, color photographs and a key to identify the two known species of Blumenavia: B. rhacodes and B. angolensis. Both species occur in Southern Brazil and the presented data are based on recently collected and herbarium specimens. Blumenavia angolensis is reported for the first time from the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil).

Keywords: Gasteromycetes – Laternea – lattice stinkhorns – Neotropical fungi – Phallaceae


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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