Volume 4 - 2013 - Issue 3

1. Black yeasts from the slope sediments of Bay of Bengal: phylogenetic and functional characterization

Authors: Kutty SN1, Lawman D2, Singh ISB3 and Philip R

Recieved: 17 December 2012, Accepted: 05 February 2013, Published: 14 May 2013

Occurrence of black yeasts in the slope sediments of Bay of Bengal was investigated during FORV Sagar Sampada cruises 236 and 245. The black yeast population was found to be very scanty in the area and the isolates could be obtained from 200m to 1000m depth regions in the slope sediments. The isolates were identified as Hortaea werneckii by Internal Transcribed Spacer(ITS) sequencing. The biodegradation potential of these strains was found to be very high with all the strains exhibiting protease, lipase and amylase production. The optimum growth conditions were pH 8, salinity 30 ppt and temperature 30oC. The pigment melanin, in these organisms was identified to be of dihydroxynaphthalene type by NMR. The melanin was found to exhibit inhibitory activity against different human and fish pathogens. Melanin degrading enzyme could also be extracted from these organisms.

Keywords: Antibacterial – Black yeasts – Dihydroxynaphthalene – Hortaea werneckii – Marine – Melanin


2. Smut fungi of Iran

Authors: Vánky K, Abbasi M

Recieved: 17 December 2012, Accepted: 05 February 2013, Published: 17 May 2013

A short history of the knowledge of Iranian smut fungi is given followed by an account of the 99 known smut fungus species (Ustilaginomycetes) from Iran. Each species is presented with its authors, place of publication, synonyms, description, host plants and geographic distribution. A key to the 16 genera, to which these smuts belong, and keys to the species within each genus are given. There is also a host plant – smut fungus index. The following six species are known only from Iran: Anthracoidea songorica, Entyloma majewskii, Tilletia rostrariae, Tranzscheliella iranica, Urocystis behboudii and Urocystis phalaridis.

Keywords: Biodiversity – Iran – parasitic microfungi – smut fungi – synonyms – Ustilaginomycetes


3. Colonization and diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes in relation to decomposition of submerged leaf litter in River Kali (Western Ghats, India)

Authors: Sudheep NM, Sridhar KR

Recieved: 27 January 2013, Accepted: 11 March 2013, Published: 20 May 2013

Dynamics of leaf chemistry, quantitative studies and decomposition of leaves by aquatic hyphomycetes in the Western Ghats is investigated in this paper. A total of 28 species (range, 19–28 spp.) of aquatic hyphomycetes were recovered from natural and submerged (banyan and cashew) leaf litter in Kaiga stream and Kadra dam of the Western Ghats over three seasons (monsoon, post-monsoon and summer) in 12 months of 2008–09. Higher species richness and conidial output was seen during the post-monsoon season and this corroborates with earlier studies. Among the top six species, five were common in different locations of the Western Ghats (Anguillospora longissima, Flagellospora curvula, Lunulospora curvula, Triscelophorus acuminatus and T. monosporus). Among the 12 less frequent species, seven also occurred in low frequency in other locations of the Western Ghats (Clavariopsis aquatica, Dwayaangam cornuta, Flabellospora crassa, F. multiradiata, Ingoldiella hamata, Nawawia filiformis and Tricladium sp.). Leaf litter decomposition resulted in elevation of nitrogen and decrease in phosphorus and total phenolics. Cellulase was higher in banyan than cashew leaves compared to xylanase and pectinase in stream and dam locations. The enzyme activity peaked within one or two weeks and subsequently remained steady with a few exceptions coinciding with increase in total nitrogen, decrease in total phenolics and leaf mass loss. Banyan and cashew leaf litter in Kaiga stream and Kadra dam falls in the slow decomposing category over three seasons (k, 0.0030-0.00.0050). Decomposition of banyan leaves (k, 0.0037-0.0050) was faster than cashew leaves (k, 0.0030-0.0043) in stream as well as dam sites. This was reflected in changes in leaf chemistry (slow decrease of organic carbon, phosphorus, phenolics and gradual increase in nitrogen), low enzyme activity (xylanase and pectinase), low fungal richness, conidial output and fungal diversity in dam location. Leaf mass of banyan and cashew was positively correlated with organic carbon, phosphorus and total phenolics, while negatively correlated with nitrogen and enzyme activity. Negative correlation between phenolics and enzymes reveals that the mass loss was dependent on the quantity and extent of leaching of phenolics. Overall, the assemblage of aquatic hyphomycetes on leaf litter in Kaiga stream and Kadra dam imitates other locations of the Western Ghats with variations in dynamics of leaf chemistry, decomposition and mass loss.

Keywords: Aquatic hyphomycetes – colonization – dam – decomposition – diversity – enzymes – stream – leaf chemistry – leaf litter – leaf mass loss – Western Ghats


4. Species listing, distribution, and molecular identification of macrofungi in six Aeta tribal communities in Central Luzon, Philippines

Authors: De Leon AM, Luangsa-ard JJD,  Karunarathna SC5, Hyde KD, Reyes RG, dela Cruz TEE

Recieved: 01 February 2013, Accepted: 03 April 2013, Published: 20 May 2013

The species of macrofungi found in ancestral domains and resettlement areas of Aetas in three provinces of Luzon are presented in this paper. A total of 76 species of macrofungi were collected from May to October 2011. Fifty-three of the macrofungi were identified up to species level while 23 were identified up to genus level only. The macrofungi belonged to 23 taxonomic families. Some of the collected macrofungi were recorded only in either the ancestral domain (Auricularia polytricha) or in resettlement areas (Ganoderma sinense and Pleurotus sajor-caju). The majority of the fungi were recorded during the rainy season. Many of the collected fungi were not also utilized by the Aeta communities. This is the first comparative report of macrofungi in ancestral domains and resettlement areas of the Aetas in Central Luzon.

Keywords: ancestral domain – indigenous communities – mushroom – resettlement area


5. P. Hennings (1898) Fungi centro-africani: species collected by G. Schweinfurth in what is now the Republic of South Sudan: A revisit

Authors: Mouchacca J, Dennetière B

Recieved: 14 February 2013, Accepted: 31 December 1969, Published: 25 May 2013

A revisit of the publication entitled ‘Fungi centro-africani’ by P. Hennings (1898) is presented and the 32 taxa reported are taxonomically re-evaluated. Most specimens were collected by G. Schweinfurth during his third trip (1868-1871) in the wide and politically unsettled region then known as Central Africa. Two additional species were collected by G. Ruhmer further to the north, in present-day Libya. The distribution of these specimens within the current political borders show that 24 species were observed in the recently independent Republic of South Sudan, five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa), and one in the Republic of the Sudan. The present document also includes three species collected by G. Schweinfurth but later described by Hennings.
The general layout of this contribution is similar to that of the original publication. Each taxon is introduced with the same name and reference used by Hennings. The nomenclatural status and taxonomic positions are then reviewed following recent information. The current name is cited after the original name whenever a change has occurred. Obligate synonyms are included. Facultative synonyms are sometimes included to elucidate the taxonomic history of the species.
The 35 African taxa treated belong to three major groups: ascomycetes (5 spp.), hetero- (3 spp.), and homobasidiomycetes (27 spp.). Members of the last group generally have fruit bodies sufficiently large to be visible to the unaided eye. Many were described as new species by Hennings. The original names of half these taxa have undergone changes although for a few new designations are still debatable. The binomials of the remaining collections are unchanged. Thus despite over a hundred years since Hennings’ publication and the present revisit, the taxonomic status of some of these taxa still awaits re-assessment in modern terms.

Keywords: ascomycetes – basidiomycetes – biodiversity – Central Africa – Congo– fungi – nomenclature – Sudan – taxonomy


6. Five supposedly well-known species of Leptogium section Mallotium

Authors: Kitaura MJ, Marcelli MP, Jungbluth P, Hora BR

Recieved: 17 December 2012, Accepted: 05 February 2013, Published: 26 May 2013

The revision and detailed description of type specimens of five supposedly well-known hairy Leptogium species revealed taxonomically relevant new data. Both holotype and isotype of L. capense are a mixture of species and a new lectotype is designated. A new isotype of L. decipiens was found at E. The protologue of L. inversum mentioned marginal apothecia but the holotype has just laminal and sub-marginal apothecia. The lectotype duplicate of L. resupinans is not really a fragment of the lectotype and must be considered as syntype. The apothecia of L. scrobiculatum are described for the first time.

Keywords: Collemataceae – cylindrical cells – hairs – type material


7. Myxomycete records from Eagle Hill in Maine

Authors: Zoll V, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 20 February 2013, Accepted: 31 December 1969, Published: 27 May 2013

Specimens of myxomycetes collected during the course of a week-long seminar held at approximately the same time during four different years (2004, 2006, 2008 and 2012) provide a baseline of data on the assemblage of species associated with the forests of one small area of Maine. Seventy-three species belonging to 29 genera were recorded during the four years, and 17 of these were collected in at least three different years. Sixty-one of the 73 species were represented by specimens that had fruited in the field under natural conditions, but these were supplemented by a number of specimens obtained from moist chamber cultures.

Keywords: distribution – ecology – field collections – moist chamber cultures – plasmodial slime molds – spruce-fir forests


8. Contributions to a revision of Cercidospora (Dothideales), 2: Species on Lecanora s. l., Rhizoplaca and Squamarina

Authors: Calatayud V, Navarro-Rosinés P, Hafellner J

Recieved: 12 March 2013, Accepted: 21 May 2013, Published: 02 June 2013

A study on the taxonomy, morphology and anatomy of the lichenicolous species of the genus Cercidospora (Dothideales, incertae sedis) growing on lichens of the genera Lecanora (Lecanoraceae), specifically of the L. polytropa group and the L. saxicola group (i.e. L. muralis sensu auct. group, Protoparmeliopsis spp.), Rhizoplaca (Lecanoraceae) and Squamarina (Stereocaulaceae) is presented. The following species are proposed as new: Cercidospora barrenoana on Rhizoplaca peltata, and C. melanophthalmae on Rhizoplaca melanophthalma. C. stenotropae is proposed provisionally; this fungus grows on Lecanora stenotropa and other taxa of the L. polytropa group. A key for the species of the genus Cercidospora treated is provided.

Keywords: Ascomycota – lichenicolous fungi – lichenized fungi


9. Ingoldian fungi from semiarid Caatinga biome of Brazil. The genus Campylospora

Authors: Fiuza PO, Gusmão LFP

Recieved: 23 February 2013, Accepted: 31 December 1969, Published: 03 June 2013

All three species of the genus Campylospora (C. chaetocladia, C. filicladia and C. parvula) were found in foam samples collected in water bodies of three areas in the semiarid region, northeast Brazil. Campylospora filicladia is a new record for Brazil. Descriptions, comments, geographical distribution, illustrations and a key to the genus is provided.

Keywords: anamorphic fungi – hyphomycetes – lotic environment – taxonomy – tropical


10. Occurrence of microfungi as litter colonizers and endophytes in varied plant species from the Western Ghats forests, Goa, India

Authors: D’Souza MA, Bhat DJ

Recieved: 01 February 2013, Accepted: 03 April 2013, Published: 08 June 2013

In this study 30 widely distributed plant species from the Western Ghat forest in Goa were randomly selected and were studied with regard to their fungal association as endophytes and litter colonizers. This effort resulted in the recovery of more than 6500 isolates of microfungi which were assignable to 675 species of fungi belonging to 275 genera which included properly recognized Mucorales(1), Ascomycetes (18), Hyphomycetous asexual fungi (289), Coelomycetous asexual fungi (22) and undetermined taxa (77), besides a sizable number of non-sporulating forms (268). Species of endophytes (53) and litter colonizers (77) were selected for enzyme studies. Ten taxa occurred both as endophytes and litter colonizers. Endophytes and litter colonizers showed different enzyme profiles indicating that habit and habitat dictated enzyme activity. Several recovered fungi were new to science and some have already been described as new species and are elaborated here in this paper. Some taxa showed substrate specificity others were diverse in their distribution. Not a single taxon was found to occur on all 26 plant species and only three taxa showed more than 50% association with all the 26 plant species. This shows evidence towards substrate preference in fungi in relation to their host plants.

Keywords: Asexual fungi – biodiversity – microfungi – taxonomy


11. First records and human activity on Brazilian Atlantic Forest Dictyostelids

Authors: Xavier de Lima V

Recieved: 19 March 2013, Accepted: 28 April 2013, Published: 14 June 2013

Dictyostelid cellular slime moulds isolated from two natural and cultivated areas in lowland ​​Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil were identified and quantified. Nine species were recognized: Dictyostelium fasciculatum, D. firmibasis, D. macrocephalum, D. aff. monochasioides, D. mucoroides, D. purpureum, Polysphondylium pallidum, P. pseudocandidum and P. violaceum, which are the first records for Brazil. The most abundant species were D. mucoroides, D. purpureum and P. pallidum. A decrease in the abundance of dictyostelids was observed in cultivated areas, indicating that this organism responds to human disturbance.

Keywords: anthropization – cellular slime moulds – Pernambuco State – soil biota


12. New species and new records of cercosporoid hyphomycetes from Cuba and Venezuela (Part 3)

Authors: Braun U, Urtiaga R

Recieved: 22 March 2013, Accepted: 20 April 2013, Published: 24 June 2013

Examinations of specimens of cercosporoid leaf-spotting hyphomycetes made between 1966 and 1997 in Cuba and Venezuela, now housed at K (previously deposited at IMI as “Cercospora sp.”), have been continued, supplemented by several samples collected in Venezuela between 2006 and 2012, which are now deposited at HAL. Some species are new to Cuba and Venezuela, some new host plants are included, and the following new species are introduced: Cercospora syngoniicola, Pseudocercospora apeibae, P. clematidis-haenkeanae, P. erythrinicola, P. erythroxylicola, P. guanarensis, P. helicteris, P. simirae, and Zasmidium cassiae-grandis. The new combination Pseudocercospora angraeci and the new name P. ranjita var. amphigena are proposed.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Mycosphaerellaceae – Cercospora – Cercosporella – Passalora – Pseudocercospora – Zasmidium – South America – West Indies


13. Two new coprophilous varieties of Panaeolus (Psathyrellaceae, Agaricales) from Punjab, India

Authors: Amandeep K, Atri NS and Munruchi K

Recieved: 21 March 2013, Accepted: 30 April 2013, Published: 28 June 2013

Two new coprophilousvarieties of Panaeolus are described from Punjab, India. P. africanus var. diversistipus var. nov. was found growing solitary on a cattle dung heap from Hoshiarpur district and P. speciosus var. pilocystidiosus var. nov. was growing scattered on cattle dung from Barnala district. The new taxa are described along with habitat photographs and line drawings of macroscopic and microscopic features and their distinctive features are discussed.  

Keywords: Coprophilous – India – Panaeolus – Psathyrellaceae – Punjab


14. Myxomycetes appearing in moist chamber cultures on samples of bark and wood collected from coarse woody debris

Authors: Massingill JM, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 07 May 2013, Accepted: 09 June 2013, Published: 30 June 2013

The species associated with coarse woody debris make up the best known ecological assemblage of myxomycetes, but most records are based on fruiting bodies that have formed in the field under natural conditions and not from samples of bark and wood placed in moist chamber cultures. In this study, samples of bark and wood from pieces of coarse woody debris on the forest floor were collected and used to prepare a series moist chamber cultures. All of the 30 cultures prepared with wood and 29 of the 30 (97%) of the cultures prepared with bark were positive for myxomycetes. Thirty-three different species representing 14 genera were recovered, with 21 species (14 genera) recorded for bark and 22 species (11 genera) recorded for wood. These data indicate that any effort to carry out a truly comprehensive survey of the myxomycetes present at a given locality should include examining samples of coarse woody debris with the moist chamber culture technique.

Keywords: Devil’s Den State Park – ecological study – moist chamber cultures – slime moulds


15. Fungal communities of symptomless barks of tropical trees

Authors: Murali TS, Thirunavukkarasu N, Govindarajulu MB, Suryanarayanan TS

Recieved: 21 March 2013, Accepted: 30 April 2013, Published: 30 June 2013

The fungi associated with the bark (phellophytes) of fifteen dicotyledonous tree species of a dry thorn, dry deciduous and a stunted montane evergreen forest of the Western Ghats, southern India, were studied. The species diversity of the phellophytes was higher for the montane evergreen forest when compared with dry thorn and dry deciduous forests. Although many fungal species were present in the bark of different tree species, most of them had a low frequency of isolation and only a few were isolated with high frequencies. Species of Phoma and Phomopsis, Fusarium and Paecilomyces and sterile forms EGS1 and EGS3 were isolated with high frequency from dry thorn, dry deciduous and a stunted montane evergreen forest respectively. The dry thorn and dry deciduous forests, which are more arid and fire-prone, shared more phellophyte species than the dry deciduous and montane evergreen forests. The phellophyte assemblages of the different forests were distinct while those of six tree species of a family from one forest showed a high overlap. It appears that the environment, rather than the tree species, determines the phellophyte assemblage in these forests.

Keywords: bark fungi – fungal diversity – phellophytes – tropical forests


16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Plectosphaerella cucumerina on bamboo from Iran

Authors: Arzanlou M, Torbati M, Khodaei S

Recieved: 03 April 2016, Accepted: 15 May 2013, Published: 30 June 2013

In a survey on the mycobiota associated with bamboo species in Iran, during 2010 a phialidic hyphomecete was recovered from apparently healthy bamboo stems in Assalouyeh (Bushehr province). Fungal isolates were identified as Plectosphaerella cucumerina based on morphological data. The identity of the species was further confirmed using sequence data from ITS-rDNA region. A phylogeny inferred using sequence data from ITS-rDNA region placed our isolate together with Pa. cucumerina from the other hosts in GenBank. This is the first record for the genus Plectosphaerella and first report on the occurrence of P. cucumerina on bamboo in Iran.

Keywords: Endophyte – Plectosphaerellaceae – phialide


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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