Volume 2 - 2011 - Issue 5


1. Cultural optimization of thraustochytrids for biomass and fatty acid production

Authors: Arafiles KHV, Alcantara JCO, Batoon JAL, Galura FS, Cordero PRF, Leaño EM, Dedeles GR.

Recieved: 01 August 2011, Accepted: 25 August 2011, Published: 12 October 2011

Two thraustochytrids isolated from fallen mangrove leaves in Subic Bay, Philippines were identified based on their cell morphology, sporogenesis and spore release as: Thraustochytrium sp. SB04; and Schizochytrium sp. SB11. Physiological screening (temperature, seawater concentration, glucose concentration and initial pH) was undertaken on the two isolates for optimization of culture conditions for biomass and total fatty acid production. Both isolates survived and grew well on glucose as their sole source of carbon. Highest biomass production for the two isolates were obtained at lower glucose concentrations (3–5% w/v) in a half-strength natural seawater (50–60% v/v), at near neutral pH (6.0), and incubation temperatures of 20–30°C. Growth curve analysis showed slower growth (1 d lag time) and a shorter stationary phase (less than 1 day) for Thraustochytrium sp. compared to Schizochytrium sp. Additional extracellular enzyme screening showed that both isolates only produced lipase. Analysis of fatty acid methyl ester results showed that Thraustochytrium sp. produced predominantly short chain fatty acids with oleic acid (18:1), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) making up as much as 71% of the total fatty acids (TFA). Schizochytrium sp., on the other hand, produced high amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and comprised up to 22.5% of TFA. The large amount of MUFA makes this Thraustochytrium sp. a viable source of oil for biodiesel production. Just as important is the high amount of DHA produced by Schizochytrium sp., a potential source for local large-scale DHA production.

Keywords: thraustochytrid/s – MUFA – PUFA – culture optimization – biomass production – fatty acid production

 

2. A comparison of diversity of marine fungi on three co-habiting mangrove plants

Authors: Manimohan P, Amritha M, Sairabanu NK.

Recieved: 05 September 2011, Accepted: 14 September 2011, Published: 12 October 2011

A comparison was made of the diversity of marine fungi on three mangrove plants (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora apiculata, Acanthus ilicifolius) co-habiting in an estuary in Kerala State, India. Twenty-two species comprising 15 ascomycetes, 1 basidiomycete and 6 anamorphic fungi were recorded. Only five species were common to all three hosts examined: Lignincola laevis Verruculina enalia, Zopfiella latipes, Halocyphina villosa and Periconia prolifica. Halorosellinia oceanica, Lignincola tropica, Saagaromyces glitra, Savoryella lignicola, Harpographium sp. and Zalerion maritima were found only on Avicennia. Dactylospora haliotrepha, Leptosphaeria sp., Payosphaeria minuta, Savoryella paucispora, Hydea pygmea and Trichocladium achrasporum occurred only on Rhizophora. Aniptodera chesapeakensis was the only species found exclusively on Acanthus. Jaccard and Sørensen similarity indices between host species were low indicating low similarity between these fungal communities. A list of fungi observed on each mangrove host is given and most of them are illustrated. Harpographium sp. is recorded as new for the marine milieu. Saagaromyces glitra is a new record for Kerala State.

Keywords: aquatic – biodiversity – ecology – mycota – species composition

 

3. Longicollum biappendiculatum gen. et sp. nov., a new freshwater ascomycete from the Neotropics

Authors: Zelski SE, Raja HA, Miller AN, Barbosa FR, Gusmão LFP, Shearer CA.

Recieved: 14 September 2011, Accepted: 19 September 2011, Published: 13 October 2011

Longicollum biappendiculatum gen. et sp. nov. is described from submerged woody debris from a river in Peru. Additional material on submerged wood from Brazil, Costa Rica, Florida and Peru was also examined. The fungus is morphologically similar to members of the family Annulatascaceae. Traits which are shared include dark ascomata with a cylindrical neck, a hamathecium of long septate tapering paraphyses, unitunicate asci with a relatively large non-amyloid ascus apical ring, and hyaline ascospores. The lack of morphometric overlap with existing genera in the Annulatascaceae prompted the erection of a new genus. The new fungus is described, illustrated and compared to morphologically similar taxa.

Keywords: Annulatascaceae – aquatic – fungi – saprobe – Sordariomycetes – submerged wood

 

4. Paxillus involutus f. eburneus f. nov., a molecularly confirmed infraspecific taxon in the P. involutus complex from Italy

Authors: Gelardi M, Segneri G, Ercole E, Vizzini A.

Recieved: 14 September 2011, Accepted: 19 September 2011, Published: 13 October 2011

According to a phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA sequences, Paxillus involutus f. eburneus f. nov. is described on the basis of several collections from a birch-oak woodland standing in the sulphureous bog of Caldara di Manziana, an interesting natural habitat near Rome (Latium region, Italy). A detailed description of this remarkable albinotic form is provided, along with a colour picture of fresh basidiomata in situ and a line-drawing of the most relevant anatomical features.

Keywords: Paxillaceae – Paxillus albidulus – ITS sequences – taxonomy

 

5. Intraspecific variation in response to spore-to-spore cultivation in the myxomycete, Didymium squamulosum

Authors: Winsett KE.

Recieved: 10 October 2011, Accepted: 20 October 2011, Published: 29 October 2011

Spore-to-spore cultures were attempted for 94 specimens of Didymium squamulosum using common methods of laboratory cultivation. Specimens varied in age, morphology, method of collection, geographic origin and substratum. Spores from 35 specimens germinated in culture, only nine of which successfully went from spore-to-spore in laboratory culture. No patterns were obvious regarding germination success, plasmodium production or fruiting body formation from the varying factors among the specimens, although no spores from any specimen older than six years germinated.

Keywords: laboratory cultivation – myxogastrid – phenotypic plasticity – slime mold

 

6. Cellular slime molds isolated from Lubang Island, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines

Authors: Yulo PRJ, dela Cruz TEE.

Recieved: 18 October 2011, Accepted: 24 October 2011, Published: 29 October 2011

Dictyostelid species (cellular slime molds) were isolated and purified from 200 soil samples collected from coastal and lowland mountain forests of Lubang Island in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines. Five dictyostelid species, identified as Dictyostelium discoideum, D. mucoroides, D. purpureum, Polysphondylium pallidum and P. violaceum were previously known from Philippines. Two other species, Dictyostelium aureo-stipes and D. laterosorum, were isolated for the first time from Philippine soil. Another species, Dictyostelium sp. L08-09, could be identified only to the genus level and may be an undescribed species. Our study is the first report of Philippine dictyostelids in over 30 years.

Keywords: dictyostelids, forest soil, species list, tropical rain forest, island biodiversity

 

7. Diversity of fungal endophytes in medicinal plants of Courtallam hills, Western Ghats, India

Authors: Thalavaipandian A, Ramesh V, Bagyalakshmi, Muthuramkumar S, Rajendran A

Recieved: 11 October 2011, Accepted: 31 October 2011, Published: 09 November 2011

A total of 3634 endophytic fungal isolates were recovered from 4800 leaf, stem and bark segments of 10 medicinal plants growing in Courtallam hills, Western Ghats, south India, during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. These isolates belonged to coelomycetes (26.35%), hyphomycetes (21.76%), Xylariaceae (0.6%) and mycelia sterilia (3.55%). Colonization frequency of endophytic fungi varied significantly between seasons. The fungal community from leaves was most diverse followed by stem and bark tissues. Alternaria alternata, Camarosporium palliatum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Curvularia lunata and Phoma terrestris were the most frequently isolated species. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp. 1, Curvularia lunata and sterile forms were isolated more frequently from the leaf than from stem and bark tissues. Phyllosticta sp. 1 and Phyllosticta sp. 2, were isolated only from leaf tissues. Phoma terrestris was the predominant isolate from stems while Pestalotiopsis versicola was dominant in bark tissues. Xylaria sp. was isolated only from stem tissues of Feronia elephantum.

Keywords: Diversity – Endophytic fungi – Medicinal plants – Season

 

8. New additions to the myxobiota of Peru

Authors: Rojas C, Stephenson SL, Pavlich M.

Recieved: 27 October 2011, Accepted: 02 November 2011, Published: 09 November 2011

Recent efforts to study myxomycetes in many areas of the world have resulted in a considerable increase in the number and quality of regional species lists, especially during the last decade. However, in South America certain countries such as Peru continue to be highly understudied with respect to this group of organisms. During a series of surveys carried out in 2007 in several different areas of Peru, 49 species of myxomycetes not previously known for this country were recorded. Basic ecological information was also collected and analyzed in the context of available data on myxomycetes for the Neotropics. With the new species reported herein, the myxobiota of Peru is increased to 80 species, which is still a low number when the natural and biogeographical characteristics of Peruvian landscapes are considered.

Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, microbial ecology, mycetozoans, myxogastrids, South America

 

9. Chaetorostrum quincemilensis, gen. et sp. nov., a new freshwater ascomycete and its Taeniolella-like anamorph from Peru

Authors: Zelski SE, Raja HA, Miller AN, Shearer CA.

Recieved: 30 October 2011, Accepted: 02 November 2011, Published: 09 November 2011

Collections of woody debris from streams in a lower montaine cloud forest in Peru yielded a novel fungus with affinities to the family Annulatascaceae. Characters which place it in the family Annulatascaceae sensu lato include ascomata which are brown pigmented; long periphysate necks; long tapering septate paraphyses; unitunicate, pedicellate asci with a prominent bipartite J- apical ring; and ascospores with a gelatinous sheath. Examination of morphological characters provided a diagnosis which did not fit with existing genera and species in this family. The combination of features that distinguish this fungus are a pigmented ascoma with a neck which is hyaline at the apex and has prominent black hairs, fasciculate asci with a spine-like pedicellar extension, and versicolored ascospores which are constricted at the midseptum. The fungus also produces its anamorphic state in culture which is the first record of an asexual state in the Annulatascaceae. The new genus Chaetorostrum is erected to accommodate this undescribed fungus. The type species of Chaetorostrum, C. quincemilensis is described, illustrated and compared with other morphologically similar taxa in the family.

Keywords: Annulatascaceae – fungi – saprobe – Sordariomycetes – stream

 

10. A psychrophilic and halotolerant strain of Thelebolus microsporus from Pangong Lake, Himalaya

Authors: Anupama PD, Praveen KD, Singh RK, Kumar S, Srivastava AK, Arora DK.

Recieved: 11 October 2011, Accepted: 31 October 2011, Published: 09 November 2011

Over recent decades, the Ladhak regions of the Himalaya have been investigated mainly for the presence and exploitation of psychrophilic bacteria and Archaea, but mycological studies in the region have been infrequent. Here we report the occurrence of Thelebolus microsporus for the first time from the Himalayan region. The strain, which was isolated from Pangong Lake, is a psychrophile, with an optimum growth temperature of 4°C and halotolerance of up to 6% NaCl. Microscopic studies found that the strain does not produce conidia, and that asci are produced in cleistohymenial ascomata, with each ascus containing eight ascospores. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene of the strain showed 97–98% similarity with strains of Thelebolus microsporus from Antarctica.

Keywords: Himalaya – Pangong Lake – phylogeny – psychrophilic fungi – Thelebolus microsporus

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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