Volume 4 - 2013 - Issue 6


1. Next-generation sequencing reveals sterile crustose lichen phylogeny

Authors: Hodkinson BP, Lendemer JC

Recieved: 22 September 2013, Accepted: 08 October 2013, Published: 01 November 2013

The rapid phylogenetic placement and molecular barcoding of fungi is often hampered in organisms that cannot easily be grown in axenic culture or manually teased apart from their associated microbial communities. A high-throughput procedure is outlined here for this purpose, and its effectiveness is demonstrated on a representative species from an especially problematic group of fungi, the sterile crustose lichens. Sequence data of the LSU and ITS regions were generated from samples of a sterile crustose lichen species, Lepraria moroziana, using next-generation sequencing. DNA fragments most likely to represent the primary lichen-forming fungus were bioinformatically teased out using a specialized data processing pipeline. Phylogenetic analyses of the LSU region revealed that the lichen-forming fungus L. moroziana was previously placed in the incorrect class of fungi (Lecanoromycetes), and actually belongs to the class Arthoniomycetes, in the order Arthoniales. It is here treated as a member of a new family (Andreiomycetaceae Hodkinson & Lendemer fam. nov.) and genus (Andreiomyces Hodkinson & Lendemer gen. nov.). Additionally, Lepraria obtusatica Tønsberg is placed in the newly-defined genus based on its morphological, chemical, and ITS-based molecular similarity to L. moroziana. The procedure outlined here is projected to be especially useful for resolving the dispositions of diverse problematic fungi that remain unnamed, incertae sedis, or have taxonomic positions that are not expected to reflect their true phylogeny.

Keywords: Andreiomyces – Andreiomyces morozianus – Andreiomycetaceae – Arthoniales – Arthoniomycetes – Ascomycota – Ascomycetes – fungal barcoding – Lepraria – Lepraria moroziana – ITS – LSU – nrITS – nrLSU – nucITS – nucLSU – microbiome – mothur – Roche 454 – sequencing contamination – taxonomy – uncultured fungi

 

2. First records of myxomycetes from El Salvador

Authors: Rojas C, Morales RE, Calderón I, Clerc P

Recieved: 11 October 2013, Accepted: 16 October 2013, Published: 02 November 2013

Myxomycetes have been studied formally in most of Central America except for El Salvador. Even though this country is the last in the region to begin an official inventory for this group of organisms, the 37 new records reported herein suggest that the myxobiota of El Salvador can be valuable for biogeographical analyses. As an example, this study reports Perichaena tessellata for the first time in the Neotropical region. Such an observation along with studies conducted in previous years in Central America show that the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot can provide important information to understand myxomycete dynamics in tropical areas. Additionally to the latter, during the present study a first characterization of the species of myxomycetes present in Montecristo National Park was also carried out. This is an important contribution to the biological knowledge of critical conservation areas in Central America since such park is one of the few remnants of cloud forest in El Salvador. For microbial conservation purposes, these types of rapid biodiversity assessments are imperative in understudied areas of the world such as El Salvador and necessary in forest types such as Montecristo that are threatened by climate and land use change.

Keywords: biogeography – Central America – Mesoamerica – Montecristo National Park – myxogastrids – species distribution.

 

3. Diversity of species of the genus Bolbitius (Bolbitiaceae, Agaricales) collected on dung from Punjab, India

Authors: Amandeep K, Atri NS, Munruchi K

Recieved: 02 September 2013, Accepted: 16 October 2013, Published: 04 November 2013

This paper deals with the collections of Bolbitius made from various dung localities of Punjab. Presently, six coprophilous species of the genus, namely B. coprophilus, B. demangei, B. glatfelteri, B. marginatipes, B. titubans and B. vitellinus are reported from a variety of herbivorous dung types. A dichotomous key to aid in the identification of these taxa is given. The taxonomy of 05 taxa is described and illustrated with line drawings of morphological and anatomical features. Bolbitius demangei, B. glatfelteri and B. marginatipes are new records from India.

Keywords: Agaricales – coprophilous – new records– taxonomy

 

4. Blumenavia angolensis (Clathraceae), a rare phalloid reported from Northeastern Brazil

Authors: Rodrigues ACM, Baseia IG

Recieved: 20 September 2013, Accepted: 23 October 2013, Published: 16 November 2013

Recent studies in the Atlantic Forest in Northeastern Brazil revealed a rare species, Blumenavia angolensis that is fundamentally distinguished by its black peridium and yellowish white receptacle with membranous glebifers. Description, comments and comparison with similar species, photograph of the fresh basidiomata, and SEM photographs of basidiospores are given. This is the first report of the genus Blumenavia from Northeastern Brazil.

Keywords: Basidiomycota – Gasteromycetes – Neotropics – Phallales – Taxonomy

 

5. Contributions towards the knowledge of Favolaschia (Mycenaceae, Agaricomycetes) from Brazil

Authors: Magnago AC, Trierveiler-Pereira L, Neves MA

Recieved: 04 October 2013, Accepted: 29 October 2013, Published: 18 November 2013

Favolaschia is a representative genus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest where four species have been recently identified: Favolaschia cinnabarina, F. dealbata, F. rubra and F. selloana. Favolaschia dealbata is a new record for Brazil and F. selloana is new for Southeastern Brazil. Color images of the basidiomata, complete descriptions and illustrations of the four species are presented.

Keywords: Agaricales – fungal taxonomy – neotropical mycota

 

6. Effect of vitamins and growth regulators on the vegetative growth of Lentinus squarrosulus

Authors: Atri NS, Kumari B, Singh R, Upadhyay RC

Recieved: 11 October 2013, Accepted: 16 October 2013, Published: 24 November 2013

The experiments were carried out to observe the effect of vitamins and growth regulators on the vegetative growth of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. Out of the vitamins and growth regulators employed, nicotinic acid and gibberellic acid, respectively supported the maximum vegetative growth for this mushroom.

Keywords: basidiomycetes – edible – Lentinus squarrosulus – mushroom

 

7. Mycobiota of outdoor air that can cause asthma: a case study from Lake Manzala, Egypt

Authors: Abdel-Azeem AM, Rashad MH

Recieved: 11 October 2013, Accepted: 16 October 2013, Published: 30 November 2013

Continuous sampling of airspora in Lake Manzala was carried out monthly over a period of 1 year at five sites with an automated air sampler on Czapek's yeast extract, DG-18 and potato dextrose agar media plates. A total of 71780 mould- and 560 yeast colony-forming units were recovered from 600 exposures and the isolated taxa were assigned to 28 genera and 43 species. A greater presence of fungal spores occurred in the summer. Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria cheiranthi, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata were the predominant species. Many of the identified species have an aerodynamic diameter (dae) of 1.5-10 μm that can deeply penetrate into the lungs. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Alternaria that had the greatest frequencies in air of Lake Manzala are strongly associated with allergic respiratory disease, especially asthma, in Port Said and Ismailia governorates. A comprehensive model of factors that contribute to asthma in the region is needed and this can be a useful tool for planning efforts and disease prevention. The obtained results indicated that the fungi of air should be considered when the quality of Egyptian air is assessed.

Keywords: Aerodynamic diameter – aeromycobiota- allergy – diversity – Protectorate

 

8. A survey of an ectotrophic sand dune forest in the northeast Brazil

Authors: Sulzbacher MA, Giachini AJ, Grebenc T, Silva BDB, Gurgel FE, Loiola MIB, Neves MA, Baseia IG

Recieved: 13 November 2013, Accepted: 05 December 2013, Published: 30 December 2013

Ectomycorrhizal(ECM) species are poorly known from tropical lowlands of South America. Recent systematic surveys in the reserve Parque Estadual das Dunas do Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a purposive sampling approach revealed new and yet undocumented community of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the reserve. Collections made in areas with a ectotrophic tree genera present next to the established walking paths revealed six genera of putative ECM fungi. These fungi belong to the Basidiomycota family Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Hymenochaetaceae, Russulaceae and Sclerodermataceae, all of which are poorly documented from Brazil. The study contributed to the fungal diversity in an ectotrophic sand dune forest in the northeast Brazil, necessary for better understanding of the role of these organisms and their impact in the ecosystem. Discoveries opened additional questionings about the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of the ectomycorrhizal genera in tropical moist broadleaf forests.

Keywords: Basidiomycota – ectomycorrhizal fungi – sequestrate fungi – forest reserve – tropical rainforest

 

9. Mucor racemosus as a biosorbent of metal ions from polluted water in Northern Delta of Egypt

Authors: El-Morsy EM, Nour El-Dein MM, El-Didamoney SMM

Recieved: 30 October 2013, Accepted: 17 December 2013, Published: 31 December 2013

Twenty samples of polluted water were collected from Damietta's canals and drainages located near the industrial area of New Damietta. Initial concentrations of heavy metals including (zinc, copper and lead) in the polluted water were determined. Fourty–five fungal species were isolated. Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Trichoderma koningi and Rhizopus oryzae were isolated frequently. On the basis of its frequency, Mucor racemosus was chosen for biosorption studies.
Free and immobilized biomass of Mucor racemosus sequestered ions in this decreasing sequence Cu > Zn > Pb. The effects of biomass concentration, pH and time of contact were investigated. The level of ion uptake rose with increasing biomass till 200 mg and then decreased with increasing biomass. The maximum uptake for Cu (60.13 mg/g), Zn (57.67 mg/g) and Pb (21.97 mg/g) respectively occurred at 200 mg/l biomass. The uptake rose with increasing pH up to 5 in the case of Zn and Cu and 4 in the case of Pb. Maximum uptake for all metals was achieved after 15 minutes. Ion uptake followed the Langmuir adsorption model, permitting the calculation of maximum uptake and affinity coefficients. Treatment of Mucor racemosus biomass with 0.1 M NaOH at 120°C for 6 h improved biosorbent capacity, as did immobilization with alginate. Immobilized biomass could be regenerated readily with treatment with dilute HCl. The biomass-alginate complex efficiently removed Zn, Cu and Pb from polluted water samples. Therefore, Mucor racemosus could be employed either in free or immobilized form as a biosorbent of metal ions in waste water.

Keywords: alginate – alkali treatment – biosorption – copper – free and immobilized biomass – lead – zinc

 

10. Ingoldian fungi from the semi-arid Caatinga biome of Brazil

Authors: Fiuza PO, Gusmão LFP

Recieved: 03 December 2013, Accepted: 23 December 2013, Published: 31 December 2013

An inventory of Ingoldian fungi from four localities of semi-arid region, Brazil (Brejo Paraibano-PB, Serra da Jibóia-BA, Chapada do Araripe and Serra de Ibiapaba-CE) is presented. Fungi were obtained from samples of foam and submerged leaves collected in water bodies. Twenty-seven taxa of Ingoldian fungi were found and of these, 22 are new records: american continent (3), Neotropics (1), South America (3), Brazil (5), Brazilian semi-arid region (7), Ceará state (2) and Paraíba state (1). Description, illustration, geographical distribution and commentary are presented for all species found.

Keywords: Aquatic ecosystems – aquatic hyphomycetes – biodiversity – taxonomy – tropical

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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