Volume 15 - 2024 - Issue 1


1. Taxonomy and phylogeny of ascomycetes associated with selected economically important monocotyledons in China and Thailand

Authors: Tian XG, Bao DF, Karunarathna SC, Jayawardena RS, Hyde KD, Bhat DJ, Luo ZL, Elgorban AM, Hongsanan S, Rajeshkumar KC, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Suwannarach N, Dawoud TM, Lu YZ, Han JJ, Xiao YP, Du TY, Lu L, Xu RF, Dai DQ, Liu XF, Liu C, Tibpromma S

Recieved: 06 October 2023, Accepted: 15 December 2023, Published: 22 February 2024

Monocotyledons are one of the important groups of flowering plants that include approximately 60,000 species with economically important crops including coconut (Cocos nucifera), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rice (Oryza sativa). Studies on these hosts are mainly focused on pathogenic fungi; only a few saprobic species have been reported. This study investigated the saprobic ascomycetes associated with coconut, pineapple, and rice in southern China and northern Thailand. Approximately 200 specimens were collected, and 100 fungal strains were isolated and identified to 77 species based on phylogenetic approaches and morphological characteristics. Among the 77 species, 29, 38, and 12 were found on coconut, pineapple, and rice, respectively, distributed in Dothideomycetes (41), Eurotiomycetes (one), and Sordariomycetes (35). Pseudomycoleptodiscus, Pseudosaprodesmium Pseudosetoseptoria, Pseudostriatosphaeria and Pseudoteichospora are introduced as new genera and Anthostomella cocois, Apiospora ananas, Chromolaenicola ananasi, Epicoccum yunnanensis, Exserohilum ananas, Hypoxylon cocois, Lasiodiplodia ananasi, Muyocopron chiangraiense, Myrmecridium yunnanense, Occultitheca ananasi, Periconia chiangraiensis, Placidiopsis ananasi, Pseudomycoleptodiscus ananas, Pseudosaprodesmium cocois, Pseudosetoseptoria oryzae, Pseudostriatosphaeria chiangraiensis, Pseudoteichospora thailandensis, Savoryella chiangraiensis, Savoryella cocois, and Tetraploa oryzae are introduced as novel species. In addition, 51 species are reported as new hosts or geographical records, and six species are reported as new collections. Pseudopithomyces pandanicola and P. palmicola are synonymized under P. chartarum, P. diversisporus synonymized under P. atro-olivaceus based on phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics. Moreover, comprehensive checklists of fungi associated with coconut, pineapple, and rice are also provided.

Keywords: 25 new taxa – Ascomycota – Dothideomycetes – Pseudomycoleptodiscus – Pseudosaprodesmium – Pseudosetoseptoria – Pseudostriatosphaeria – Pseudoteichospora – Sordariomycetes – Taxonomy

 

2. Unveiling fungal diversity in China: New species and records within the Xylariaceae

Authors: Li QR, Habib K, Long SH, Wu YP, Zhang X, Hu HM, Wu QZ, Liu LL, Zhou SX, Shen XC, Kang JC

Recieved: 19 October 2023, Accepted: 15 December 2023, Published: 28 February 2024

In this study, we describe 27 new species of xylarialean taxa based on a comprehensive analysis that combines morpho-anatomy and multi-locus phylogenetics using ITS, rpb2, and TUB2 loci sequences. The newly identified species include Anthostomella guizhouensis, An. yunnanensis, Astrocystis dinghuensis, As. guizhouensis, As. heterocyclae, As. sichuanensis, Collodiscula baoshanensis, C. quadrangularis, Kretzschmaria sichuanensis, K. kuankuoshuiensis, K. landingshanensis, Nemania bannaensis, N. buxi, N. landingshanensis, N. lasiocarpae, N. leigongshanensis, N. mengmanensis, N. subchangningensis, Nigropunctata khalidii, Pandanicola guizhouensis, Rosellinia cerasi, R. guiyangensis, R. guizhouensis, R. limushanensis, R. lishuicola, R. wuzhishanensis, and R. yaorenshanensis. Additionally, we report the occurrence of xylarialean taxa in China or on the Chinese mainland as new geographical findings, which includes Anthostomella leucobasis, An. pseudobambusicola, An. rhaphidophylli, An. smilacis, An. vestita, Astrocystis bambusae, Rosellinia yumingjui, Stilbohypoxylon elaeidicola and Xylaria frustulosa, X. glebulosa, and X. longissima. Morphologically similar species and phylogenetically close taxa are compared and discussed. This extensive exploration enhances our understanding of fungal diversity and distribution, particularly within the context of China’s rich ecological landscape and the Xylariaceae.

Keywords: 27 new species – Taxonomy – Xylariaceae in China – Xylariales

 

3. New insights into Gymnopus s.l.: its systematic rearrangements and novel taxa

Authors: Hu JJ, Tuo YL, Yue L, Zhao GP, He XL, Song LR, Pu JB, Qi ZX, Qin WQ, Li TH, Jiang DH, Zhang B, Li Y, Li X

Recieved: 31 October 2023, Accepted: 15 December 2023, Published: 28 February 2024

Gymnopus (sensu lato) is significant both economically and ecologically. However, the boundaries that demarcate these genera are indistinct, partly because of limited taxa sampling, and, also due to the insufficient use of gene fragments employed for phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore, species diversity in Gymnopus s.l. is likely to have been vastly underestimated, due to the lack of its detailed investigation outside of America and Europe, including in China and other countries. In this study, we examined 527 gymnopoid collections from China and performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of both these collections and related genera within Omphalotaceae combined with ITS and nLSU sequences data. In this dataset, 159 sequences from 93 species were provided. Furthermore, sect. Levipedes and sect. Impudicae were newly recognized as independent genera by combined morphological and phylogenetic evidences and the relationships within Omphalotaceae, thus we propose accepting them as separate genera, namely: Impudipilus and Levipedipilus. Section Vestipedes was also found to share close affinity with Collybiopsis, which nests with it, while divided into three independent clades, for the reasons we propose accepting them as separate genera, namely: Neomarasmius, Ligymopus, and Vestipedipilus. The infrageneric analyses within Impudipilus, Levipedipilus, and Gymnopus were also performed. Impudipilus was divided into three sections sect. Impudicae, sect. Dysodes, and sect. Similis. Levipedipilus was divided into three sections, namely sect. Levipedes, sect. Erythropus, and sect. Alkalivirens. Gymnopus was divided into six sections, based on the reactions with Melinda’s reagent, namely sect. Gymnopus, sect. Androsacei, sect. Efibulatus, sect. Omphalinoides, sect. Irresolutus, and sect. Brunneiniger. Fifty-seven species of Gymnopus s.l. and allied from China were recorded, including 11 novel species and seven new records from China. In addition, we performed the first comprehensive divergence-times estimation between the genera within Omphalotaceae. Data from our molecular clock analyses suggest that the divergence of Omphalotaceae probably occurred during the Jurassic period, while the divergence of Gymnopus s.l. likely occurred during the early Cretaceous period. This study also provides keys for the identification of the Gymnopus s.l. species. 

Keywords: Biogeographic analysis – Collybiopsis – Gymnopus – Impudipilus – Ligymnopus – New genera and species – Vestipedipilus

 

4. Study on the diversity of rust pathogens from different hosts in Guizhou Province, China

Authors: Sun JE, Fu L, Norphanphoun C, Chen XJ, Yu LF, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Wang Y, Yang ZF, Liu FQ

Recieved: 16 October 2023, Accepted: 20 December 2023, Published: 06 March 2024

Rust fungi are obligate plant pathogens that belong to Basidiomycota, Puccinomycetes, Pucciniales. Guizhou Province in Southwest China is rich in plant resources and has suitable climate conditions for plant disease development, but there are few studies on rust fungi. In this study over 300 plant samples with typical rust symptoms were collected from 33 counties in various regions of Guizhou Province. These samples come from 98 different host plants in 33 families. According to ITS-BLAST comparison results, the rust fungi belonged to 17 genera of 11 families in Chaconiaceae (Mikronegeria), Coleosporiaceae (Coleosporium), Gymnosporangiaceae (Gymnosporangium), Melampsoraceae (Melampsora), Phakopsoraceae (Phakopsora), Phragmidiaceae (Gerwasia, Hamapora, Phragmidium), Pileolariaceae (Pileolaria), Pucciniaceae (Endophylum, Macropyxis, Puccinia, Uromyces), Pucciniastraceae (Pucciniastram), Tranzscheliaceae (Tranzschelia), and Uredinineae incertae sedis (Nyssopsora, Peridiopsora). Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequence data of ITS, LSU and tef1α loci, coupled with morphological evidence, support the species identification. Ninety-three species of rust fungi were obtained, comprising 29 novel taxa and 61 known species. Most of the rust species belonged to Pucciniaceae (48.9%), while the most prevalent host family infected was Rosaceae (21.9%). The Rosaceae are particularly susceptible to Phragmidium spp. 

Keywords: Host jumping – Molecular phylogeny – Plant disease – Rust fungi – Taxonomy

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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