Volume 3 - 2012 - Issue 4


1. A new species of Hygroaster (Hygrophoraceae) from Kerala State, India

Authors: Vrinda KB, Shibu P Varghese, Pradeep CK

Recieved: 06 June 2012, Accepted: 21 June 2012, Published: 03 July 2012

Hygroaster is a small genus in the Hygrophoraceae family with only seven species known worldwide. Hygroaster fucatus sp. nov. is described, illustrated and compared with related species.

Keywords: Agaricales – Basidiomycota – taxonomy – Western Ghats

 

2. Aureobasidium iranianum, a new species on bamboo from Iran

Authors: Arzanlou M, Khodaei S

Recieved: 08 June 2012, Accepted: 20 June 2012, Published: 06 July 2012

An endophytic species of black yeasts, Aureobasidium iranianum, is described and illustrated from bamboo stem in Iran using morphological as well as sequence data from the ITS-rDNA region. The species can be distinguished from other Aureobasidium species by the abundant production of pigmented arthroconidia in culture and ITS barcode.

Keywords: black yeast – ITS – taxonomy

 

3. A new species of Corynespora from terai forest of Northeastern Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Kumar S, Singh R, Saini DC, Kamal

Recieved: 14 June 2012, Accepted: 18 June 2012, Published: 06 July 2012

A new species of Corynespora is described, illustrated and compared to a similar species. C. pogostemonicola sp. nov. was collected on living leaves of Pogostemon plectranthoides (Lamiaceae) from terai forest of northeastern Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: Corynespora – Foliicolous hyphomycete – Fungi– Morphotaxonomy – New species

 

4. Cantharellus amazonensis, a new specis from Amazon

Authors: Wartchow F, Santos JC, Fonseca MDP

Recieved: 30 May 2012, Accepted: 03 July 2012, Published: 10 July 2012

Cantharellus amazonensis is described as a new species from the Amazon. It is characterized by the contrasting red pileus with yellow folds and stipe, the basidiospores size and thin-walled pileipellis hyphae. A description, discussion, photograph and line drawings are provided.

Keywords: Cantharellaceae – Cantharellales – Neotropic – taxonomy

 

5. Carotenoid analysis of locally isolated Thraustochytrids and their potential as an alternative fish feed for Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)

Authors: Atienza GAMV, Arafiles KHV, Carmona MCM, Garcia JPC, Macabago AMB, Peñacerrada BJDC, Cordero PRF, Bennett RM, Dedeles GR

Recieved: 06 May 2012, Accepted: 10 June 2012, Published: 18 July 2012

Thraustochytrids are marine heterotrophic straminipilans that have recently gained attention due to their capability to produce large amounts of lipids and especially to their utility as an alternative source of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).Two identified thraustochytrids (Thraustochytrium sp. SB04 and Schizochytrium sp. SB11) isolated from senescent fallen mangrove leaves in Subic Bay, Philippines were further studied for their carotenoid contents and potential as alternative fish feed for Oreochromisniloticus (Nile tilapia). Their optimized culture conditions for biomass and total fatty acid production have been reported recently. In this present study, the carotenoid contents of these two isolates were analyzed via Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acetone extracts of fresh and oven-dried cells. Their pigments present were identified through their Rf values. Thraustochytrium sp. SB04 showed astaxanthin monoesters, astaxanthindiesters, astaxanthin free, and echinenone; whereas Schizochytrium sp. SB11showed echinenone, lutein, astaxanthin monoesters, and astaxanthindiesters. These identified compounds were recently reported to have antioxidant properties, anticancer, and immunomodulatory effects to humans. Further, astaxanthin is a red pigment common to many marine animals and are used as food coloring and feed additive for poultry and aquaculture industry. Further, when dried cells of the mass-produced isolates were used as feed supplements for the growth of O. niloticus, the growth yield of the fish showed a significant difference (p<0.05) when compared to commercial fish feeds. Results of this study showed that thraustochytridcells can be used as source of naturally occurring carotenoids and as promising alternative fish feed to O. niloticus.

Keywords: Carotenoids – Oreochromis niloticus – Schizochytrium sp. – Thraustochytrids – Thraustochytrium sp.

 

6. New records in the lichen family Lobariaceae from the Western Ghats of India

Authors: Pandit G and Sharma B

Recieved: 04 June 2012, Accepted: 02 July 2012, Published: 22 July 2012

The lichen family Lobariaceae has 34 species represented in India. In this paper six new records are reported for the first time from different states of the Western Ghats: Lobaria adscripta (Nyl.) Hue, L. fuscotomentosa Yoshim, Pseudocyphellaria argyracea (Bory ex Delise) Vain, P. aurata (Sm. Ex. Ach.) Vain., P. crocata (L.) Vain. and Sticta duplolimbata (Hue) Vain. Of these, two are new records to Kerala, one new record to Karnataka, one to Kerala and Tamil Nadu each and Sticta duplolimbata (Hue) Vain. as new record to India (Tamil Nadu).

Keywords: Karnataka – Kerala – Lobaria – Pseudocyphellaria – Sticta – Tamil Nadu

 

7. Studies of coprophilous ascomycetes in Kenya: Sordariales from wildlife dung

Authors: Mungai PG, Chukeatirote E, Njogu JG, Hyde KD

Recieved: 12 March 2012, Accepted: 17 April 2012, Published: 31 July 2012

In our continuing series on coprophilous fungi from wild herbivores moist chamber dung cultures from African elephant, Cape buffalo, dikdik, giraffe, impala, Jackson’s hartebeest, waterbuck and zebra found in Kenyan National Parks and Reserves were examined for sporulating coprophilous Sordariales. Arnium arizonense, Sordaria fimicola and Zopfiella longicaudata are reported for the first time in Kenya while Zygopleurage zygospora is a very frequent species on wildlife dung. Zopfiella affinis erostrata awaits further examination as it could be a novel species.

Keywords: Arnium – national parks – Sordaria – wild herbivores – Zopfiella – Zygopleurage

 

8. A new and rare species of Phlyctaeniella from central India

Authors: Tiwari CK, Parihar Jagrati, Verma RK

Recieved: 27 June 2012, Accepted: 18 July 2012, Published: 15 August 2012

Phlyctaeniella indica sp. nov. from Chhattisgarh State, India is described, illustrated and discussed. It is a rare species occurring on stored logs of Eucalyptus sp. and collected only once in the past 20 years from central India.

Keywords: Ascomycete – pezizomycotina – taxonomy – wood depots

 

9. Capability of selected mushrooms to biodegrade polyethylene

Authors: Nwogu NA, Atuanya EI, Akpaja EO

Recieved: 05 July 2012, Accepted: 23 July 2012, Published: 18 August 2012

Many natural polymers are susceptible to microbial attack but synthetic polymers such as high-molecular weight polyethylene are generally difficult to degrade by microorganisms. Environmental concerns have led us to seek ways to resolve the problem that recalcitrant plastics pose on the ecology. The biodegradability of polyethylene films by selected exotic mushrooms was examined. In screening for the best polyethylene degrading-fungus, Pleurotus tuber-regium grew fastest on mineral salt medium containing polyethylene powder as sole carbon and energy followed by P. pulmonarius. Lentinus squarrosulus and Rigidoporus lignosus grew least on the medium. Degradation of polyethylene by P. tuber-regium and P. pulmonarius was determined by weight loss of sample and chemical changes measured by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Polyethylene biodegraded by P. tuber-regium and P. pulmonarius gave weight losses of 13.26% and 9.67% respectively. FTIR analysis showed additional absorbance at regions corresponding to carbonyl groups in the spectra of polyethylene biodegraded by P. tuber-regium and P. pulmonarius, suggesting that polyethylene was degraded oxidatively. The enzyme assays showed that Manganese peroxidase (MnP) may be the main enzyme involved in polyethylene degradation. These results suggest the capability of P. tuber-regium and P. pulmonarius to degrade polyethylene.

Keywords: White-rot fungi – biodegradation – ligninolytic enzymes – polymer

 

10. Some species of Hyphodontia s.l. with encrusted cystidial elements

Authors: Gorjón SP

Recieved: 10 July 2012, Accepted: 23 July 2012, Published: 21 August 2012

Some species in Hyphodontia or related genera with encrusted cystidia are discussed. The type specimens of the following species have been studied: Grandinia erikssonii, Hyphodontia heterocystidiata, H. wrightii, Hypochnicium odontioidescens, H. rickii, Palifer seychellensis, and Peniophora verecunda. All all them except P. seychellensis, belong to Hyphodontia s.l. Based on morphological characters of the generic type, Palifer could be considered a synonym of Xylodon.

Keywords: Corticioid fungi – Hypochnicium – Lagarobasidium – Palifer – Xylodon

 

11. Lichens on mangrove plants in Andaman Islands, India

Authors: Sethy P, Pandit G and Sharma B

Recieved: 17 July 2012, Accepted: 19 July 2012, Published: 25 August 2012

Twenty-nine species of lichens are reported on mangrove plants in the Andaman Islands. Fourteen species are new records to Andaman Islands, including five new records to India.

Keywords: Lichenized fungi – new records – taxonomy

 

12. The current status of the family Russulaceae in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

Authors: Joshi S, Bhatt RP, Stephenson SL

Recieved: 24 July 2012, Accepted: 31 July 2012, Published: 28 August 2012

The checklist provided herein represents a current assessment of what is known about the ectomycorrizal family Russulaceae from the Uttarakhand Himalaya. The checklist includes 105 taxa, 55 of which belong to the genus Lactarius Pers. ex S.F. Gray and 50 are members of the genus Russula Pers. ex S.F. Gray. Eleven of the species of Lactarius (listed as Lactarius sp. 1 to 11 in the checklist) are apparently new to science and have yet to be formally described.

Keywords: Ectomycorrhizal fungi – Himalayan Mountains – Lactarius – Russula – Taxonomy

 

13. Coprophilous discomycetes from the Tuscan archipelago (Italy). Description of two rare species and a new Trichobolus

Authors: Doveri F

Recieved: 06 July 2012, Accepted: 24 July 2012, Published: 29 August 2012

With this article the author begins a survey of coprophilous Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes from the Tuscan archipelago, explaining the reasons why this area has so scarcely been explored so far.
After collecting samples of wild rabbit dung and amazing at their productiveness, he describes and analyzes two uncommon discomycetes, and introduces a new species of Trichobolus with 8-spored asci. Finally he stresses the difficulties in distinguishing the 8-spored species of Trichobolus from some Lasiobolus and provides a key to them.

Keywords: Chalazion erinaceum – Coprotus dextrinoideus – dextrinoid setae – rabbit dung –Trichobolus dextrinoideosetosus

 

14. Trichoderma – a promising plant growth stimulator and biocontrol agent

Authors: Saba H, Vibhash D, Manisha M, Prashant KS, Farhan H, Tauseef A

Recieved: 11 August 2012, Accepted: 16 August 2012, Published: 31 August 2012

Biocontrol, or Biological Control, can be defined as the use of natural organisms, or genetically modified, genes or gene products, to reduce the effects of undesirable organisms to favor organisms useful to human, such as crops, trees, animals and beneficial microorganisms. The fungus Trichoderma, a low cost biocontrol agent that can establish itself in different pathosystems, has moderate effects on soil balance and does not harm beneficial organisms that contribute towards pathogen’s control. Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that are ubiquitous in nature. Trichoderma spp. are characterized by rapid growth, mostly bright green conidia and a repetitively branched conidiophore structure. As opportunistic plant symbionts and effective mycoparasites, numerous species of this genus have the potential to become commercial biofungicides. This biocontrol agent has no harmful effects on humans, wild life and other beneficial organisms. It is safe and effective in both natural and controlled environments that does not accumulate in the food chain. Trichoderma strains used as biocontrol agents can act: a) colonizing the soil and/or parts of the plant, occupying a physical space and avoiding the multiplication of the pathogens; b) producing cell wall degrading enzymes against the pathogens; c) producing antibiotics that can kill the pathogens; d) promoting the plant development and e) inducing the defensive mechanisms of the plant. The extensive studies on diverse physiological traits available and still progressing for Trichoderma make these fungi versatile model organisms for research on both industrial fermentations as well as natural phenomena.

Keywords: Antagonistic – Biological control – Endochitinase – Mycoparasitism

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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