Volume 4 - 2013 - Issue 4


1. Antioxidant properties in the oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) and split gill mushroom (Schizophyllum commune) ethanolic extracts

Authors: Arbaayah HH, Umi Kalsom Y

Recieved: 05 April 2013, Accepted: 09 June 2013, Published: 31 December 1969

Ethanolic extracts of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus pulmonarius, P. ostreatus, P. djamor var. djamor and P. djamor var. roseus) and the split gill mushroom (Schizophyllum commune)were successfully investigated for their antioxidant properties. The study was carried out to determine the capability of the extracts to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, to determine its reducing ability towards ferricyanide complex (FRAP assay) and to determine the concentration of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) in the macrofungi ethanolic extracts. Inhibition concentration at 50% (IC50) for each extract to scavenge DPPH radicals was detected from 2.75 mg/ml to 12 mg/mlwhere S. commune from the fourth flush showed the lowest IC50 value among all tested mushrooms. The greatest ability to reduce ferricyanide complex to ferrous form was observed in P. djamor var. djamor at concentration 10 mg/ml in both first (1.23 ± 0.02) and second flushes (1.23 ± 0.00). Meanwhile, the highest TPC was determined in P. djamor var. djamor extract (51.94 ± 0.04 mg TAE/g dry weight of extract) whereas S. commune gave highest reading of total flavonoid content in TFC assay (29.80 ± 0.27 mg QE/g dry weight of extract). All the mushroom samples showed appreciable antioxidant properties which therefore, can be promoted as natural antioxidant preference in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay – ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay – edible macrofungi – total flavonoids content (TFC) – total phenolics content (TPC)

 

2. Mycena sect. Galactopoda: two new species, a key to the known species and a note on the circumscription of the section

Authors: Aravindakshan DM, Manimohan P

Recieved: 14 April 2013, Accepted: 15 June 2013, Published: 07 July 2013

Mycena lohitha sp. nov. and M. babruka sp. nov. are described from Kerala State, India and are assigned to sect. Galactopoda. Comprehensive descriptions, photographs, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. A key is provided that differentiates all known species of the sect. Galactopoda. The circumscription of the section needs to be expanded to include some of the species presently assigned to it including the new species described here and a provisional, expanded circumscription of the section is followed in this paper.

Keywords: Agaricales – Basidiomycota – biodiversity – Mycenaceae – taxonomy

 

3. Studies for culturing and cultivation of Lentinus cladopus Lév

Authors: Atri NS and Lata

Recieved: 05 April 2013, Accepted: 09 June 2013, Published: 17 July 2013

In this paper the results of the vegetative growth of Lentinus cladopus Lév. on twelve solid media and eleven liquid media and reproductive growth on lignocellulosic substrates have been presented. Malt Extract Agar medium (MEA) supported the best mycelial growth from amongst the solid media evaluated while the vegetative growth on Malt Broth (MB) was maximum amongst the liquid media screened for the purpose. L. cladopus when grown on different lignocellulosic sub-strates including wheat straw, paddy straw and their 1:1 mixture gave 33.35 % biological efficiency on 1:1 mixture of wheat straw and paddy straw, which was best as compared to 31.66 % biological efficiency obtained on wheat straw and 12.76 % biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw.

Keywords: Lentinus cladopus –lignocellulosic substrates – liquid media – solid media

 

4. Conidial fungi from semi-arid Caatinga biome of Brazil. New and interesting Zanclospora species

Authors: Almeida DAC, Cruz ACR, Marques MFO, Gusmão LFP

Recieved: 07 May 2013, Accepted: 06 July 2013, Published: 20 July 2013

During inventory of saprotrophic conidial fungi carried out in the Brazilian semi-arid region, four interesting Zanclospora species were found on plant litter. Zanclospora bonfinensis sp. nov. is characterized by presence of sterile setae, setiform conidiophores, with a verruculose, dark brown apex; conidiogenous cells adpressed and arranged in verticils at the single fertile regions which is restricted to middle part of the setiform conidiophores; conidia bacilliform, 0-septate, hyaline. Descriptions, comments and illustrations are presented for the new species and for Z. brevispora var. brevispora, Z. indica and Z. novae-zelandiae. A key and a synoptic table for all known species are included.

Keywords: hyphomycetes – taxonomy – tropical microfungi

 

5. The first checklists of macrofungi of mount Cameroon

Authors: Kinge TR, Egbe EA, Tabi EM, Nji TM, Mih AM

Recieved: 08 May 2013, Accepted: 10 June 2013, Published: 20 July 2013

Field studies were carried out in the Mount Cameroon Region, Cameroon between 2010 and 2012. A total of 520 samples of macrofungi were collected. As a result of field and laboratory studies, a checklist of 177 species of fungi belonging to 83 genera is presented. The Basidiomycetes had 163 species, while the Ascomycetes had 14 species. All the species identified are new records for the area.

Keywords: Cameroon – mushrooms – mycoflora – taxonomy

 

6. Conidial fungi from the semi-arid Caatinga Biome of Brazil. A new species of Dictyochaeta

Authors: Silva SS, Gusmão LFP

Recieved: 25 June 2013, Accepted: 09 July 2013, Published: 26 July 2013

During a survey of freshwater conidial fungi associated with submerged plant debris, an interesting specimen of Dictyochaeta was found. Dictyochaeta aciculata sp. nov. is characterized by 3-septate, acicular conidia with rounded bases. These morphological characteristics differentiate the species found in Brazil from previously described taxa in Dictyochaeta and it is, therefore, described and illustrated herein as a novel species.

Keywords: freshwater fungi – lotic environment – taxonomy – tropical

 

7. Myxomycetes appearing in moist chamber cultures on four different types of dead leaves

Authors: Goad AE,Stephenson SL

Recieved: 22 May 2013, Accepted: 17 July 2013, Published: 30 July 2013

One of the microhabitats available for myxomycetes in temperate forests is represented by the layer of dead plant material that accumulates on the forest floor. This layer, referred to as the litter layer, consists mostly of dead leaves from the trees that make up the forest canopy. In the present study, leaves from four different species of trees (dogwood, red maple, sycamore and white oak) were collected from the upper portion of the litter layer and used to prepare moist chamber cultures to determine whether each type of leaf displayed evidence of supporting a different ecological assemblage of myxomycetes. Leaves were collected on two occasions, January 2012 and January 2013. Forty moist chamber cultures were prepared for each type of leaf on each date, for a total of 320 cultures for the entire study. Most of these (60.6%) yielded some evidence (either sporocarps or plasmodia) of myxomycetes, and 21 species in nine genera were represented among the 244 records of sporocarps recorded from the cultures. Members of the order Physarales made up 59% of all records, with members of the orders Stemonitales (30%) and Trichiales (11%) relatively less important. Major differences existed in the productivity of the two sets of leaf samples (with 2013 appreciably more productive than 2012) and for particular types of leaves (with dogwood characterized by an overall positive value of 92.5% and sycamore with an overall positive value of only 11.5%). Remarkably, the set of samples of sycamore leaves collected in 2013.

Keywords: Devil’s Den State Park – ecological study – litter layer – slime moulds

 

8. Medicinally important and edible species of genus Lactarius from Garhwal Himalaya, India

Authors: Joshi S, Vishwakarma MP, Mahar R, Bhatt RP

Recieved: 02 May 2013, Accepted: 11 July 2013, Published: 30 July 2013

This paper reports medicinally important and edible species of ectomycorrhizal genus Lactarius collected during the monsoon season between 2006–2009, in the elevation range of 350 to 3200 m above sea level from district Pauri Garhwal and Tehri Garhwal of Garhwal Himalaya. It includes description of L. hygrophoroides var. hygrophoroides, L. piperatus var. piperatus, L. scrobiculatus var. scrobiculatus,L. subindigo, L. subpurpureus and L. volemus var. volemus. Among these six species, L. piperatus var. piperatus and L. volemus var. volemus are medicinally important and other species are edible in Garhwal region or reported edibles from other parts of the world. The medicinal properties are compiled on the basis of information gathered by literature review. This report provides new information on edible and medicinally important species of Garhwal region.

Keywords: Ectomycorrhizal – Garhwal – Macrofungi – Russulaceae

 

9. Three new species of Russula (Russulales) from Sikkim (India)

Authors: Das K, Atri NS, Buyck B

Recieved: 01 May 2013, Accepted: 15 July 2013, Published: 31 July 2013

Since 2008, macrofungal explorations have been undertaken in a mycologically under-explored West district of Sikkim (India), located in the Eastern Himalaya. Three species, namely Russula sharmae, R. dubdiana and R. sikkimensis are proposed herein as new taxa. Macro- and micromorphological illustrated descriptions of these species are given along with their taxonomic positions and relations to allied species.

Keywords: Macrofungi – Russulaceae – Sikkim – taxonomy

 

10. In-vitro evaluation of some Indian lichens against human pathogenic bacteria

Authors: Srivastava P, Logesh AR, Upreti DK, Dhole TN, Srivastava A

Recieved: 25 June 2013, Accepted: 21 July 2013, Published: 05 August 2013

Antimicrobial activity of the acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts of some common lichen species such as Usnea longissima Ach., Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale, Peltigera polydactylon (Neck.) Hoffm. and Sulcaria sulcata (Lév.) Bystr. ex Brodo & D. Hawksw., were screened in vitro against six clinically important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli by Kirby-Bauer technique of disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration was taken out by Broth micro dilution method according to the NCCLS guidelines. Acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts of the investigated lichens showed relatively strong antimicrobial activity against all the gram positive bacteria and two gram negative bacteria.It was found that the inhibition zone of tested bacteria against lichen extracts varied between 7.6 – 30.7 mm diameters. The lowest MIC value was observed to be as low as 6.25 µg/ml against B. cereus of U. longissima. Generally the lichen extracts tested demonstrated antimicrobial effect which suggests a possibility of their use in treatment of various diseases caused by these and similar microorganisms.

Keywords: Kirby-Bauer method – Lichenized fungi – MIC – pathogenic bacteria.

 

11. Gasteroid mycobiota of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Lycoperdon and Vascellum

Authors: Cortez VG, Baseia IG, Silveira RMB

Recieved: 03 May 2013, Accepted: 15 July 2013, Published: 09 August 2013

The diversity of Lycoperdon and Vascellum in the mycobiota of Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil, was investigated. These genera are considered distinct due to structure of the subgleba, presence/absence of paracapillitium and of a diaphragm. After a study of fresh and herbarium specimens, the following species were identified in the area: Lycoperdon juruense, L. lividum, L. marginatum, L. ovoidisporum, L. perlatum, Vascellum hyalinum, and V. pratense. Detailed descriptions of the species are accompanied by photographs of the basidiomata, line drawings of the microstructures, and scanning electron microscopy of the basidiospores.

Keywords: Agaricales – Agaricomycetes – Lycoperdaceae – puffballs – taxonomy

 

12. Kamalomyces mahabaleshwarensis sp. nov. (Tubeufiaceae) from the Western Ghats, India

Authors: Dubey R, Neelima AM

Recieved: 16 April 2013, Accepted: 25 July 2013, Published: 12 August 2013

A new species of Kamalomyces was collected on an unidentified woody twig from Mahabaleshwar, situated in the northern part of Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. The species belongs to the monotypic genus Kamalomyces which is represented by K. indicus. It can easily be differentiated from the type species of this monotypic genus by variations in the dimension of ascostroma, the spiral arrangement of ascospores in the asci, and the number of ascospore septa (upto 20). Thus Kamalomyces mahabaleshwarensis sp. nov. is introduced with a description and illustrations in this study.

Keywords: anamorph - Ascomycetes - bitunicate asci - Mahabaleshwar

 

13. Two interesting Pterula species from Maharashtra, India

Authors: Senthilarasu G

Recieved: 01 April 2013, Accepted: 26 July 2013, Published: 13 August 2013

Two interesting species of clavarioid fungi Pterula indica sp. nov. and P. verticillata collected from Pune, Maharashtra, India are described, illustrated and discussed with closely allied species. Of these, Pterula indica is a new species characterized by the reddish brown to dark brown basidiomes, branched polychotomously below, dichotomously at the apex with white to yellowish white, acute apices, and having cylindric, smooth basidiospores and hyphoid to cylindric cystidia with short mucronate apex. Pterula verticillata is distinguished by pale orange to peach basidiomes that branched polychotomously below, verticillately to irregularly above, and having cylindric, smooth basidiospores and hyphoid cystidia with rostrate apex.

Keywords: Basidiomycota – clavarioid fungi – fungal diversity – macrofungi – taxonomy

 

14. The diverse habitats of Hygrocybe – peeking into an enigmatic lifestyle

Authors: Halbwachs H, Karasch P, Griffith GW

Recieved: 28 May 2012, Accepted: 20 June 2013, Published: 17 August 2013

The genus Hygrocybe (Fr.) P. Kumm. is globally distributed. Certain taxa occur on different continents, even in the northern and the southern hemisphere. In Europe grassland is the preferred habitat. The trophic ecology is still unclear. In this review studies and internet sources of about 65 locations distributed from high to low latitudes across all continents in which 16 Hygrocybe species (typically found in Europe) occur have been analysed with regard to habitat types, vegetation and soil properties. The analysis shows that several of the selected Hygrocybe species can cope with a very wide range of habitats. They appear to prefer soils with low fertility, grassland over forests and temperate/boreal climates. Most significantly, waxcaps are found in forest habitats in the absence of grasses, and in grasslands where woody hosts are absent. Mosses are not obligately associated. Their host associations are extremely flexible. A biotrophic lifestyle should be considered.

Keywords: biotrophy – distribution – ecozones – grassland – mosses – soil – trophic ecology – waxcaps – woodland

 

15. A checklist of Egyptian fungi: I. Protozoan fungal analogues

Authors: Abdel-Azeem AM, Salem Fatma M

Recieved: 09 July 2013, Accepted: 25 July 2013, Published: 21 August 2013

Records of Egyptian fungi are scattered through a wide array of journals, books, dissertations, and preliminary annotated checklists and compilations. By screening all available sources of information, it was possible to delineate 61 taxa, including 3 varieties, belonging to 29 genera of protozoan fungal analogues that have been reported from Egypt. A provisional key to the identification of reported taxa is given. This is the first species list of protozoan fungus-like analogues from Egypt.

Keywords: Amoebozoa – biodiversity – Cercozoa – documentation – Liceida – Mycobiota – Physarum

 

16. The genus Inonotus and its related species in India

Authors: Sharma JR, Das K, Mishra D

Recieved: 08 April 2013, Accepted: 25 July 2013, Published: 21 August 2013

The genus Inonotus is subdivided into genera Inocutis, Inonotus sens. str., Onnia and Pseudoinonotus. A key to these genera, based on studies of Indian material, is provided. A new species, Inonotus ryvardenii is proposed based on an unique set of characters like coarsely hispid pilear surface, absence of any setal organs and small, hyaline to pale yellowish spores. Six other species, Inocutis tamaricis, I. texanus, Inonotus juniperinus, I. obliquus, I. ochroporus and I. porrectus are reported new for India. All species are illustrated and described based on Indian material. A key to the Indian species for each genus is also provided.

Keywords: Hymenochaetaceae – key – macrofungi – new species – taxonomy

 

17. An additional update on the genus Chaetomium with descriptions of two coprophilous species, new to Italy

Authors: Doveri F

Recieved: 25 July 2013, Accepted: 15 August 2013, Published: 28 August 2013

Two Chaetomium species new to Italy, C. brasiliense and C. succineum, are described and an updated key to coprophilous Chaetomium from Italy is provided. All author’s collections of 23 species so far known from dung in Italy are listed. Following the recent publications describing new species, the worldwide key to Chaetomium species is updated.

Keywords: dichotomous keys – dung – literature – records

 

18. New Record of Woldmaria filicina (Cyphellaceae, Basidiomycota) in Russia

Authors: Vlasenko VA, Vlasenko AV

Recieved: 29 July 2013, Accepted: 12 August 2013, Published: 31 August 2013

This paper provides information on the new record of Woldmaria filicina in Russia. This rare and interesting member of the cyphellaceous fungi was found in the Novosibirsk Region of Western Siberia in the forest-steppe zone, on dead stems of the previous year of the fern Matteuccia struthiopteris. A description of the species is given along with images of fruiting bodies of the fungus and its microstructures, information on the ecology and general distribution and data on the literature and internet sources.

Keywords: cyphellaceous fungi – forest-steppe – new data – microhabitats – Woldmaria filicina

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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