Volume 13 - 2022 - Issue 1

1. Taxonomy, phylogeny and divergence times of Polyporus (Basidiomycota) and related genera

Authors: Ji X, Zhou JL, Song CG, Xu TM, Wu DM, Cui BK

Recieved: 16 November 2021, Accepted: 21 January 2022, Published: 26 January 2022

Polyporus is a taxonomically controversial genus which includes species belonging to six infrageneric groups. Recently, many species of Polyporus have been transferred into other related genera viz. Cerioporus, Favolus, Lentinus, Neofavolus and Picipes based on the phylogenetic and morphological analyses. To ascertain the relationships of Polyporus and its allied genera, eight DNA fragments viz. the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nLSU), partial translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF1-α), the mitochondrial small-subunit (mtSSU), the β-tubulin gene (TUB), the gene for RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), the gene for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and the nuclear ribosomal small subunit (nSSU), are used in the molecular systematic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on two combined datasets (ITS+nLSU) and (ITS+nLSU+EF1-α+mtSSU+RPB1+RPB2+nSSU+TUB), and the results indicated that species of Polyporus and its related genera fell into six well supported clades: the picipes clade, the favolus calde, the neofavolus clade, the lentinus clade, the core polyporus clade and the squamosus clade. Moreover, the conserved regions of six DNA fragments (5.8S, nLSU, EF1-α, RPB1, RPB2 and nSSU) were used to analyze the divergence times and evolutionary relationships of Polyporus and its related genera by using BEAST v1.8. Bayesian evolutionary analysis revealed that the ancestor of Polyporales split at about 141.81 Mya, while the mean stem ages of the six major clades of Polyporus and its allied genera were 49–63 Mya. Based on the combined analyses of morphology, phylogenies and divergence times, species in the picipes clade formed the genus Picipes by the coriaceous (fresh) to hard (dry) basidiomata and strongly branched skeleto-binding hyphae; species nested in the favolus clade and the neofavolus clade were separately treated as two distinct genera Favolus and Neofavolus; the polyporoid species in the lentinus clade with central and light-colored stipe and inflated hyphae were transferred into Lentinus, and the core polyporus clade was treated as Polyporus s. str. The squamosus clade contained species belonging to several different genera viz. Datronia, Datroniella, Echinochaete, Mycobonia, Neodatronia, Polyporus s. lat. and Pseudofavolus, but there are no enough efficient morphological evidence to combine all species in the squamosus clade into a specific genus. In addition, three new species of Polyporus and seven new species of Picipes are described and illustrated.

Keywords: molecular clock – morphology – multi-gene phylogenies – new species – Polyporaceae


2. Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa – 2021

Authors: Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Dai DQ, Sánchez-García M, Goto BT, Saxena RK, Erdoğdu M, Selçuk F, Rajeshkumar KC, Aptroot A, Błaszkowski J, Boonyuen N, da Silva GA, de Souza FA, Dong W4, Ertz D, Haelewaters D, Jones EBG, Karunarathna SC, Kirk PM, Kukwa M, Kumla J, Leontyev DV, Lumbsch HT, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Marguno F, Martínez-Rodríguez P, Mešić A, Monteiro JS, Oehl F, Pawłowska J, Pem D, Pfliegler WP, Phillips AJL, Pošta A, He MQ, Li JX, Raza M, Sruthi OP, Suetrong S, Suwannarach N, Tedersoo L, Thiyagaraja V, Tibpromma S, Tkalčec Z, Tokarev YS, Wanasinghe DN, Wijesundara DSA, Wimalaseana SDMK, Madrid H, Zhang GQ, Gao Y, Sánchez-Castro I, Tang LZ, Stadler M, Yurkov A, Thines M

Recieved: 22 November 2021, Accepted: 25 January 2022, Published: 23 February 2022

This paper provides an updated classification of the Kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. Five-hundred and twenty-three (535) notes are provided for newly introduced taxa and for changes that have been made since the previous outline. In the discussion, the latest taxonomic changes in Basidiomycota are provided and the classification of Mycosphaerellales are broadly discussed. Genera listed in Mycosphaerellaceae have been confirmed by DNA sequence analyses, while doubtful genera (DNA sequences being unavailable but traditionally accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae) are listed in the discussion. Problematic genera in Glomeromycota are also discussed based on phylogenetic results. 

Keywords: Ascomycota – basal fungi – Basidiomycota – Classification – Fossil fungi – Rozellomycota


3. Mycosphere notes 345–386

Authors: Manawasinghe IS, Calabon MS, Jones EBG, Zhang YX, Liao CF, Xiong Y, Chaiwan N, Kularathnage ND, Liu NG, Tang SM, Sysouphanthong P, Du TY, Luo M, Pasouvang P, Pem D, Phonemany M, Ishaq M, Chen JW, Karunarathna SC, Mai ZL, Rathnayaka AR, Samarakoon MC, Tennakoon DS, Wijesinghe SN, Yang YH, Zhao HJ, Fiaz M, Doilom M, Dutta AK, Khalid AN, Liu JW, Thongklang N, Senanayake IC, Tibpromma S, You LQ, Camporesi E, Gafforov YS, Hyde KD

Recieved: 05 November 2021, Accepted: 15 February 2022, Published: 25 April 2022

This is the seventh in a series of Mycosphere notes in which we provide notes on the collection of fungi isolated from various hosts. In this set of notes, we introduce Pseudophialocephala as a new genus, nine new species, 27 new host or country records and five new combinations. The new species are Ceratosphaeria yunnanensis, Cytospora salicis-albae, Gymnopus bunerensis, Kalmusia cordylines, Leucoagaricus croceus, Leucoagaricus laosensis, Neopyrenochaeta shaoguanica, Pseudophialocephala cuneata and Robillarda aquatica. Pseudophialocephala humicola, Pseudophialocephala aquatica, Pseudophialocephala salinicola, Pseudophialocephala terricola and Pseudophialocephala xalapensis are introduced as new combinations. We provide new molecular data for 43 species belonging to two phyla, three classes and 15 orders. Updated phylogenetic trees for 22 families (Agaricaceae, Botryosphaeriaceae, Chaetosphaeriaceae, Coniochaetaceae, Didymosphaeriaceae, Gloeophyllaceae, Glomerellaceae, Hysteriaceae, Lophiostomataceae, Magnaporthaceae, Neopyrenochaetaceae, Omphalotacea, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Phyllostictaceae, Pleosporaceae, Saccotheciaceae, Savoryellaceae, Sporocadaceae, Stachybotryaceae, Torulaceae, Valsaceae, Physalacriaceae) and 32 genera (Alfaria, Aureobasidium, Ceratosphaeria, Collybiopsis, Colletotrichum, Comoclathris, Coniochaeta, Cytospora, Dothiorella, Gymnopus, Gymnopus, Heliocybe, Hysterium, Hysterobrevium, Kalmusia, Leptospora, Letendraea, Leucoagaricus, Mucidula, Neoleptosporella, Neopyrenochaeta, Paraleptospora, Phyllosticta, Pseudophialocephala, Rhytidhysteron, Robillarda, Savoryella, Sporocadus, Thozetella, Torula and Vaginatispora) are given. 

Keywords: 9 new taxa – 27 new records – 5 new combinations – Agaricomycetes – Ascomycota – Basidiomycota – Dothideomycetes – Molecular phylogeny – New hosts – New species – Sordariomycetes – Taxonomy


4. Taxonomy and ecology of epifoliar fungi

Authors: Marasinghe DS, Hongsanan S, Zeng XY, Jones EGB, Boonmee S, Hyde KD

Recieved: 03 February 2022, Accepted: 30 March 2022, Published: 05 May 2022

Epifoliar fungi are poorly studied symbionts that co-inhabit the surface of living plants. They are relatively understudied and generally lack molecular data thus there is considerable taxonomic confusion in the group as early taxonomic studies were based on morphology. Many taxa are difficult to isolate for obtaining cultures and therefore molecular analysis is a limitation for biotrophic species unless sequenced directly from the fruiting bodies. Epifoliar fungi evolved from diverse ancestors and include mainly members of the Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, and Sordariomycetes. The classification of epifoliar fungi is challenging due to taxonomic confusion in historical classifications and insufficient molecular data. In this study, we provide a summary of major epifoliar families (Asterinaceae, Meliolaceae, Micropeltidaceae, Microthyriaceae, Parmulariaceae and Zeloasperisporiaceae). The modes of nutrition of each family are also reviewed. Character analysis of a combined LSU, SSU and rpb2 dataset shows that epifoliar fungi have different taxonomic and evolutionary relationships in Ascomycota. Epifoliar fungi are generally considered to be host-specific, but this needs to be confirmed using molecular data as morphological differences are minor. Therefore, future research should focus on addressing the drawbacks of current studies and use new molecular approaches. To obtain better insights into epifoliar fungi, a combination of taxonomic and ecological studies is needed.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Character analysis – Epiphytes – Nutrition – Symbionts


5. Magnaporthiopsis species associated with patch diseases in turfgrasses in Australia

Authors: Wong PTW, Tan YP, Weese TL, Shivas RG

Recieved: 29 March 2022, Accepted: 10 June 2022, Published: 05 July 2022

Isolates of Magnaporthiopsis (Magnaporthaceae, Magnaporthales) were obtained from turfgrass species with patch disease symptoms in sports fields and golf courses in eastern Australia. Patch disease was characterised by plants with root rot, vascular discolouration and dark, ectotrophic mycelium on the root surfaces. Four new species, Magnaporthiopsis dharug, M. gadigal, M. gumbaynggirr and M. yugambeh, are described based on phylogenetic analysis of concatenated partial DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1α). The descriptions of the fungi include morphological characteristics and host associations. Magnaporthiopsis dharug was isolated from diseased roots of Cynodon dactylon (couch grass, Bermudagrass), Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewing’s fescue) and Poa annua (winter grass); M. gadigal from diseased roots of Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass); M. gumbaynggirr from diseased roots of C. dactylon; and M. yugambeh from diseased roots of P. annua. 

Keywords: ectotrophic root-infecting fungi – phylogeny – plant pathogens – Poaceae – taxonomy


6. Ten important forest fungal pathogens: a review on their emergence and biology

Authors: Gomdola D, Bhunjun CS, Hyde KD, Jeewon R, Pem D, Jayawardena RS

Recieved: 27 April 2022, Accepted: 28 June 2022, Published: 06 July 2022

Plant pathogenic fungi and fungus-like taxa (oomycetes) form part of the ecological makeup of healthy natural forest ecosystems. Some help to eliminate unhealthy trees, while others are essential for the conservation of plant species diversity, particularly soil-borne pathogens. However, many fungal pathogens also have devastating effects on forest ecosystems. Disease impacts are more profound when pathogens newly emerge and these can even wipe out an entire tree population. These organisms have developed a plethora of strategies to colonize and infect plants and there are several factors causing pathogens to emerge. Therefore, to prevent emerging diseases, a thorough understanding of the factors causing them is necessary. It is also important to have a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of disease development and propagation to design effective control measures. In this review, we describe the phenomenon of emerging and re-emerging pathogens by exemplifying ten important recently emerged forest pathogenic fungi and fungus-like taxa, namely, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Fusarium circinatum, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, Phyllosticta citricarpa, Neonectria faginata, Sphaerulina musiva, Phytophthora pluvialis, P. agathidicida, and Melampsora × columbiana. They have been listed in order of the most cited to the least cited species based on data obtained from the Web of Science. We provide a review for each species to document its emergence and its negative impact on the host(s). We also revise their taxonomic placement, host and country details, and provide updated phylogenetic trees for each genus. The number of accepted species based on molecular data is also provided.

Keywords: Diseases – Fungus-like pathogens – Phylogeny – Phytopathogenic fungi


7. Cronartium rust (Pucciniales, Cronartiaceae): species delineation, diversity and host alternation

Authors: Zhao P, Liu F, Huang JE, Zhou X, Duan WJ, Cai L

Recieved: 20 February 2022, Accepted: 08 July 2022, Published: 02 August 2022

Cronartium species (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales, Melampsorineae) infect two or five-needle pines, resulting in considerable economic losses and ecological damage. Many species are considered of quarantine importance, however, precise identification is challenging due to the poorly resolved generic boundaries of Cronartium and other members in Melampsorineae, as well as species limits within the genus Cronartium. In this study, species delimitation was carried out based on morphological examination and multi-locus phylogenetic assessment using sequences of rDNA SSU-ITS-LSU regions and CO3 gene. Twenty-six species including seven new species (C. castaneae, C. mongolicum, C. murrayanae, C. myricae, C. peridiatum, C. qinlingense, C. ribis-taedae), and one new combination (C. floridanum) are recognized. Cronartium arizonicumC. comandrae, C. comptoniae, C. occidentale, and C. pyriforme are epitypified to stabilize the use of names for taxonomy and quarantine significance. In addition, 18 species were revealed for their previously unknown life cycles. 

Keywords: pine blister rust – Pucciniales – quarantine pests – species boundary – taxonomy


8. The importance of culture-based techniques in the genomic era for assessing the taxonomy and diversity of soil fungi

Authors: Yasanthika WAE, Wanasinghe DN, Mortimer PE, Monkai J, Farias ARG

Recieved: 22 May 2022, Accepted: 19 August 2022, Published: 06 September 2022

Fungi are a diverse and highly abundant group of organisms found in soils worldwide. Understanding fungi is essential as they are key drivers of below-ground ecosystem functions. Taxonomy is a fundamental discipline, acting as the initial step toward biodiversity, ecology, and biotechnology studies. Both culture-dependent and -independent methods are employed in the taxonomic investigations of soil-dwelling taxa. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is a genomic-based method widely applied in global studies that has revealed numerous unculturable soil taxa. However, this method is limited by its inability to link physical specimens to species identification. Culturing methods result in specimens that can be used to obtain genetic sequences and morphological data in applied studies. Thus, combining both methods is an important trend in taxonomic studies. This review discusses how culturing is important for soil fungal discovery and describes the main culturing methods. It also briefly addresses the role of HTS in taxonomy and its drawbacks, and the potential to combine both culture-dependent and -independent methods to gain better insights into soil fungi

Keywords: Culturing methods – fungal taxonomy – fungi – high throughput sequencing – soil


9. Diaporthe: formalizing the species-group concept

Authors: Norphanphoun C, Gentekaki E, Hongsanan S, ‪Jayawardena R, Senanayake IC, Manawasinghe IS, Abeywickrama PD, Bhunjun CS, Hyde‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ KD

Recieved: 20 May 2022, Accepted: 15 August 2022, Published: 06 September 2022

Diaporthe species have a worldwide distribution and are associated with economically important hosts as pathogens, endophytes, and saprobes. Taxonomic identification of Diaporthe species is challenging due to overlapping morphological traits and host associations. Herein, we have assembled a comprehensive dataset and inferred a phylogenetic tree of Diaporthaceae using combined sequence data of ITS, ef1α, β-tubulin, cal and his3. Diaporthe is not monophyletic and segregates into several phylogenetically distinct clades. We introduce 13 species complexes of Diaporthe to aid the identification of species in the genus and to make communication easier. Nine species were treated as singletons apart from the major clades. Two taxa of Diaporthaceae, Ophiodiaporthe cyatheae and Chiangraiomyces bauhiniae, are synonymized under D. cyatheae (≡ O. cyatheae) and D. pseudobauhiniae (≡ C. bauhiniae), respectively based on phylogenetic analyses and morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationships of Diaporthaceae are reappraised, and suggestions are given for future work.

Keywords: Diaporthaceae – Morphology – Phylogeny – Plant disease – Species complexes


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.


Creative Commons License
Mycosphere by http://mycosphere.org/ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License


Mycosphere is a member of The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

Mycosphere has a policy of screening for plagiarism

Mycosphere is Indexed in
♦  Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch®) 
♦  Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition 
♦  Current Contents®/Agriculture, Biology, and Environmental Sciences 
♦  Biological Abstracts 
♦  BIOSIS Previews 


  • Email:
  • Address:
    Innovative Institute for Plant Health ,
    Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering,
    Haizhu District,
    Guangzhou 510225,
    P.R. China

Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering