Volume 4 - 2013 - Issue 2


1. Conidial fungi from the semi-arid Caatinga biome of Brazil. Ellisembiopsis gen. nov., new variety of Sporidesmiella and some notes of Sporidesmium complex

Authors: Santa Izabel TS, Cruz ACR, Gusmão LFP

Recieved: 20 December 2012, Accepted: 10 January 2013, Published: 13 March 2013

During an inventory of conidial fungi from dead plant material in the semi-arid Caatinga biome of Brazil, some species of Sporidesmium complex were found. Ellisembiopsis brasiliensis gen. et sp. nov. and Sporidesmiella garciniae var. brasiliensis var. nov. are proposed, described and illustrated. Sporidesmium knawiae is considered synonymous with Repetophragma inflatum. Eight new combinations of Ellisembia (E. delavayae, E. filirostrata, E. ilicis, E. magnibrachypa, E. ochnae, E. phoebes, E. pruni, E. tarennae) and, Ellisembiopsis zhejiangensis comb. nov. are proposed. A table comparing the main features of Sporidesmium and related genera is included.

Keywords: Ellisembia – Ellisembiopsis – Sporidemiella – Sporidesmiopsis

 

2. Tamhinispora a new genus belongs to family Tubeufiaceae from the Western Ghats, India based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis

Authors: Rajeshkumar KC, Sharma R

Recieved: 10 January 2013, Accepted: 31 January 2013, Published: 16 March 2013

A new genus and species, Tamhinispora indica, was collected on decaying Bambusa bambos culms from Tamhini Ghats, northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra. Morphologically, this new genus can be easily differentiated from similar genera like Ernakulamia, Pseudoacrodictys, Petrakia, Biconiosporium, Pseudopetrakia and Manoharachariella by having dark blackish brown, mostly ovoid or irregular, dictyoseptate conidia with apical appendages diverging or radiating from the conidial tip and intercalary, almost sessile conidiogenous cells in hyphae. Phylogenetic analysis using ITS and LSU sequences establish the placement of Tamhinispora in the family Tubeufiaceae; allied to dictyochlamydospore-forming or dark brown conidia-forming genera like Chlamydotubeufia and Helicoon.

Keywords: anamorphic fungi – Ascomycota – dematiaceous – dictyoseptate – stauroconidium

 

3. New species and new records of cercosporoid hyphomycetes from Cuba and Venezuela (Part 2)

Authors: Braun U, Urtiaga R

Recieved: 06 November 2012, Accepted: 08 February 2013, Published: 16 March 2013

Examination of specimens of cercosporoid leaf-spotting hyphomycetes made between 1966 and 1970 in Cuba and Venezuela, now housed at K (previously deposited at IMI as “Cercospora sp.”), have been continued. Additionally examined Venezuelan collections, made between 2006 and 2010, are now deposited at HAL. Several species are new to Cuba and Venezuela, some new host plants are included, and the following new species and a new variety are introduced: Cercospororella ambrosiae-artemisiifoliae, Passalora crotonis-gossypiifolii, P. solaniphila, P. stigmaphyllicola, Pseudocercospora calycophylli, P. coremioides, P. lonchocarpicola, P. lonchocarpigena, P. paulliniae, P. picramniae, P. psidii var. varians, P. solanacea, P. teramnicola, P. trichiliae-hirtae, P. zuelaniae, Pseudocercosporella leonotidis, Zasmidium cubense, Z. genipae-americanae. The new name Pseudocercospora toonae-ciliatae and the new combination Zasmidium hyptiantherae are proposed.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Cercospora – Cercosporella – Mycosphaerellaceae – Passalora – Pseudocercospora – South America – West Indies – Zasmidium

 

4. Hydropus griseolazulinus, a striking new species from Paraíba, Brazil

Authors: Pinheiro FGB, Sá MCA, Wartchow F.

Recieved: 05 February 2013, Accepted: 26 February 2013, Published: 17 March 2013

A new species of Hydropus is described. This species is easy to identify due its greyish blue pileus with blue lamellae and yellow tinted edge, inamyloid basidiospores, scarcity of pleurocystidia and crowded cheilocystidia. A description, discussion, photographs and line drawings are provided.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – Agaricales – Neotropic – taxonomy

 

5. Myxomycetes isolated from submerged plant material collected in the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas

Authors: Winsett KE, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 11 February 2013, Accepted: 03 March 2013, Published: 23 March 2013

Samples of submerged plant material obtained from streams and other bodies of water at 11 different collecting sites in management units of the Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas were used to prepare 90 moist chamber cultures for the isolation of myxomycetes. These cultures were maintained in the laboratory for 10 weeks, during which they yielded 14 species representing 12 genera. This total included five species (Licea belmontiana, Craterium concinnum, Diachea bulbillosa, Oligonema schweinitzii, and Physarum echinosporum) not recorded previously for the Big Thicket National Preserve and one species (D. bulbillosa) new for the state of Texas. Although usually not included in biodiversity surveys for myxomycetes, our data suggest that submerged plant material may support a few species that may be missed if only terrestrial habitats are considered.

Keywords: All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory – aquatic myxomycetes – biodiversity – moist chamber culture – state record

 

6. The nuclear reproductive cycle in the myxomycetes: a review

Authors: Clark J, Haskins EF

Recieved: 11 January 2013, Accepted: 30 January 2013, Published: 25 March 2013

Our understanding of the taxonomy, ecology and population biology of myxomycetes has been enhanced by investigations of the nuclear reproductive cycle of taxa in this group. These studies have involved light microscopy, electron microscopy, DNA cytophotometric reports and genetic investigations. Heterothallism with its associated life cycle events of syngamy and meiosis is extensively reviewed as revealed by light microscopy, genetics and DNA spectrophotometric analysis of nuclear ploidy levels. Non-heterothallism, i.e., homothallism and apogamy, specifically automixis and its genetical and evolutionary significance is discussed. Nuclear division, chromosomal number and polyploidy in the myxomycetes is also detailed.

Keywords: apogamy – automixis – heterothallism – homothallism – myxomycetes – nuclear-cycle – polyploidy

 

7. The distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis across the southern Appalachian states, USA

Authors: Rollins AW, Copeland JE, Barker H, Satterfield D

Recieved: 27 January 2013, Accepted: 14 March 2013, Published: 28 March 2013

This study documents the occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) associated with the wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) from the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. This is the first report of Bd from the Park and subsequently from natural amphibian populations in the state of Kentucky. Based on the results of the current survey, a review of the literature, and records downloaded from the database maintained by BD-Maps.net, the following conclusions can be tentatively drawn: (a) the proportion of populations harboring Bd across southern Appalachian states appears to be relatively low, (b) mortality associated with Bd appears to be rare across the region, and (c) the highlands of the southern Appalachian mountains are notably under-sampled and understudied despite their conceivably high potential to contribute to our understanding of the factors predisposing populations to chytridiomycosis.

Keywords: Chytridiomycosis – chytrid distribution – Cumberland Gap National Historical Park – frogs – salamanders

 

8. Cyathus olla from the cold desert of Ladakh

Authors: orjey K, Kumar S, Sharma YP

Recieved: 08 February 2013, Accepted: 13 March 2013, Published: 28 March 2013

Cyathus olla is a new record for India. The fungus is described and illustrated. Notes are given on its habitat and edibility and some ethnomycological information is presented

Keywords: ethnomycology – new record – taxonomy

 

9. Lactifluus dunensis, a new species from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Authors: Sá MCA, Baseia IG, Wartchow F

Recieved: 22 February 2013, Accepted: 19 March 2013, Published: 03 April 2013

Lactifluus dunensis is described as a new species from sand dune area in Brazil. It is characterized by the presence of orange-brown pileus with wrinkled then radially wrinkled at the margin, very long basidia, basidiospore size and abundant thin to slightly thick-walled pileipellis elements. Discussion, description, drawings and photographs of the new species are provided.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – Neotropic – Russulaceae – taxonomy

 

10. Secondary metabolic profiling and antibacterial activities of different species of Usnea collected in Northern Philippines

Authors: Santiago KAA, Sangvichien E, Boonpragob K, dela Cruz TEE

Recieved: 17 January 2013, Accepted: 11 March 2013, Published: 05 April 2013

Lichen metabolites have multiple functions in nature and these include several biological activities against pathogens and multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study shows the antibacterial properties of 18 Usnea species collected from five provinces in the northern part of Luzon, Philippines. A total of 41 lichen specimens were extracted using acetone to a final concentration of 10 mg/ml. The crude extracts were initially subjected to TLC. Interestingly, 17 different lichen metabolites were identified. The 41 crude lichen extracts were then tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis using paper-disk diffusion assay, most of which were found to be more active against the latter test organism. In addition, 28 of the 41 lichen extracts were also tested against Mycobacterium phlei. Interestingly, most of the samples exhibited much greater activities than that of the antibiotics used as indicated by the zones of inhibition. Moreover, 15 crude extracts showing distinct spots in their TLC profiles were tested against Nocardia asteroides using TLC-bioautography. Results showed that usnic acid, norstictic acid, and salazinic acid were the bioactive lichen metabolites.

Keywords: acid-fast bacilli – gram-positive bacteria – lichen acids – paper disk diffusion assay – TLC bioautography

 

11. Butterfly Woods, The Wilds, an optimal habitat of dictyostelidcellular slime molds in Ohio

Authors: Cavender JC, Cavender ND

Recieved: 17 February 2013, Accepted: 22 March 2013, Published: 20 April 2013

The occurrence and distribution of cellular slime molds (CSM) in Ohio have been studied by J. Cavender, C. Hopka, C. Hammer, G. Kauffman, M. Stephenson, and N. Cavender over a 40-year period in order to discover environmental factors important for their ecological survival. Recently (2003) an unglaciated, mixed mesophytic, remnant forest patch, Butterfly Woods (BW) at The Wilds, Muskingum County, a forest which is now surrounded by reclaimed strip mines, was found to have the highest CSM diversity of the 119 sites sampled in Ohio. Nineteen species were found over a period of seven years of soil sample collecting. This compares with a total of 25 occurring in Ohio and is the largest number found so far in any single temperate deciduous forest (<40 ha) in the United States as well as world-wide. Abundance (relative density) of each species measured by the number of clones is very similar to that occurring statewide, but there are some interesting differences. Comparison with ecological distributions in Ohio is used to help explain the co-occurrence of so many species in BW. The reasons why BW is believed to be optimal for CSM biodiversity are: 1) unglaciated soil, unflooded by post glacial lakes; 2) soil with variable pH, slightly acidic to neutral and derived from layered sandstone, limestone, and shale bedrock; 3) east to northeast slope; 4) favorable moisture regime and slightly changing soil conditions from top to bottom; 5) relatively high mixed mesophytic tree diversity as well as herb diversity providing varied microsites; 6) abundant organic matter and well-developed humus and litter layer conducive to bacterial growth; 7) a large ravine which provides increased environmental protection and helps renew nutrient levels; 8) some past disturbance around the borders from agriculture and mining; and 9) a large enough size to conserve CSM biodiversity.

Keywords: Cellular slime mold diversity – environmental factors – microhabitat variation – soil conditions

 

12. Fungi on decaying leaves of Magnolia liliifera and Cinnamomum iners show litter fungi to be hyperdiverse

Authors: Monkai J, Promputtha I, Kodsueb R, Chukeatirote E, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD

Recieved: 11 March 2013, Accepted: 14 April 2013, Published: 20 April 2013

Diversity of fungi on decaying leaves of Magnolia liliifera and Cinnamomum iners collected during the dry season at Doi Suthep-Pui forest, Chiang Mai, Thailand were studied and compared. Thirty-five taxa were identified from Magnolia liliifera comprising 8 sexual (ascomycetes) and 27 asexual taxa. The most abundant species found were Sporidesmium sp., Colletotrichum fructicola and Stachybotrys parvispora. Seventeen taxa were identified from Cinnamomum iners comprising 2 ascomycetes and 15 asexual taxa. Anamorph of Eutypa sp. 2 and Pleurophragmium sp. were the most abundant species on Cinnamomum iners. There is very little overlap between the fungi occurring on the two host species. Distinct fungal communities were found between the two hosts at each stage of decomposition. Decaying leaves of both hosts collected in the early stage of decomposition supported a greater fungal diversity than those collected at the later stage of decomposition. Saprobic fungi on the two plants are shown to be hyperdiverse.

Keywords: biodiversity estimates – fungal ecology – saprobic fungi

 

13. A review of the genus Bulbothrix Hale: the species with medullary fatty acids or without medullary substances

Authors: Benatti MN

Recieved: 06 February 2013, Accepted: 15 March 2013, Published: 27 April 2013

A taxonomic review of ten Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Fungi) species containing fatty acids or no substances in the medulla is presented here. The current species delimitations are confirmed. New characteriscts are detailed, some synonyms are rejected, others confirmed, and range extensions are added.

Keywords: Parmeliaceae, fatty acids, bulbate cilia

 

14. Cuboid spored Entoloma in Kerala State, India

Authors: Pradeep CK, Shibu P. Varghese, Vrinda KB, Baroni TJ

Recieved: 05 March 2013, Accepted: 09 April 2013, Published: 27 April 2013

Four new cuboid species of Entoloma (E. brunneopapillatum, E. brunneosquamulosum, E. griseolimosum, E. brunneocarnosum) are described, illustrated and discussed based on collections made from Kerala State, India by the authors. A key to the known cuboid species of Entoloma from Kerala State is also provided.

Keywords: Entolomataceae – interesting species – new species – quadrate spores – taxonomy

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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