Volume 14 - 2023 - Issue 2: SI Recent Advances in Colletotrichum Taxonomy & Sys

1. Genome-scale and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of Colletotrichum spp. host preference and associated with medicinal plants

Authors: Zhang Q, Nizamani MM, Feng Y, Yang YQ, Jayawardena RS, Hyde KD, Wang Y, Li C

Recieved: 18 November 2022, Accepted: 22 February 2023, Published: 23 March 2023

Colletotrichum is one of the most common phytopathogens worldwide, causing diseases in various commercially valuable hosts. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect medicinal plants. Although China is a large-scale producer of medicinal plant resources, the species of Colletotrichum that have been locally linked to medicinal plants are poorly understood. Therefore, samples were collected from four provinces of China to determine the Colletotrichum species associated with local medicinal plants, resulting in a total of 141 Colletotrichum isolates. In conjunction with morphology, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, gapdh, chs-1, his3, act, and tub2), and PHI test revealed that these strains belong to 23 species in eight species complexes, including seven new species (C. castaneae, C. cypericola, C. gardeniae, C. kunmingense, C. ligustri, C. radermacherae, and C. schefflerae) and three new host records (C. celtidis, C. iris, and C. vittalense). In addition, we synonymise C. wuxuhaiense to C. karsti, and C. menglaense, C. pandanicola, and C. parvisporum to C. siamense. Furthermore, to understand mechanisms responsible for host range and preference we also sequenced and assembled whole-genome sequences of four species in the C. gloeosporioides complex and constructed whole-genome phylogenies of Colletotrichum species covering ten species complexes and three singleton species. The comparative genome of Colletotrichum species from different lineages revealed that expanded gene families encoding CAZymes are thought to be one of the likely explanations for the widespread and polyphagous nature of species in the C. acutatum, C. boninense, and C. gloeosporioides species complexes. A possible explanation for the host preference of the C. graminicola species complex may be the less pectinase-encoding gene families. The current study improves the understanding of Colletotrichum species diversity found on medicinal plants and suggests that the members of CAZymes might serve as an important mechanism for host range and preference.

Keywords: Comparative genomics – Genome prediction – Multi-locus phylogeny – Phylogenomics – Seven new species


2. Identification and characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with durian fruit in northern Thailand

Authors: Armand A, Hyde KD, Huanraluek N, Wang Y, Jayawardena RS

Recieved: 13 January 2023, Accepted: 10 February 2023, Published: 23 March 2023

Colletotrichum is one of the most important plant pathogenic genera affecting different plant species, particularly tropical and sub-tropical crops and fruits. Species of the genus can cause many diseases, including fruit rots, crown rots, stem end rots, and anthracnose. The objective of the present study was to identify the Colletotrichum species associated with durian fruit rots in northern Thailand. Based on morphological study and phylogenetic analyses of five loci (internal transcribed spacer (ITS), actin (ACT), chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and ß-tubulin (TUB2)), four species belonging to three complexes were identified and described. Colletotrichum durionigenum is introduced as a new species, and C. gigasporum, C. pandanicola, and C. truncatum are described and illustrated as new host records.

Keywords: 1 new species – Diversity – Durio spp. – Glomerellaceae – Phylogeny – Phytopathogen


3. Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia anthracnose in China

Authors: Peng XJ, Wang QC, Zhang SK, Guo K, Zhou XD

Recieved: 18 November 2022, Accepted: 02 May 2023, Published: 30 May 2023

Species of Camellia oleifera, Ca. sinensis and Ca. japonica represent globally-important tree germplasm resource and have significant ecological and economic value. However, they have suffered from anthracnose caused by pathogenic fungi from the genus of Colletotrichum. To determine the diversity of Colletotrichum species associated with Camellia anthracnose in China, we collected infected leaves from three major cultivation provinces. A total number of 167 fungal strains resembling Colletotrichum were obtained, 41 from Ca. oleifera, 48 from Ca. sinensis, and 78 from Ca. japonica. Comparison of morphology and phylogenetic analyses based on six loci (ACT, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, TUB2 and ITS) of the representative isolates revealed that they fall in four species complexes and represent 15 known and one undescribed taxa. The species complexes are Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. aenigma, C. alienum, C. camelliae, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. jiangxiense, C. pandanicola, C. siamense, C. wuxiense and C. puerense described here), C. acutatum (C. fioriniae and C. nymphaeae), C. boninense (C. boninense and C. karstii) and C. orchidearum (C. clivicola and C. plurivorum). Of these, C. fructicola was the most dominant species occurring on Ca. oleifera (68.3%), Ca. sinensis (50.0%) and Ca. japonica (29.49%). Pathogenicity test results indicated that C. camelliae is the most pathogenic to the three Camellia species. This study represents the first report of C. aenigma, C. alienum, C. boninense, C. camelliae, C. clivicola, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. jiangxinse, C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, C. pandanicola and C. wuxiense causing anthracnose on Ca. japonica and C. pandanicola on Ca. sinensis. Knowledge gained in this study enlarges our understanding of Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose on three important Camellia trees and contributes to the disease management.

Keywords: 1 new species – Camellia japonica – fungal diversity – multi-gene phylogeny – pathogenicity


4. Hosts of Colletotrichum

Authors: Talhinhas P, Baroncelli R

Recieved: 09 May 2023, Accepted: 26 June 2023, Published: 28 September 2023

The taxonomy of Colletotrichum has undergone profound changes over the past decade, with ca. 340 species now recognised, and grouped into 20 species complexes (16 previously described and four proposed in this work). Over that period, the volatility of the taxonomic framework posed difficulties to the aetiology of anthracnose diseases along with uncertainty on cross-infection potential, quarantine rules, pesticide management and plant breeding strategies. Now that the Colletotrichum taxonomy is stabilising (still several new species being named, but no longer representing major pathogens), there is a point on reviewing the knowledge on the aetiology of anthracnose diseases in a global way, pointing out the relative importance of each Colletotrichum species for each host/crop and identifying areas/crops where information is missing (and there are several crops for which nothing is known regarding Colletotrichum species in modern terms). Based on 3400 host species-Colletotrichum species occurrence records (considering only records of Colletotrichum spp. identified in modern terms), we have listed over 760 host (plants) species and analysed the information available on the Colletotrichum species reported from them, the symptoms caused and the geographic distribution and pathological relevance. Whereas some of these hosts are wild plants, this work is mostly focused on cultivated plants and therefore on the aetiology of anthracnose diseases globally. In the context of Colletotrichum fungi, this compilation provides downstream users of Mycology, namely those in areas such as Plant Pathology, Plant Protection and Plant Breeding, with updated information on the main causal agents of anthracnose in each crop/plant species in each location, or alternatively with an alert on the lack of information on the identity of the species of Colletotrichum relevant for a given crop in a given location.

Keywords: anthracnose – Colletotrichum species complex – host specificity


5. Identification and characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with ornamental plants in Southern China

Authors: Zhang YX, Chen JW, Manawasinghe IS, Lin YH, Jayawardena RS, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD, Xiang MM

Recieved: 05 September 2023, Accepted: 20 November 2023, Published: 26 December 2023

Colletotrichum is an important plant pathogenic genus with a wide range of hosts. Colletotrichum species can infect various plants and cause diseases, leading to serious economic losses. Ornamental plants are an important commercial crop with high aesthetic value and emerging diseases have become a serious problem threatening the ornamental plant industry. However, little is known about the fungi and fungal species associated with ornamental plants in China especially latent pathogens such as Colletotrichum spp. In the present study, 45 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from 17 ornamental plants with typical symptoms including leaf spot and stem blight. These isolates were further identified based on morphological analysis, multigene molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS), actin (act), partial sequences of the chitin synthase 1 (chs-1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), and β-tubulin 2 (tub2) genes, and pairwise homoplasy index (PHI) analysis. Based on multigene phylogenetic analysis and morphology 11 species of Colletotrichum were identified belonging to five species complexes: C. acutatum, C. boninense, C. gloeosporioides, C. orchidearum and C. truncatum. Among these complexes, one species was described as new species namely, C. chrysalidocarpi.
In addition, C. dimorphum, and C. nanhuaense are reduced as synonyms of C. gloeosporioides and C. orientale and C. radermacherae are reduced as synonyms of C. fioriniae. Furthermore, 18 new host records were identified and described. This is the first comprehensive study on Colletotrichum species associated with ornamental plants in South China. Our results suggested a high Colletotrichum species diversity on ornamental plants. These findings enhance the current knowledge of Colletotrichum, and its diversity and expand the host range. In addition, these results will help to early diagnose, and control diseases caused by Colletotrichum species.

Keywords: 1 new species – 18 new host records – muti-locus phylogenetic analysis – taxonomy


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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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