Volume 11 - 2020 -

1. Morpho-molecular characterization of microfungi associated with marine based habitats

Authors: Dayarathne MC, Jones EBG, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Devadatha B, Sarma VV, Khongphinitbunjong K, Chomnunti P, Hyde KD

Recieved: 25 July 2019, Accepted: 01 October 2019, Published: 13 January 2020

Our investigation of saprobic marine fungi in India, Thailand, Sweden and the UK yielded 57 species accommodated in 26 families. In the present study, we describe two new genera, 37 new species and 15 new host records. Novel genera, Halocryptosphaeria and Halotestudina are introduced within Diatrypaceae (Xylariales) and Testudinaceae (Pleosporales), respectively. The new species, Amarenographium ammophilicola, Asterodiscus mangrovei, Boeremia maritima, Chaetopsina aurantisalinicola, Chloridium salinicola, Coniochaeta arenariae, C. krabiensis, Diaporthe krabiensis, D. marina, D. salinicola, Dictyosporium marinum, Dyfrolomyces neothailandicus, Fusicolla gigantispora, Halorosellinia krabiensis, H. xylocarpi, Halotestudina muriformis, Hypoxylon aurantium, H. mangrovei, Lasiodiplodia krabiensis, Nectria marina, Nemania phetchaburiensis, N. viridis, Neocamarosporium artemisiae, N. maritimae, Neocosmospora rhizophorae, Nigrograna samueliana, N. rhizophorae, Patellaria apiculatae, Periconia salina, Peroneutypa indica, P. polysporae, Phaeoseptum carolshearerianum, P. manglicola, Rhytidhysteron bruguierae, Rimaconus multiguttulatus, Salsuginea rhizophorae and Xenoacremonium brunneosporum are introduced based on multigene analyses and morphological studies. This study also provides insights into the diversity of fungi from marine based habitats and confirm that they occupy diverse marine niches. We also demonstrate how marine based substrates, including sand dunes, are fascinating substrates for discovering novel taxa. All taxa described herein are based on morphological examination of fresh specimens supported by multigene phylogenies to better integrate taxa into higher taxonomic framework and infer their phylogenetic relationships as well as establish new species.

Keywords: 37 new taxa – Ascomycetes – Diversity – Dothideomycetes – DNA sequences – Ecology – Saline water – Sordariomycetes


2. Additions to the genus Cytospora with sexual morph in Cytosporaceae

Authors: Shang QJ, Hyde KD, Camporesi E, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Norphanphoun C, Brooks S, Liu JK

Recieved: 26 September 2019, Accepted: 27 November 2019, Published: 21 January 2020

Cytospora species are important pathogens, which have a worldwide distribution, broad host range and are commonly associated with tree dieback and canker disease. Lack of ex-type cultures or inability to link multi-gene DNA sequence data in GenBank to phylogenetic analyses makes it difficult to classify Cytospora taxa to species level. In this study, ten specimens of Cytospora were collected from dead wood in China, Italy and Thailand. Based on their morphology and phylogenetic characterization, four new species (C. diopuiensis, C. galegicola, C. pingbianensis and C. pubescentis) and four known species (C. cedri, C. cotini, C. predappioensis and C. prunicola) are herein described, illustrated and compared with related taxa. Detailed morphological descriptions of the holomorph (C. galegicola, C. prunicola, C. predappioensis and C. pubescentis), the sexual morph (C. cedri, C. cotini, C. diopuiensis and C. pingbianensis) and a new record of C. predappioensisin China are provided. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined ITS, LSU, ACT and RPB2 DNA sequence dataset support their placement in the genus Cytospora and justify the new species and identification of known species.

Keywords: 4 new taxa – Diaporthales – Multi-gene – phylogeny – taxonomy


3. Genetic (non)-homogeneity of the bracket fungi of the genus Ganoderma (Basidiomycota) in Central Europe

Authors: Beck T, Gáperová S, Gáper J, Náplavová K, Šebesta M, Kisková J, Pristaš P

Recieved: 23 April 2019, Accepted: 14 January 2020, Published: 24 January 2020

During systematic surveys of urban, rural and forest areas in Slovakia and Moravia (Czech Republic) and occasional botanical excursions in Northern Hungary, seventy-five collections of Ganoderma spp. were gathered during 2015 – 2018. Taxa identification was accomplished through observation of morphological characteristics of their mature, sporulating and undeformed basidiocarps. The genetic diversity of the collections was investigated by using internal transcribed spacer (ITS1/4) of ribosomal DNA sequences comparisons. Both analyses showed that the 75 collections clustered into six clades, namely, G. applanatum, G. adspersum, G. resinaceum, G. pfeifferi, G. lucidum and G. carnosum in accordance with the morphospecies concept.

The sequence comparison demonstrated genetic homogeneity of all G. resinaceum clade. Multiple sequence alignment indicated the presence of two G. resinaceum sequence types with significant statistic support and, probably, the existence of two cryptic taxa. The twenty-eight collections clustered with the G. applanatum group and the twenty other collections were grouped with morphologically very similar G. adspersum group. However, ITS sequences show no close similarity between these two species.

Keywords: basidiospores – cryptic taxa – interspecific and intraspecific variations – ITS – phylogeny – polypores – wood-decay


4. A new genus Allodiatrype, five new species and a new host record of diatrypaceous fungi from palms (Arecaceae)

Authors: Konta S, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Senanayake IC, McKenzie EHC, Stadler M, Boonmee S, Phookamsak R, Jayawardena RS, Senwanna C, Hyde KD, Elgorban AM, Eungwanichayapant PD

Recieved: 02 July 2019, Accepted: 02 December 2019, Published: 28 January 2020

Diatrypaceous fungi on palms (Arecaceae) in Thailand were collected and identified based on morphological characteristics as well as combined DNA sequence analyses (ITS and TUB2). One new genus Allodiatrype, and five new species, Allocryptovalsa elaeidis, Allodiatrype arengae, A. elaeidicola, A. elaeidis and Diatrypella elaeidis are introduced. A checklist of Diatrypaceae occurring on palms (Arecaceae) and Thai diatrypaceous fungi is also provided.

Keywords: 6 novel taxa – Diatrypaceae – morphology – palm fungi – phylogeny – Thai fungi – Xylariales


5. Additions to Fissuroma and Neoastrosphaeriella (Aigialaceae, Pleosporales) from palms

Authors: Zhang SN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Cheewangkoon R, Liu JK

Recieved: 15 November 2019, Accepted: 16 January 2020, Published: 30 January 2020

Recent examination of palm fungi led to the discovery of a group of fissuroma-like taxa, which share the following morphological features: slit-like ascomata, carbonaceous peridium, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, cylindric-clavate or obclavate asci and fusiform, septate ascospores. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses based on a combined ITS, LSU, SSU and TEF1-α sequence data support the establishment of Fissuroma palmae sp. nov. and Neoastrosphaeriella phoenicis sp. nov. Fissuroma caryotae and N. aquatica are also recovered as new host records from terrestrial palms. Fissuroma palmae is phylogenetically close to F. caryotae with strong support, but differs from F. caryotae in the appearance of pale brown mature ascospores, and the dimensions of asci and ascospores. Neoastrosphaeriella phoenicis is associated with submerged petioles of Phoenix paludosa in mangroves, providing an insight of a new habitat for Neoastrosphaeriella species. The hyaline to pale brown, fusiform, 1–3-septate, guttulate, verrucose ascospores of N. phoenicis distinguish it from other existing Neoastrosphaeriella species. Additional new taxa and their morphological features, ecological occurrence, as well as phylogenetic circumscription of genera in Aigialaceae are provided and discussed.

Keywords: 2 new taxa – Arecaceae – Dothideomycetes – Phylogeny – Taxonomy


6. One step closer to unravelling the origin of Russula: subgenus Glutinosae subg. nov.

Authors: Buyck B, Wang X-H, Adamčíková K, Caboň M, Jančovičová S, Hofstetter V, Adamčík S

Recieved: 18 August 2019, Accepted: 02 January 2020, Published: 31 January 2020

This study reports on the discovery of a new subgenus, Russula subg. Glutinosae, having an Eastern North American – East Asian distribution. A multigene phylogeny places this new subgenus sister with strong support to a well-supported clade composed of subgenera Compactae and Archaeae. It holds only two very rare, northern hemisphere species, the North American R. glutinosa and the Asian R. glutinosoides sp. nov., thereby adding support to a northern hemisphere origin of the genus. Russula fattoensis is here shown to be a synonym of R. glutinosa. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations of holotype collections are provided and potential affinities and similarities with other subgenera are discussed. The new subgenus is a perfect illustration of the fact that nBLAST of nrITS does not always provide the appropriate sampling for phylogenetic analyses.

Keywords: BLAST – China – multi-locus – new subgenus – nrITS – phylogeny – United States


7. Refined families of Sordariomycetes

Authors: Hyde KD et al.

Recieved: 15 November 2019, Accepted: 13 February 2020, Published: 28 February 2020

This is a continuation of the papers “Towards a classification of Sordariomycetes” (2015) and “Families of Sordariomycetes” (2016) in which we compile a treatment of the class Sordariomycetes. The present treatment is needed as our knowledge has rapidly increased, from 32 orders, 105 families and 1331 genera in 2016, to 45 orders, 167 families and 1499 genera (with 308 genera incertae sedis) at the time of publication. In this treatment we provide notes on each order, families and short notes on each genus. We provide up-to-date DNA based phylogenies for 45 orders and 163 families. Three new genera and 16 new species are introduced with illustrations and descriptions, while 23 new records and three new species combinations are provided. We also list 308 taxa in Sordariomycetes genera incertae sedis. For each family we provide general descriptions and illustrate the type genus or another genus, the latter where the placement has generally been confirmed with molecular data. Both the sexual and asexual morphs representative of a family are illustrated where available. Notes on ecological and economic considerations are also given.

Keywords: 19 new taxa – Amphisphaeriales – Amplistromatales – Annulatascales – Atractosporales – Boliniales – Calosphaeriales – Catabotryales – Cephalothecales – Chaetosphaeriales – Coniochaetales – Conioscyphales – Coronophorales – Delonicicolales – Diaporthales – Distoseptisporales – Falcocladiales – Fuscosporellales – Glomerellales – Hypocreales – Jobellisiales – Koralionastetales – Lulworthiales – Magnaporthales – Meliolales – Microascales, Myrmecridiales, new records, Ophiostomatales, Pararamichloridiales, Parasympodiellales – Phomatosporales – Phyllachorales – Pisorisporiales – Pleurotheciales – Pseudodactylariales – Savoryellales – Sordariales – Spathulosporales – Sporidesmiales – Tirisporellales – Togniniales – Torpedosporales – Tracyllalales – Vermiculariopsiellales – Xenospadicoidales – Xylariales


8. Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa

Authors: Wijayawardene et al.

Recieved: 05 December 2019, Accepted: 17 March 2020, Published: 18 March 2020

This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi, viz. Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of each genus at the class, order and family level is provided. The number of species per genus are also given. Notes are also provided where recent changes or disagreements occur. Fungi-like taxa (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes), which have generally been treated as fungi in traditional taxonomy are also provided as an outline. Three new orders in Rozellomycota (viz. Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov., Ovavesiculida ord. nov.) are introduced, while one family is introduced in Dictyosteliomycetes (fungi-like). A phylogenetic tree which represents all orders of fungi, where DNA sequences are available is also provided based on rRNA 18S, rRNA 28S, RPB1 and RPB2 genes.

Keywords: Two new taxa – Ascomycota – Amblyosporida ord. nov. – Basal clades – Basidiomycota – Classification – Emendation – Microsporidia – Neopereziida ord. nov. – Ovavesiculida ord. nov. – Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. – Redonographaceae comb. ined.


9. Three new species of Hypoxylon and new records of Xylariales from Panama

Authors: Cedeño–Sanchez M, Wendt L, Stadler M, Mejía LC

Recieved: 15 October 2019, Accepted: 07 March 2020, Published: 31 March 2020

Three new species of Hypoxylon (Hypoxylaceae, Xylariales) are described based on a polyphasic approach that included morphological examination, molecular phylogeny and chemotaxonomic studies of specimens collected in Panama. Specifically, we compared the sexual morph (stromata, asci, and ascospores) of the specimens collected with known species of Hypoxylon and inferred a phylogeny of this genus based on a Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) analysis of partial β–tubulin (TUB2) DNA sequences and the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS). Hypoxylon baruense sp. nov. is phylogenetically related to H. subgilvum but differs in the shape of stromata, and by having larger ascospores and a smooth perispore. Hypoxylon bellicolor sp. nov. is phylogenetically well differentiated, featuring effused–pulvinate stromata with orange granules and ostioles lower than the stromatal surface. Hypoxylon sporistriatatunicum sp. nov., is phylogenetically related to H. shearii var. minor but differs in the shape of the stromata, in having ostioles higher than the stromatal surface, and in having larger ascospores. The secondary metabolite profiles of these species were studied by HPLC–DAD–MS and these correspond to the results of the morphological and phylogenetic studies. Additionally, we also report Amphirosellinia evansii, H. howeanum, H. cinnabarinum and Stilbohypoxylon quisquiliarum from Panama for the first time and Citrus sinensis as a new host of H. cinnabarinum. With this work, the number of species of Xylariales and Hypoxylon reported from Panama have increased to 103 and 18, respectively.

Keywords: Biodiversity – Fungi – Sordariomycetes – Hypoxylaceae


10. Global diversity and phylogeny of Fuscoporia (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota)

Authors: Chen Q, Du P, Vlasák J, Wu F, Dai YC

Recieved: 11 February 2020, Accepted: 10 April 2020, Published: 12 May 2020

The genus Fuscoporia is characterized by annual to perennial, resupinate to pileate basidiocarps, a dimitic hyphal system with generative hyphae bearing crystals, presence of hymenial setae in most species, and hyaline, thin-walled, smooth basidiospores. To explore the phylogenetic positions of Fuscoporia species, we performed a comprehensive study by using molecular data based on global specimens: a total of 105 specimens including 41 species of Fuscoporia were analyzed, ITS (95 with 46 new), nLSU (94 with 49 new), RPB2 (49 with 34 new) and TEF1 (73 with 52 new) sequences were used to reconstruct Fuscoporia phylogeny. According to our phylogenetic analyses inferred from the nLSU and ITS+nLSU+RPB2+TEF1 datasets, Fuscoporia comprises six distinct groups (F. contigua group, F. ferrea group, F. ferruginosa group, F. gilva group, F. torulosa group and F. viticola group) and three ungrouped species (F. acutimarginata, F. discipes and F. insolita). Nine new species, Fuscoporia australasica, F. australiana, F. bambusae, F. chinensis, F. eucalypti, F. karsteniana, F. plumeriae, F. shoreae and F. subchrysea, are described. Two new combinations, Fuscoporia bambusicola and F. roseocinerea, are proposed. A key to 49 accepted species of Fuscoporia in worldwide is provided.

Keywords: Nine new species – Hymenochaetaceae – Phylogeny – Taxonomy – Wood-rotting fungi


11. A dynamic portal for a community-driven, continuously updated classification of Fungi and fungus-like organisms: outlineoffungi.org

Authors: Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Dai DQ, Tang LZ, Aptroot A, Castañeda-Ruiz RF, Druzhinina IS, Cai F, Ekanayaka AH, Erdoğdu M, Fiuza PO, Gentekaki E, Goto BT, Haelewaters D, Hongsanan S, Jeewon R, Kirk PM, Jayalal U, Karunarathna SC, Wanasinghe DN, Lumbsch HT, Madrid H, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Monteiro JS, Shivaprakash N, Pfliegler WP, Phillips AJL, Saxena RK, Stadler M, Tian Q, Tokarev YS, Tsurykau A, Ertz D, Lee HB, Etayo J, Vizzini A, Jones EGB, Lin CG, Li WJ, Dai YC, Fan XL, McKenzie EHC, Shivas RG, Hustad V, Leontyev DV, de Hoog GS, Niskanen T, Boekhout T, Gaya E, Thines M

Recieved: 17 July 2020, Accepted: 27 August 2020, Published: 10 September 2020

The website http://outlineoffungi.org, is launched to provide a continuous up-to-date classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. This is based on recent publications and on the outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa published recently (Mycosphere 11, 1060–1456, Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8). The website is continuously updated according to latest classification schemes, and will present an important platform for researchers, industries, government officials and other users. Users can provide input about missing genera, new genera, and new data. They will also have the opportunity to express their opinions on classifications with notes published in the ‘Notes’ section of the webpage following review and editing by the curators and independent experts. The website will provide a system to stay abreast of the continuous changes in fungal classification and provide a general consensus on the systematics of fungi.

Keywords: classification – community-driven – higher ranks – outline – portal – taxa


12. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Phanerochaete sensu stricto with emphasis on Chinese collections and descriptions of nine new species

Authors: Xu YL, Cao YF, Nakasone KK, Chen CC, He SH

Recieved: 03 May 2020, Accepted: 30 July 2020, Published: 11 September 2020

The taxonomy of Phanerochaete sensu stricto is studied herein by using both morphological and molecular methods. Phylogenetic analyses are based on a concatenated ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and nrLSU sequence data of 50 taxa of Phanerochaete s.s. around the world. Among these are nine newly described and illustrated species P. burdsallii, P. cinerea, P. hymenochaetoides, P. leptocystidiata, P. metuloidea, P. minor, P. sinensis, P. subrosea and P. yunnanensis. While P. burdsallii is from the U.S.A., the other new species were collected from China. In addition, nine species, P. bambucicola, P. citrinosanguinea, P. concrescens, P. cumulodentata, P. ericina, P. incarnata, P. livescens, P. magnoliae and P. taiwaniana are reported from mainland China for the first time. So far, 28 species of Phanerochaete s.s. from mainland China are confirmed by morphology and DNA sequence data. An identification key to all these species is presented. Phanerochaete fusca is determined to be a synonym of P. porostereoides.  

Keywords: corticioid fungi – Phanerochaetaceae – phlebioid fungi – white rot


13. Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae

Authors: Hongsanan S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN, McKenzie EHC, Sarma VV, Boonmee S, Lücking R, Bhat DJ, Liu NG, Tennakoon DS, Pem D, Karunarathna A, Jiang SH, Jones EBG, Phillips AJL, Manawasinghe IS, Tibpromma S, Jayasiri SC, Sandamali DS, Jayawardena RS, Wijayawardene NN, Ekanayaka AH, Jeewon R, Lu YZ, Dissanayake AJ, Zeng XY, Luo ZL, Tian Q, Phukhamsakda C, Thambugala KM, Dai DQ, Chethana KWT, Samarakoon MC, Ertz D, Bao DF, Doilom M, Liu JK, Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, Senwanna C, Wijesinghe SN, Konta S, Niranjan M, Zhang SN, Ariyawansa HA, Jiang HB, Zhang JF, Norphanphoun C, de Silva NI, Thiyagaraja V, Zhang H, Bezerra JDP, Miranda-González R, Aptroot A, Kashiwadani H, Harishchandra D, Sérusiaux E, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Abeywickrama PD, Devadatha B, Wu HX, Moon KH, Gueidan C, Schumm F, Bundhun D, Mapook A, Monkai J, Chomnunti P, Suetrong S, Chaiwan N, Dayarathne MC, Yang J, Rathnayaka AR, Bhunjun CS, Xu JC, Zheng JS, Liu G, Feng Y, Xie N

Recieved: 29 May 2020, Accepted: 02 September 2020, Published: 16 September 2020

The class Dothideomycetes is the largest and most ecologically diverse class of fungi, comprising endophytes, epiphytes, saprobes, human and plant pathogens, lichens, and lichenicolous, nematode trapping and rock-inhabiting taxa. Members of this class are mainly characterized by bitunicate asci with fissitunicate dehiscence, and occur on broad range of hosts in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Since the last monograph of families of Dothideomycetes in 2013, numerous novel species, genera, families and orders have been discovered. This has expanded information which has led to the modern classification in Dothideomycetes. In this paper, we provide a refined updated document on families of Dothideomycetes with emphasis on Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. We accept three orders with 25 families and four orders with 94 families in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae, respectively. The new family Paralophiostomataceae is introduced in Pleosporales. Each family is provided with an updated description, notes, including figures to represent the morphology, list of accepted genera, and economic and ecological significances. We also provide an overall phylogenetic tree of families in Dothideomycetes based on combined analysis of LSU, SSU, rpb-2 and tef1 sequence data, and phylogenetic trees for each order in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Family-level trees are provided for the families which include several genera such as Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae. Two new genera (Ligninsphaeriopsis and Paralophiostoma) are introduced. Five new species (Biatrisopora borsei, Comoclathris galatellae, Ligninsphaeriopsis thailandica, Paralophiostoma hysterioides and Torula thailandica) are introduced based on morphology and phylogeny, together with nine new reports and seven new collections from different families.

Keywords: 6 new taxa – Capnodiales – Dothideales –Gloniales – Hysteriales – Myriangiales – Mytilinidiales – new family – new genera – new species – Pleosporales – Phylogeny – Taxonomy


14. Fungi on wild seeds and fruits

Authors: Perera RH, Hyde KD, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Stadler M, Lee HB, Samarakoon MC, Ekanayaka AH, Camporesi E, Liu JK, Liu ZY

Recieved: 14 March 2020, Accepted: 10 August 2020, Published: 17 September 2020

This paper reviews and determines the fungi growing on seeds and fruits of wild plants in various habitats. Such fungi colonise a wide range of substrates with most reported from cones, cupules, and leguminous pods that are high in cellulose and lignin content. There are 1348 fungal species (belonging to 230 families and 609 genera) reported from wild seeds and fruits in 84 countries, listed in this paper. Of these, 300 fungi were described from wild seeds and fruit substrates. Members of the Fabaceae support the highest number of taxa, namely 19% of the novel wild fruit fungi. Twenty-eight genera, including 5 fossil fungal genera have been described from wild seeds and fruits: Agarwalomyces, Amorocoelophoma, Anisogenispora, Archephoma, Centrolepidosporium, Cylindroaseptospora, Cylindromyces, Davidhawksworthia, Delonicicola, Discotubeufia, Glaxoa, Kionocephala, Leucaenicola, Naranus, Neolindgomyces, Pleohelicoon, Quercicola, Remotididymella, Repetoblastiella, Restilago, Soloacrosporiella, Strobiloscypha and Tainosphaeria. Archephoma, Meniscoideisporites, Palaeodiplodites, Palaeopericonia and Xylohyphites are the new fossil fungal genera. Fungal asexual morphs predominate on wild seeds and fruits rather than the sexual morphs. The dominant fungal genera on wild seeds and fruits include Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Drechslera, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Restiosporium, Rhizopus, Talaromyces, Trichoderma and Xylaria. Certain assemblages of fungi have specific and distinct relationships with their hosts, especially Xylaria species (e.g., Xylaria magnoliae on Magnolia fruits; X. xanthinovelutina (= X. ianthino-velutina) on Fabaceae pods; X. carpophila on Fagus cupules; X. persicaria on liquidambar fruits). Whether these species occur as endophytes and become saprobes following fruit fall requires further investigation. In this study, we also made several sexual morph collections of sordariomycetous taxa from different seed and fruit substrates mainly from Thailand, with a few from the UK. These include 15 new species, 13 new host records and 1 new geographical record. The new species are described and illustrated.

Keywords: 15 new taxa – forest floor – fructicolous – pathogens – saprobes – seminicolous


15. Taxonomic novelties of saprobic Pleosporales from selected dicotyledons and grasses

Authors: Brahmanage RS, Dayarathne MC, Wanasinghe DN, Thambugala KM, Jeewon R, Chethana KWT, Samarakoon MC, Tennakoon DS, De Silva NI, Camporesi E, Raza M, Yan JY, Hyde KD

Recieved: 15 May 2020, Accepted: 17 September 2020, Published: 29 September 2020

Pleosporales is the largest order in the class Dothideomycetes, comprising a quarter of all species of Dothideomycetes. This paper provides comprehensive illustrations and descriptions of newly collected saprobic pleosporalean taxa from dicotyledons and grasses in China, Italy, Russia and Thailand. These species are accommodated in 8 families in Pleosporales. The taxa described here include 14 new species, a new geographical record and three new host records of known species. New species are Alternaria rumicis, Bambusicola ficuum, Comoclathris flammulae, C. europaeae, C. lonicerae, Ophiobolus lathyri, Paraophiobolus torilicola, Parastagonospora dactylidicola, P. hieracioidis, Pseudopaucispora hyalinospora, Stagonospora poaceicola, Stemphylium artemisiae and Subplenodomus meldolanus. All species descriptions presented herein are based on morphological comparisons coupled with multi-gene phylogenetic analyses.

Keywords: 14 new species – Dothideomycetes – microfungi – phylogeny – taxonomy


16. Differentiation of species complexes in Phyllosticta enables better species resolution

Authors: Norphanphoun C, Hongsanan S, Gentekaki E, Chen YJ, Kuo CH, Hyde KD

Recieved: 23 June 2020, Accepted: 01 October 2020, Published: 19 October 2020

Phyllosticta species have worldwide distribution and are pathogens, endophytes, and saprobes. Taxa have also been isolated from leaf spots and black spots of fruits. Taxonomic identification of Phyllosticta species is challenging due to overlapping morphological traits and host associations. Herein, we have assembled a comprehensive dataset and reconstructed a phylogenetic tree. We introduce six species complexes of Phyllosticta to aid the future resolution of species. We also introduce a new species, Phyllosticta rhizophorae isolated from spotted leaves of Rhizophora stylosa in mangrove forests of Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequence data of ITS, LSU, ef1α, actin and gapdh loci coupled with morphological evidence support the establishment of the new species. We synonymize strains of P. capitalensis (CPC 20508 and CPC20509) under the new species. Six strains (CBS 173.77, CBS 119720, CPC 17748, CPC 20252, CPC 20269, and CBS 123404) are unnamed species based on phylogenetic analyses and nucleotide polymorphisms and probably represent new species. The phylogenetic relationships of Phyllosticta species are reappraised and suggestions are given for future work.

Keywords: 1 New Species – Microfungi – Morphology – Phylogenetic Analysis – Phyllostictaceae – Rhizophoraceae – Synonym – Taxonomy


17. Polyphyletic genera in Xylariaceae (Xylariales): Neoxylaria gen. nov. and Stilbohypoxylon

Authors: Konta S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Xu JC, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Daranagama DA, McKenzie EHC, Boonmee S, Tibpromma S, Eungwanichayapant PD, Samarakoon MC, Lu YZ

Recieved: 26 June 2020, Accepted: 15 October 2020, Published: 26 October 2020

Several genera in Xylariaceae are polyphyletic in phylogenetic trees and represent more than one distinct genus. However, it is challenging to resolve these genera that are often phylogenetically distantly related, because many taxa have never been recollected and sequenced. Those that have been named and sequenced often lack documented characters or herbarium material. In this paper, we use descriptive morphology of fresh collections, and molecular data to resolve some taxonomic problems in Xylariaceae. During the of microfungi on palms in Thailand, we collected several novel xylariaceous taxa. Herein, we introduce a new genus Neoxylaria which is distantly related to Xylaria sensu stricto and a new species Stilbohypoxylon elaeidis. Neoxylaria is characterized by relatively small stromata with conspicuously exposed perithecial contours under a narrowly striped outer layer. Neoxylaria accommodates a species morphologically similar to Xylaria juruensis, which was also collected from palm material in Brazil and X. queenslandica collected from Archontophoenix alexandrae in Australia. As no molecular data exists for these old collections, we have linked them with morphology to our fresh collection and use both molecular data and morphology to introduce the new genus. Neoxylaria juruensis (Henn.) Konta & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. and N. queenslandica (Joanne E. Taylor, K.D. Hyde & E.B.G. Jones) Konta & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov. are therefore established. Multigene phylogenetic analysis shows that our new species (S. elaeidis) clusters with Stilbohypoxylon sensu stricto (Stilbohypoxylon clade II) and clarifies the nature of the genus. The new species differs from other species in having solitary, smooth stromata and forms synnemata-like structures on the host, but not on the stroma. The novel taxa introduced here are supported by multigene phylogeny and morphology. Comprehensive morphological descriptions, illustrations and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement of new taxa are provided.

Keywords: 3 new taxa – palmicolous fungi – phylogeny – Sordariomycetes – taxonomy – Thai fungi


18. Applied aspects of methods to infer phylogenetic relationships amongst fungi

Authors: Dissanayake AJ, Bhunjun CS, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Liu JK

Recieved: 17 September 2020, Accepted: 20 November 2020, Published: 09 December 2020

There is a need to document the methodologies used for molecular phylogenetic analyses since the current fungal identification, classification and phylogeny are necessarily applied with DNA molecular sequence data. Hence this manuscript is mainly aimed to provide a basic reference or guideline for the mycologists venturing into the field of phylogenetic studies and to avoid unnecessary repetitions in related publications. This is not at all to elaborate the theoretical background but is intended as a compact guide of some useful software references and coding for the most commonly used phylogenetic methods applied in mycological research. This reference manuscript is originally conceived for usage with a set of programs necessary for inference of phylogenetic analyses in fungal research (taxonomy and phylogeny). For this purpose, principles, introductory texts and formulas have been omitted. Meanwhile, necessary steps from DNA extraction to DNA sequencing, sequences quality check, data alignment and general steps of phylogenetic tree reconstructions have been included.

Keywords: Fungal classification – Materials and methodology – Molecular data – Reference – Taxonomy


19. Erratum to: Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of fungal taxa associated with cherry leaf spot disease

Authors: Chethana KWT, Jayawardene RS, Zhang W, Zhou YY, Liu M, Hyde KD, Li XH, Wang J, Zhang KC, Yan JY

Recieved: 14 December 2020, Accepted: 14 December 2020, Published: 14 December 2020

Erratum to: Mycosphere 10(1): 490–530, Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/10/1/8

In this publication, there is an error in Figure 8 in the original article on page 515. Figure 8 was published with an incorrect spore orientation microphotograph (8b). We therefore replace this figure with the correct figure below. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused.

Keywords: N/A


20. Morphological approaches in studying fungi: collection, examination, isolation, sporulation and preservation

Authors: Senanayake IC, Rathnayaka AR, Marasinghe DS, Calabon MS, Gentekaki E, Lee HB, Hurdeal VG, Pem D, Dissanayake LS, Wijesinghe SN, Bundhun D, Nguyen TT, Goonasekara ID, Abeywickrama PD, Bhunjun CS, Jayawardena RS, Wanasinghe DN, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, Xiang MM

Recieved: 18 September 2020, Accepted: 01 December 2020, Published: 17 December 2020

Traditionally, fungal taxonomy was based on observable phenotypic characters. Recent advances have driven taxonomic conclusions towards DNA-based approaches and these techniques have corresponding pros and cons. Species concepts must therefore rely on incorporated approaches of genotypic, phenotypic and physiological characters and chemotaxonomy. Examination and interpretation of morphological characters however vary from person to person. Standardized procedures are used in the taxonomic study of fungi and general practices of phenotypic approaches are herein outlined. It is not possible to detail all techniques for all fungi and thus, this paper emphasizes on microfungi. Specimen collection is the initial step in any taxonomic study and all taxonomic information are gathered from the specimens. Therefore, guidelines are provided for the collection, data recording and storage of specimens. Morphological examination, microscopy, photography and descriptions of specimens are important for fungal identification. Hence, techniques for staining, mounting and slide preparation are explained. In addition, obtaining pure cultures from specimens and maintaining those isolates for future studies are challenging. Isolation techniques are numerous and often complicated. Good techniques need to isolate a maximum number of strains from a specimen and obtain the desired taxon, while excluding all others. Methods to isolate microfungi including basal fungi, hyphomycetes, coelomycetes, ascomycetes, plant pathogens, soil fungi, air-borne fungi, epiphytes and endophytes are detailed herein. Sporulating cultures are useful to describe the morphological characters of relevant fungi, but sometimes these characters are absent or difficult to find on natural substrates and it is also difficult to link same fungal organisms based on sexual and asexual morphs. The techniques that induce sporulation of different fungal groups are explained and discussed. Specimens, protologues or descriptions, diagrams, illustrations, cultures and DNA sequences need to be deposited at accessible repositories and guidelines are provided for such deposition. The available data are used in future studies. Furthermore, preservation of cultures and specimens is essential. Cultures are used in DNA extraction, mating or cultivation studies, sporulation and metabolites extraction. Colony characters are often significant from each other and sporulated, dry cultures and specimens represent the type status of the desired fungus. Therefore, culture and specimen preservation techniques of different fungal groups are discussed.

Keywords: Ex situ preservation – Isolates – Morphology – Mycotaxonomy – Specimen collections


21. Terrestriporiaceae fam. nov., a new family of Russulales (Basidiomycota)

Authors: Wu F, Yuan Y, Chen JJ, Cui BK, Zhou M, Dai YC

Recieved: 05 August 2020, Accepted: 14 December 2020, Published: 28 December 2020

A new family of Russulales, Terrestriporiaceae fam. nov. is proposed based on the combination of molecular and morphological data, and it is typified by Terrestriporia gen. nov. The phylogenetic analyses inferred from the combined dataset of five genes, including ITS, nLSU, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1, show that Terrestriporia alba sp. nov. forms a monophyletic lineage within Russulales. The Bayesian evolutionary analysis on two datasets of RPB1 and RPB2 sequences indicate an ancient divergence of the new family from Albatrellaceae during the Cretaceous (124.68±0.39 Mya). The new family is characterized by annual and resupinate basidioma, poroid hymenophore, a monomitic hyphal structure, and generative hyphae mostly simple septate, but occasionally having clamp connections, the presence of gloeoplerous hyphae and cystidioles, thin-walled, hyaline, smooth, amyloid and acyanophilous basidiospores.

Keywords: phylogeny – polypore – taxonomy – wood-inhabiting fungi


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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    Innovative Institute for Plant Health ,
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