Volume 13 - 2022 - Issue 1

1. Taxonomy, phylogeny and divergence times of Polyporus (Basidiomycota) and related genera

Authors: Ji X, Zhou JL, Song CG, Xu TM, Wu DM, Cui BK

Recieved: 16 November 2021, Accepted: 21 January 2022, Published: 26 January 2022

Polyporus is a taxonomically controversial genus which includes species belonging to six infrageneric groups. Recently, many species of Polyporus have been transferred into other related genera viz. Cerioporus, Favolus, Lentinus, Neofavolus and Picipes based on the phylogenetic and morphological analyses. To ascertain the relationships of Polyporus and its allied genera, eight DNA fragments viz. the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nLSU), partial translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF1-α), the mitochondrial small-subunit (mtSSU), the β-tubulin gene (TUB), the gene for RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), the gene for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and the nuclear ribosomal small subunit (nSSU), are used in the molecular systematic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on two combined datasets (ITS+nLSU) and (ITS+nLSU+EF1-α+mtSSU+RPB1+RPB2+nSSU+TUB), and the results indicated that species of Polyporus and its related genera fell into six well supported clades: the picipes clade, the favolus calde, the neofavolus clade, the lentinus clade, the core polyporus clade and the squamosus clade. Moreover, the conserved regions of six DNA fragments (5.8S, nLSU, EF1-α, RPB1, RPB2 and nSSU) were used to analyze the divergence times and evolutionary relationships of Polyporus and its related genera by using BEAST v1.8. Bayesian evolutionary analysis revealed that the ancestor of Polyporales split at about 141.81 Mya, while the mean stem ages of the six major clades of Polyporus and its allied genera were 49–63 Mya. Based on the combined analyses of morphology, phylogenies and divergence times, species in the picipes clade formed the genus Picipes by the coriaceous (fresh) to hard (dry) basidiomata and strongly branched skeleto-binding hyphae; species nested in the favolus clade and the neofavolus clade were separately treated as two distinct genera Favolus and Neofavolus; the polyporoid species in the lentinus clade with central and light-colored stipe and inflated hyphae were transferred into Lentinus, and the core polyporus clade was treated as Polyporus s. str. The squamosus clade contained species belonging to several different genera viz. Datronia, Datroniella, Echinochaete, Mycobonia, Neodatronia, Polyporus s. lat. and Pseudofavolus, but there are no enough efficient morphological evidence to combine all species in the squamosus clade into a specific genus. In addition, three new species of Polyporus and seven new species of Picipes are described and illustrated.

Keywords: molecular clock – morphology – multi-gene phylogenies – new species – Polyporaceae


2. Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa – 2021

Authors: Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Dai DQ, Sánchez-García M, Goto BT, Saxena RK, Erdoğdu M, Selçuk F, Rajeshkumar KC, Aptroot A, Błaszkowski J, Boonyuen N, da Silva GA, de Souza FA, Dong W4, Ertz D, Haelewaters D, Jones EBG, Karunarathna SC, Kirk PM, Kukwa M, Kumla J, Leontyev DV, Lumbsch HT, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Marguno F, Martínez-Rodríguez P, Mešić A, Monteiro JS, Oehl F, Pawłowska J, Pem D, Pfliegler WP, Phillips AJL, Pošta A, He MQ, Li JX, Raza M, Sruthi OP, Suetrong S, Suwannarach N, Tedersoo L, Thiyagaraja V, Tibpromma S, Tkalčec Z, Tokarev YS, Wanasinghe DN, Wijesundara DSA, Wimalaseana SDMK, Madrid H, Zhang GQ, Gao Y, Sánchez-Castro I, Tang LZ, Stadler M, Yurkov A, Thines M

Recieved: 22 November 2021, Accepted: 25 January 2022, Published: 23 February 2022

This paper provides an updated classification of the Kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. Five-hundred and twenty-three (535) notes are provided for newly introduced taxa and for changes that have been made since the previous outline. In the discussion, the latest taxonomic changes in Basidiomycota are provided and the classification of Mycosphaerellales are broadly discussed. Genera listed in Mycosphaerellaceae have been confirmed by DNA sequence analyses, while doubtful genera (DNA sequences being unavailable but traditionally accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae) are listed in the discussion. Problematic genera in Glomeromycota are also discussed based on phylogenetic results. 

Keywords: Ascomycota – basal fungi – Basidiomycota – Classification – Fossil fungi – Rozellomycota


3. Mycosphere notes 345–386

Authors: Manawasinghe IS, Calabon MS, Jones EBG, Zhang YX, Liao CF, Xiong Y, Chaiwan N, Kularathnage ND, Liu NG, Tang SM, Sysouphanthong P, Du TY, Luo M, Pasouvang P, Pem D, Phonemany M, Ishaq M, Chen JW, Karunarathna SC, Mai ZL, Rathnayaka AR, Samarakoon MC, Tennakoon DS, Wijesinghe SN, Yang YH, Zhao HJ, Fiaz M, Doilom M, Dutta AK, Khalid AN, Liu JW, Thongklang N, Senanayake IC, Tibpromma S, You LQ, Camporesi E, Gafforov YS, Hyde KD

Recieved: 05 November 2021, Accepted: 15 February 2022, Published: 25 April 2022

This is the seventh in a series of Mycosphere notes in which we provide notes on the collection of fungi isolated from various hosts. In this set of notes, we introduce Pseudophialocephala as a new genus, nine new species, 27 new host or country records and five new combinations. The new species are Ceratosphaeria yunnanensis, Cytospora salicis-albae, Gymnopus bunerensis, Kalmusia cordylines, Leucoagaricus croceus, Leucoagaricus laosensis, Neopyrenochaeta shaoguanica, Pseudophialocephala cuneata and Robillarda aquatica. Pseudophialocephala humicola, Pseudophialocephala aquatica, Pseudophialocephala salinicola, Pseudophialocephala terricola and Pseudophialocephala xalapensis are introduced as new combinations. We provide new molecular data for 43 species belonging to two phyla, three classes and 15 orders. Updated phylogenetic trees for 22 families (Agaricaceae, Botryosphaeriaceae, Chaetosphaeriaceae, Coniochaetaceae, Didymosphaeriaceae, Gloeophyllaceae, Glomerellaceae, Hysteriaceae, Lophiostomataceae, Magnaporthaceae, Neopyrenochaetaceae, Omphalotacea, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Phyllostictaceae, Pleosporaceae, Saccotheciaceae, Savoryellaceae, Sporocadaceae, Stachybotryaceae, Torulaceae, Valsaceae, Physalacriaceae) and 32 genera (Alfaria, Aureobasidium, Ceratosphaeria, Collybiopsis, Colletotrichum, Comoclathris, Coniochaeta, Cytospora, Dothiorella, Gymnopus, Gymnopus, Heliocybe, Hysterium, Hysterobrevium, Kalmusia, Leptospora, Letendraea, Leucoagaricus, Mucidula, Neoleptosporella, Neopyrenochaeta, Paraleptospora, Phyllosticta, Pseudophialocephala, Rhytidhysteron, Robillarda, Savoryella, Sporocadus, Thozetella, Torula and Vaginatispora) are given. 

Keywords: 9 new taxa – 27 new records – 5 new combinations – Agaricomycetes – Ascomycota – Basidiomycota – Dothideomycetes – Molecular phylogeny – New hosts – New species – Sordariomycetes – Taxonomy


4. Taxonomy and ecology of epifoliar fungi

Authors: Marasinghe DS, Hongsanan S, Zeng XY, Jones EGB, Boonmee S, Hyde KD

Recieved: 03 February 2022, Accepted: 30 March 2022, Published: 05 May 2022

Epifoliar fungi are poorly studied symbionts that co-inhabit the surface of living plants. They are relatively understudied and generally lack molecular data thus there is considerable taxonomic confusion in the group as early taxonomic studies were based on morphology. Many taxa are difficult to isolate for obtaining cultures and therefore molecular analysis is a limitation for biotrophic species unless sequenced directly from the fruiting bodies. Epifoliar fungi evolved from diverse ancestors and include mainly members of the Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, and Sordariomycetes. The classification of epifoliar fungi is challenging due to taxonomic confusion in historical classifications and insufficient molecular data. In this study, we provide a summary of major epifoliar families (Asterinaceae, Meliolaceae, Micropeltidaceae, Microthyriaceae, Parmulariaceae and Zeloasperisporiaceae). The modes of nutrition of each family are also reviewed. Character analysis of a combined LSU, SSU and rpb2 dataset shows that epifoliar fungi have different taxonomic and evolutionary relationships in Ascomycota. Epifoliar fungi are generally considered to be host-specific, but this needs to be confirmed using molecular data as morphological differences are minor. Therefore, future research should focus on addressing the drawbacks of current studies and use new molecular approaches. To obtain better insights into epifoliar fungi, a combination of taxonomic and ecological studies is needed.

Keywords: Ascomycota – Character analysis – Epiphytes – Nutrition – Symbionts


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering