Volume 2 - 2011 - Issue 6


1. Five Asteridiella species from Kodagu, Karnataka, India

Authors: Hosagoudar VB, Jagath Thimmaiah C, Jayashankara M.

Recieved: 01 November 2011, Accepted: 11 November 2011, Published: 19 November 2011

This paper gives an account of five Asteridiella species collected from Kodagu, Karnataka, India. Of these, Asteridiella chowrirae, Asteridiella homaligena, Asteridiella madikeriensis and Asteridiella viticis-negundoi are new species, while Asteridiella depokensis is reported for the first time from India.

Keywords: black mildews – Meliolaceae – new species

 

2. Diversity and substrate partitioning of Discomycetes in a cloud forest in Venezuela

Authors: Mardones-Hidalgo M, Iturriaga T.

Recieved: 16 November 2011, Accepted: 21 November 2011, Published: 02 December 2011

The fungal diversity of discomycetes was surveyed in a cloud forest at El Avila National Park in Venezuela. A systematic collecting scheme based on transects was used for the sampling methodology. Two sites were visited on two occasions during the rainy season (June to October) with a total of 24 samples collected from each site. For each plot, 24 and 27 species were identified respectively. Chao-Sorensen Similarity Coefficient between sites was 43%. Rarefaction curves based on species richness for both sites and the main types of substrates (wood, leaf, bamboo and soil) indicated that there are more species to be found than collected. Similarly, Incidence-based Coverage Estimator of species richness (ICE) used to calculate species richness showed that only 40–55% of the species present were observed during this study. Discomycete species were distributed in the following orders: Ostropales (1.2%), Lecanorales (2.4%), Pezizales (7.3%), Rhytismatales (13.4%), Orbiliales (15.9%) and Helotiales (59.8%) with a total of 42 species. This work adds ten new records of discomycetes to Venezuela and possibly eight new taxa.

Keywords: biodiversity – ecology – Helotiales – rarefaction curves – South America – species composition

 

3. Study of fungi associated with decomposition of rice stubble and their role in degradation of lignin and holocellulose

Authors: Islam NF, Borthakur SK

Recieved: 03 November 2011, Accepted: 17 November 2011, Published: 06 December 2011

Twenty-seven species belonging to 15 genera (excluding one unidentified fungus) were isolated from decomposing rice stubble by dilution plate technique. The highest number of colonies (1166 cfu/g of rice stubble) was recorded in 45 days-old stubble and lowest (525) in 30 days-old stubble. Twelve dominant fungi capable of degradation of rice stubble, especially lignin and holocellulose, were tested for decomposition of rice stubble at three incubation periods (20, 40, 60 days). The study revealed a positive correlation between species inoculated and loss in dry weight of stubble with respect to different incubation periods. Highest loss in dry weight was recorded after 60 days of incubation. Penicillium citrinum showed the highest lignin degrading ability while Aspergillus flavus proved to be the most efficient degrader of holocellulose. All experiments were validated through ANOVA test.

Keywords: incubation- stages of decomposition

 

4. Physarella oblonga-centered bioassays for testing the biological activity of myxomycetes

Authors: Herrera NA, Rojas C, Franco-Molano AE, Stephenson SL, Echeverri F.

Recieved: 03 November 2011, Accepted: 24 November 2011, Published: 26 December 2011

To study the trypanocidal, antibacterial, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of myxomycetes, a rapid assessment focused on the species Physarella oblonga was carried out. Optimum conditions for culturing were utilized to develop a protocol that was adequate for bioanalysis of chemical compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS) detected the presence of stigmasterol and fatty acids in plasmodial extracts of Ph. oblonga through H1 analysis. These plasmodial extracts showed low toxicity and positive activity against epymastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. This activity was significantly higher than the activity shown by one of the controls used. Similarly, the extracts from an unidentified species of myxomycete showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of Bacillus cereus, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, whereas the myxomycete Physarum melleum displayed growth inhibition of the phytopathogen F. oxysporum. These results showed that with the use of an appropriate methodology, bioprospective analysis can be carried out on myxomycetes. In addition, this is apparently the first report on the antifungal and antiparasitic potential of myxomycetes.

Keywords: antibacterial activity – antifungal activity – Chagas disease - myxogastrids – secondary metabolites – slime molds

 

5. Inclusion of Nothomitra in Geoglossomycetes

Authors: Hustad VP, Miller AN, Moingeon J-M, Priou J-P

Recieved: 01 December 2011, Accepted: 05 December 2011, Published: 29 December 2011

Nothomitra is a small genus of earth tongues consisting of three species. Historically placed within the Geoglossaceae sensu lato, the genus is currently considered incertae sedis within the Helotiales. We reviewed the morphology and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of Nothomitra using a combined dataset of ITS, LSU and Mcm7 DNA sequences representing 22 species. The placement of Nothomitra was strongly supported within the Geoglossomycetes clade, forming part of the ancestral base of the class with Sarcoleotia globosa and Thuemenidium arenarium. The inclusion of Nothomitra within the Geoglossomycetes is confirmed.

Keywords: Ascomycota – earth tongues – Geoglossaceae – Leotiomycetes – phylogeny

 

6. Pure culture response of bryophilous fungi to matric-induced water stress

Authors: Raudabaugh DB, Overton BE, Zelski SE, Miller AN.

Recieved: 02 December 2011, Accepted: 05 December 2011, Published: 29 December 2011

Matric potential influences water availability for soil- and wood-inhabiting fungi because the more negative the matric potential, the harder the substrate holds onto water, making it less available for microbial growth. The objectives of this study were to isolate epiphytic and endophytic fungi from bryophytes and assay their tolerance to matric-induced water stresses, and isolate terrestrial (soil) fungi to compare optimal matric potential of soil fungi to that of endophytes. Twelve fungal endophytes were isolated from two species of liverworts (Bazzania trilobata and Conocephalum conicum) and two moss species (Mnium punctatum and Polytrichum commune) from three habitats in central Pennsylvania. All epiphytic and endophytic isolates were assayed for their ability to grow on matric modified media (PEG 8000) at ca. 0 MPa, -5 MPa, -10 MPa, -15 MPa and -20 MPa. Results for matrically modified media suggest that epiphytes/endophytes of Bazzania trilobata, Conocephalum conicum, and Mnium punctatum produced greater biomass (mg) from -10 MPa to -20 MPa, while epiphytes/endophytes of Polytrichum commune display more variation with greater biomass (dry weight) from -5 MPa to -20 MPa. Eleven out of twelve of the endophytes had limited biomass production (dry weight) at the weakest matric potential (ca. 0 MPa) which represented non-matrically modified media). All soil isolates in this study demonstrated the expected Type II response with diminished growth under increasing matric stress.

Keywords: Bazzania trilobata – Conocephalum conicum – endophytes – epiphytes – ericaceous – Helotiales – Mnium punctatum – PEG 8000 – Polytrichum commune

 

7. Biodiversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytes associated with Egyptian medicinal plants

Authors: Selim KA, El-Beih AA, AbdEl-Rahman TM, El-Diwany AI.

Recieved: 11 November 2011, Accepted: 01 December 2011, Published: 31 December 2011

One-hundred and thirty-two endophytic strains were isolated from 18 medicinal plants from Saint Katherine Protectorate, Egypt. Some of the endophytes were identified to genus or species level using traditional morphological methods, but most were classified as sterile mycelia. The relative frequency, isolation rate, and colonization rates of endophytes were used to express the diversity of endophytes. Most endophyte isolates were obtained from Euphorbia sanctae-catharinae (15 isolates). Galium sinaicum yielded the greatest endophytic diversity with eight taxa while Thymus decussates yielded only one taxon. Mycelia sterilia and Acremonium species were the dominant fungal endophytes, and some of these endophytes exhibited host specificity. Fifty-five of 99 tested endophytes showed a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against different pathogenic bacteria and yeasts.

Keywords: Acromonium sp. – antibacterial activity – anticandidal activity – biodiversity – endophytes – Mycelia sterilia – Saint Katherine – medicinal plants

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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