Volume 12 - 2021
13. Unexpected Nectriaceae species diversity in cheese, description of Bisifusarium allantoides sp. nov., Bisifusarium penicilloides sp. nov., Longinectria gen. nov. lagenoides sp. nov. and Longinectria verticilliforme sp. nov.
Savary O et al. (2021)
10. Sequencing of the type species of Arthopyrenia places Arthopyreniaceae as a synonym of Trypetheliaceae
Thiyagaraja V et al. (2021)
9. Taxonomic studies of Coronophorales and Niessliaceae (Hypocreomycetidae)
Huang SK et al. (2021)
8. Diversity in fossil fungal spores
Saxena RK et al. (2021)
7. Colletotrichum: lifestyles, biology, morpho-species, species complexes and accepted species
Jayawardena RS et al. (2021)
6. Microfungi associated with Camellia sinensis: A case study of leaf and shoot necrosis on Tea in Fujian, China
Manawasinghe IS et al. (2021)
5. Life in leaf litter: Fungal community succession during decomposition
Tennakoon DS et al. (2021)
4. Towards incorporating asexually reproducing fungi in the natural classification and notes for pleomorphic genera
Wijayawardene NN et al. (2021)
Volume 10 - 2019 -
1. Diversity, morphology and molecular phylogeny of Dothideomycetes on decaying wild seed pods and fruits
Authors: Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Jeewon R, Phillips AJL, Bhat DJ, Wanasinghe DN, Liu JK, Lu YZ, Kang JC, Xu J, Karunarathna SC
Recieved: 06 January 2019, Accepted: 13 February 2019, Published: 26 February 2019
Dothideomycetes is one of the largest and most diverse class of ascomycetes. Its members are reported from many plant parts, but less has been reported from wild seed pods and fruits. Dothideomycetes can be seed-borne or colonize fruits and seed pods when they fall to the ground. We studied the Dothideomycetes found on wild fruits and seed pods, mainly in Thailand (tropical), and to a lesser extent, in China (temperate) and UK (temperate). We describe eight new genera, 50 new species, provide 38 new host records and propose seven new combinations. The new genera are: Amorocoelophoma (Amorosiaceae), Cylindroaseptospora (Didymosphaeriaceae), Discotubeufia (Tubeufiaceae), Leucaenicola (Bambusicolaceae), Neolindgomyces (Lindgomycetaceae), Pleohelicoon (Pleomonodictydaceae), Quercicola (Astrosphaeriellaceae) and Xenoastrosphaeriella (Astrosphaeriellaceae). The new species are: Acrocalymma pterocarpi, Allophoma siamensis, Amorocoelophoma cassiae, Anteaglonium gordoniae, Atrocalyx krabiensis, Austropleospora keteleeriae, Caryospora quercus, Cladosporium entadae, C. magnoliigena, Cycasicola leucaenae, Cylindroaseptospora leucaenae, C. siamensis, Delitschia nypae, Dictyocheirospora lithocarpi, Didymella magnoliae, Didymocrea leucaenae, Diplodia magnoliensis, Discotubeufia browneae, Dothiorella lampangensis, Ernakulamia krabiensis, Gloniopsis fluctiformis, G. leucaenae, Lasiodiplodia avicenniarum, L. swieteniae, Leucaenicola aseptata, L. phraeana, Neodeightonia planchoniae, Neolindgomyces pandanae, Neopyrenochaeta cercidis, Neoroussoella entadae, N. leucaenae, Ochroconis ailanthi, Periconia delonicis, Phaeosphaeria sinensis, Pleohelicoon fagi, Psedochaetosphaeronema siamensis, Pseudoberkleasmium acaciae, Pseudocoleophoma bauhiniae, Pseudofusicoccum calophylli, Pseudohelicomyces quercus, Pseudopithomyces entadae, Quercicola fusiformis, Q. guttulospora, Remotididymella bauhiniae, Spegazzinia radermacherae, Stagonosporopsis pini, Stomiopeltis phyllanthi, S. sinensis, Tubeufia entadae and Vaginatispora nypae. These novelties represent both sexual and asexual morphs of species in 35 families of this class. Taxonomic novelties are morphologically illustrated and phylogeny investigated based on multi-gene sequence data. Our results indicate that the plant genus Leucaena harbours higher species diversity.
Keywords: 58 new taxa – Amorocoelophoma – ascomycete – bitunicate – Leucaenicola – Neolindgomyces
2. Confirming the phylogenetic position of the genus Muscodor and the description of a new Muscodor species
Authors: Chen JJ, Feng XX, Xia CY, Kong DD, Qi ZY, Liu F, Chen D, Lin FC, Zhang CL
Recieved: 16 February 2018, Accepted: 05 November 2018, Published: 27 February 2019
It has been suggested that the genus Muscodor should be rejected, while many new species recently introduced are based on chemical profiles of volatile organic compounds and insufficient phylogenetic analyses. The ITS rRNA gene was used for identification of Muscodor species, but has limitations. A four-locus (ITS rRNA, 28S rRNA, RPB2 and TUB1 gene) combined phylogenetic tree has been reconstructed in the current study to confirm that the genus Muscodor is phylogenetically distinct from other closely related genera. A new Muscodor species named Muscodor yunnanensis is described based on phylogenetic analyses and culture characteristics.
Keywords: 1 new species – Muscodor – phylogenetic position – new species – four-loci
3. Fungi from Asian Karst formations III. Molecular and morphological characterization reveal new taxa in Phaeosphaeriaceae
Authors: Zhang JF, Liu JK, Jeewon R, Wanasinghe DN, Liu ZY
Recieved: 28 November 2018, Accepted: 28 February 2019, Published: 20 March 2019
An ongoing study on ascomycetes from Karst landforms in Guizhou Province, China yielded 6 new taxa that belong to the Phaeosphaeriaceae. These include 2 novel monotypic genera: Hydeopsis (with H. verrucispora sp. nov.) and Pseudoophiosphaerella (with P. huishuiensis sp. nov.), and two new species: Hydeomyces pinicola and Leptospora hydei. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated LSU-ITS-SSU-TEF1-α sequence data were performed to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Hydeopsis is morphologically characterized by subglobose, papillate, dark brown to black ascomata, cellular pseudoparaphyses, clavate, bitunicate, ﬁssitunicate asci and ellipsoidal to fusiform, hyaline to pale pigmented, 3-septate ascospores with a mucilaginous sheath. Hydeopsis is phylogenetically related to Dactylidina and Phaeopoacea, but can be recognized as a distinct lineage and these genera can also be distinguished based on morphology. Pseudoophiosphaerella is morphologically similar to Ophiosphaerella in having cylindric-clavate asci and scolecospores, but is phylogenetically distant from the latter and more closely related to Dlhawksworthia. Comprehensive illustrations and detailed descriptions of these taxa are provided, and relationships with allied genera or species are discussed based on comparative morphology and phylogenetic evidence.
Keywords: 6 new taxa – Dothideomycetes – Multi-gene – Sexual morph – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
4. RETRACTED: Ganodermataceae (Polyporales): Diversity in Greater Mekong Subregion countries (China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam)
Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Karunarathna SC, Phengsintham P, Yang HD, Kakumyan P, Hyde KD, Wen TC
Recieved: 30 November -0001, Accepted: 30 November -0001, Published: 22 April 2019
5. CORRIGENDUM: Ganodermataceae (Polyporales): Diversity in Greater Mekong Subregion countries (China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam)
Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Karunarathna SC, Phengsintham P, Yang HD, Kakumyan P, Hyde KD, Wen TC
Recieved: 30 November -0001, Accepted: 30 November -0001, Published: 29 April 2019
6. Ganodermataceae (Polyporales): Diversity in Greater Mekong Subregion countries (China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam)
Authors: Hapuarachchi KK, Karunarathna SC, Phengsintham P, Yang HD, Kakumyan P, Hyde KD, Wen TC
Recieved: 16 January 2019, Accepted: 25 March 2019, Published: 29 April 2019
Taxa of Ganodermataceae have been widely used as traditional medicines for centuries in Asia. Despite several taxonomic investigations, relationships and classification of many species are still unresolved. Species in this family are either pathogenic, wood decaying and/or wood inhabiting. In this paper, we introduce, a collection of Ganodermataceae species based on fresh and dried specimens found within the Greater Mekong Subregion countries; China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Amauroderma schomburgkii, A. rude, Haddowia longipes, Ganoderma lingzhi, G. luteomarginatum, G. subresinosum and G. tropicum from Laos, G. australe and G. multiplicatum from Myanmar, G. donkii from Thailand, G. adspersum from Thailand and Myanmar, G. flexipes, G. gibbosum, G. orbiforme, and G. neojaponicum from both Laos and Myanmar, are newly recorded species for these countries. We also identified A. schomburgkii and A. rude, based on morphology and the other species based on both morphology and DNA sequence data. Two species; G. nasalanense Hapuar., Pheng., & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov., and G. sandunense Hapuar., T.C. Wen & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov., are new to science and established with morphological and DNA sequence based evidence. All taxa collected are described and illustrated with coloured photographs. We present an updated phylogeny for Ganodermataceae based on nrLSU, ITS, nrSSU, TEF1 and RPB2 DNA sequence data and species relationships and classification are discussed.
Keywords: new taxa – new records – morphology – pathogenic species – phylogeny
Authors: Ekanayaka AH, Hyde KD, Gentekaki E, McKenzie EHC, Zhao Q, Bulgakov TS, Camporesi E
Recieved: 13 March 2019, Accepted: 29 April 2019, Published: 01 May 2019
Leotiomycetes is regarded as the inoperculate class of discomycetes within the phylum Ascomycota. Taxa are mainly characterized by asci with a simple pore blueing in Melzer’s reagent, although some taxa have lost this character. The monophyly of this class has been verified in several recent molecular studies. However, circumscription of the orders, families and generic level delimitation are still unsettled. This paper provides a modified backbone tree for the class Leotiomycetes based on phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, LSU, SSU, TEF, and RPB2 loci. In the phylogenetic analysis, Leotiomycetes separates into 19 clades, which can be recognized as orders and order-level clades. Leotiomycetes include 53 families (Ascodichaenaceae, Amicodiscaceae fam. nov., Amorphothecaceae, Arachnopezizaceae, Ascocorticiaceae, Calloriaceae, Cenangiaceae, Chaetomellaceae, Chlorociboriaceae, Chlorospleniaceae fam. nov., Bryoglossaceae fam. nov., Cochlearomycetaceae, Cordieritidaceae, Cyttariaceae, Deltopyxidaceae fam. nov., Dermateaceae, Discinellaceae fam. nov., Drepanopezizaceae, Erysiphaceae, Gelatinodiscaceae, Godroniaceae, Hamatocanthoscyphaceae fam. nov., Helicogoniaceae, Helotiaceae, Hemiphacidiaceae, Heterosphaeriaceae, Hyaloscyphaceae, Hydrocinaceae fam. nov., Hyphodiscaceae fam. nov., Lachnaceae, Lahmiaceae, Lauriomycetaceae, Leotiaceae, Leptodontidiaceae, Lichinodiaceae, Loramycetaceae, Marthamycetaceae, Medeolariaceae, Mitrulaceae, Mollisiaceae, Neocrinulaceae, Neolauriomycetaceae, Pezizellaceae, Phacidiaceae, Ploettnerulaceae, Rhytismataceae, Rutstroemiaceae, Sclerotiniaceae, Solenopeziaceae fam. nov., Thelebolaceae, Triblidiaceae, Tympanidaceae and Vibrisseaceae) and 14 family-level clades (Alatospora-Miniancora clade, Aquapoterium-Unguicularia clade, Bulgariella clade, Coleophoma-Parafabraea clade, Colipila clade, Corticifraga-Calloriopsis clade, Epicladonia-Epithamnolia clade, Flagellospora clade, Gelatinomyces clade, Micraspis clade, Patellariopsis clade, Phialocephala urceolata clade, Peltigeromyces clade and Trizodia clade). We briefly discuss the phylogenetic placements of these families and family-level clades. We provide an outline of the genera and the families of Leotiomycetes and a table summarising sexual morph characters of all the families/family-level clades of Leotiomycetes. Nine new families are introduced and we provide descriptions and illustrations of 50 Leotiomycetes taxa including six new genera and 22 new species, from collections made in China, Italy, Thailand, Russia, UK and Uzbekistan. Small scale phylogenetic analyses using concatenated datasets of five loci (rDNA, TEF and RBP2) are provided, where the backbone tree is insufficient to confirm the phylogenetic placement of our collections. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive update and improved identification of Leotiomycetes based on available literature and our collections.
Keywords: 37 new taxa – Apothecial ascomycetes – Ascus amyloidity – Multi-gene analysis – Monophyly
8. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of fungal taxa associated with cherry leaf spot disease
Authors: Chethana KWT, Jayawardene RS, Zhang W, Zhou YY, Liu M, Hyde KD, Li XH, Wang J, Zhang KC, Yan JY
Recieved: 14 December 2018, Accepted: 27 April 2019, Published: 08 May 2019
Cherry leaf spot is one of the most common and devastating diseases of cherries worldwide. The disease causes considerable yield losses in many cherry growing regions. We surveyed cherry leaf spot disease in Beijing City and collected 67 fungal isolates from approximately 60 diseased leaves. Multigene phylogenetic analyses coupled with morphological observations facilitated the identification of species isolated from the diseased tissues. Pathogenicity assays were conducted for six isolates representing all the identified species and Koch’s postulates were confirmed on three cultivars of Prunus avium under greenhouse conditions. These results confirmed their pathogenicity on cherry leaves as symptoms were reproduced. Based on these results, a novel taxon Alternaria prunicola sp. nov. is reported as the main pathogen of Cherry leaf spot in Beijing City. In addition, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pseudoeichhorniae sp. nov., Colletotrichum aenigma, Colletotrichum pseudotheobromicola sp. nov., Epicoccum pseudokeratinophilum sp. nov., Nothophoma pruni sp. nov., Nothophoma quercina and Stagonosporopsis citrulli were also isolated from Cherry leaf spots. Significant variations in the virulence were observed among fungal species on different cherry cultivars.
Keywords: Alternaria – Colletotrichum – disease management – Epicoccum – Nothophoma – pathogenicity – Prunus – Stagonosporopsis – 5 new species
9. Morphological and phylogenetic characterization of novel pestalotioid species associated with mangroves in Thailand
Authors: Norphanphoun C, Jayawardena RS, Chen Y, Wen TC, Meepol W, Hyde KD
Recieved: 30 April 2019, Accepted: 25 June 2019, Published: 27 June 2019
Pestalotioid fungi are associated with a wide variety of plants worldwide and are endophytes, pathogens and saprobes. The present study provides an updated phylogenetic placement of Neopestalotiopsis, Pestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis using fresh collections from mangrove plants in Thailand. Twelve novel species are characterized based on combined sequence data analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), beta tubulin (β-tubulin) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1α) coupled with morphological characters. The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of pestalotioid-fungi are reappraised with suggestions for future work.
Keywords: 12 new species – Asymptomatic leaves – Acrostichum aureum – Avicenia marina – Leaf spots – Mangroves – Neopestalotiopsis – Pestalotiopsis – pestalotiopsis-like – Phylogeny – Pseudopestalotiopsis – Rhizophora sp. – Sonneronata alba – Taxonomy
10. A review of the polysaccharide, protein and selected nutrient content of Auricularia, and their potential pharmacological value
Authors: Bandara AR, Rapior S, Mortimer PE, Kakumyan P, Hyde KD, Xu J
Recieved: 20 May 2019, Accepted: 25 June 2019, Published: 03 July 2019
Auricularia is a key genus among edible macrofungi, sourced as either wild or cultivated mushrooms. Auricularia species are utilized as nutrient-rich foods and medicinal resources, with particular prominence in Traditional Asian Medicine. Cultivated Auricularia species can be grown under a wide range of conditions, allowing for production volumes worldwide. Although Auricularia species are used predominantly within the food industry, there is strong potential for their use in the production of therapeutic drugs, thus making it necessary to identify relevant bioactive compounds and further our understanding of its pharmacological properties. Carbohydrates are the major nutritional constituent of edible Auricularia species in addition to proteins, fat, fiber, ashes vitamins and minerals. This review discusses polysaccharides as one of the major active compounds found in edible Auricularia species in relation to their nutritional value, extraction methods, and pharmacological properties. Current methods of evaluating the pharmacological effects of compounds derived from Auricularia include in vitro assays, in vivo animal models, as well as several human clinical trials. Potential medical applications for these compounds include the production of novel therapeutic drugs for treating diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders.
Keywords: Cancer – Cardiovascular disorders – Constipation – Diabetes – Medicinal mushrooms – Metabolic Syndrome – Polysaccharides
11. Three new species of Neocamarosporium isolated from saline environments: N. aestuarinum sp. nov., N. endophyticum sp. nov. and N. halimiones sp. nov.
Authors: Gonçalves MFM, Aleixo A, Vicente TFL, Esteves AC, Alves A
Recieved: 21 March 2019, Accepted: 17 July 2019, Published: 19 July 2019
Neocamarosporium species are typically halotolerant, being commonly found in saline environments like saline water, hypersaline soils and especially in association with halophytes. Several isolates were obtained from saline water, dead leaves of the seaweed Zostera noltii and live tissues of the halophyte Halimione portulacoides. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence data placed these isolates into three clades within the genus Neocamarosporium distinct from the currently known species. Isolates from each clade showed clear differences in conidial morphology. Three new species N. aestuarinum sp. nov., N. endophyticum sp. nov. and N. halimiones sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Our results show that the salt marsh plant H. portulacoides harbours a high diversity of Neocamarosporium species.
Keywords: Neocamarosporiaceae – Endophyte – Halophyte – Seagrass – Salt marsh
Authors: Ge YY, Yu FM, Yang ZJ, Tan YM, Xiang T, Chen X, Yu YX, Chen L, Liu ZY
Recieved: 26 November 2018, Accepted: 23 August 2019, Published: 02 August 2019
Aspergillus cristatus is a homothallic fungus, the genome of which contains two mating-type (MAT) genes, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. Previous studies showed that the origin of MAT loci in this species differs from that of other fungi, and their functions have never been described. In this study, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 were individually deleted by gene replacement, confirming that these genes regulate the sexual development of Aspergillus cristatus, with the two single-deletion mutants showing similar phenotypes. To explain this phenomenon, the evolutionary relationships of the core domains from high-mobility-group box (HMGB) domain, high-mobility-group (HMG) domain, and alpha 1 (α1) domain were investigated, with the findings indicating that α1 domain and HMG domain have a close evolutionary relationship. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that mating-type genes regulate the sexual development of Aspergillus cristatus by controlling the expression levels of pheromone precursor and receptor genes. This paper presents the first systemic investigation of the function of MAT genes from Aspergillus cristatus.
Keywords: Aspergillus cristatus – mating-type gene – sexual development
Authors: Huanraluek N, Ertz D, Phukhamsakda C, Hongsanan S, Jayawardena RS, Hyde KD
Recieved: 02 July 2019, Accepted: 16 September 2019, Published: 15 October 2019
Pyrenidium is a lichenicolous genus which was included in the family Dacampiaceae (Pleosporales) based on morphological characters. The classification of this genus within Dacampiaceae has been controversial due to the lack of sequence data. In this study, the genus Pyrenidium is sequenced for the first time using five freshly collected specimens belonging to the generic type and two other species. Although the morphology of Pyrenidium is quite similar to other genera of Dacampiaceae, phylogenetic analyses from nuLSU and nuSSU sequence data demonstrate that Pyrenidium is distantly related to Dacampiaceae and it forms a distinct lineage within the Dothideomycetes. Therefore, we resurrect the family Pyrenidiaceae to accommodate Pyrenidium. Morphological descriptions of the sequenced specimens of Pyrenidium are provided and include the description of a new species, P. borbonicum.
Keywords: 1 new taxon – Dacampiaceae – Dothideomycetes – Lichenicolous fungi – Phylogenetic analyses
14. Hyaline-spored chaetosphaeriaceous hyphomycetes from Thailand and China, with a review of the family Chaetosphaeriaceae
Authors: Lin CG, McKenzie EHC, Liu JK, Jones EBG, Hyde KD
Recieved: 31 July 2019, Accepted: 21 October 2019, Published: 28 October 2019
Chaetosphaeriaceae is a genus-rich, but taxonomically confused family and there is a need of more detailed studies on their asexual and sexual morphs and investigation of phylogenetic relationships to similar genera in other families. In this study, a survey of hyaline-spored chaetosphaeriaceous hyphomycetes yielded ten new taxa, including one new genus (Multiguttulispora) and nine new species (Dictyochaeta brevis, D. terminaliae, Kionochaeta castaneae, K. microspora, Menisporopsis breviseta, M. dushanensis, Multiguttulispora sympodialis, Tainosphaeria aseptata and T. monophialidica). In addition, Cryptophiale udagawae and Dictyochaeta simplex are described and illustrated. Support for the new taxa are provided by morphological comparison and DNA sequence data analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU, ITS and LSU sequence data showed that Kionochaeta is polyphyletic and species are phylogenetically located in two groups (Kionochaeta 1 and Kionochaeta 2). In addition, a synopsis for Kionochaeta and Menisporopsis species, an updated phylogenetic tree and outline for Chaetosphaeriaceae are provided.
Keywords: 10 new taxa – asexual morph – phylogeny – Sordariomycetes – Sordariomycetidae – taxonomy
15. Towards a natural classification of Dothidotthia and Thyrostroma in Dothidotthiaceae (Pleosporineae, Pleosporales)
Authors: Senwanna C, Wanasinghe DN, Bulgakov TS, Wang Y, Bhat DJ, Tang AMC, Mortimer PE, Xu J, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R
Recieved: 05 July 2019, Accepted: 29 October 2019, Published: 31 October 2019
Dothidotthia and Thyrostroma (Dothidotthiaceae, Pleosporineae, Pleosporales) species are plant pathogens causing canker, dieback and leaf spots on a wide range of hosts. However, the naming species is difficult, due to insufficient protologues, poor phylogenetic understanding due to the lack of sequence data from type species and low-quality illustrations. Moreover, the connections between asexual and sexual morphs of these genera are unclear. In this study, fresh samples of Dothidotthia and Thyrostroma were collected from symptomatic twigs and branches in southern European Russia. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses based on a concatenated LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1-α sequence dataset were used to investigate the phylogenetic position and confirm relationships of the asexual and sexual morphs in these genera of Dothidotthiaceae. In this study, Dothidotthia can easily be distinguished from Thyrostroma based on multi-gene phylogenetic analyses coupled with morphological characters. The new species, Dothidotthia robiniae, Thyrostroma celtidis, T. lycii, T. moricola, T. robiniae, T. styphnolobii, T. tiliae, T. ulmicola and T. ulmigenum are introduced. In addition, Neodothidotthia negundinicola clusters with species of Dothidotthia and hence Neodothidotthia is synonymized under Dothidotthia. Two new combinations, D. negundinicola and D. negundinis, are introduced.
Keywords: 9 new species – Ascomycota – Dothideomycetes – Holomorph – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
16. Endophytic seed mycobiome of six sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars from commercial seedlots using an Illumina sequencing approach
Authors: Kinge TR, Cason ED, Valverde A, Nyaga M, Gryzenhout M
Recieved: 13 February 2019, Accepted: 15 October 2019, Published: 31 October 2019
Pathogen-free seeds are important for the establishment of young seedlings, prevention of health problems upon consumption by animals and livestock, and inadvertent movement of pathogens into and out of countries. However, testing for the presence of fungi, including pathogens from seeds is a time consuming and difficult process. In this study, we characterized the seed fungal microbiome (mycobiome) of six commercial sorghum cultivars from South Africa using a deep amplicon next generation sequencing approach based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal operon. Sorghum is the fifth most important crop in the world, and widely used by African farmers. We found that the fungi present in each of the seedlots were similar to those reported by cultural studies. By comparing phylotypes of certain key families and genera to phylotypes used in established phylogenies and reputed sequences from public databases, the diagnostic value of the NGS method was also investigated. We showed that a number of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) could be identified at the species level and established that certain known pathogens are not present in the tested seeds, for instance in the Aspergillus group. Other groups could not be identified, not even to genus level. While acknowledging the shortcomings of using partial ITS data, we demonstrated that deep amplicon sequencing is a valuable diagnostic tool for seed disease control and prevention in some cases.
Keywords: Deep amplicon sequencing – Diagnostics – Endophytic Fungi – Pathogens – Seed-borne fungi
17. Morphological and phylogenetic studies of Pleopunctum gen. nov. (Phaeoseptaceae, Pleosporales) from China
Authors: Liu NG, Hyde KD, Bhat DJ, Jumpathong J, Liu JK
Recieved: 25 May 2019, Accepted: 29 October 2019, Published: 13 November 2019
A new hyphomycete genus, Pleopunctum, is introduced to accommodate two new species, P. ellipsoideum sp. nov. (type species) and P. pseudoellipsoideum sp. nov., collected from decaying wood in Guizhou Province, China. The genus is characterized by macronematous, mononematous conidiophores, monoblastic conidiogenous cells and muriform, oval to ellipsoidal conidia often with a hyaline, elliptical to globose basal cell. Phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF1α sequence data of 55 taxa were carried out to infer their phylogenetic relationships. The new taxa formed a well-supported subclade in the family Phaeoseptaceae and basal to Lignosphaeria and Thyridaria macrostomoides. Divergence time estimation based on LSU, SSU and TEF1α sequence data was performed to provide additional evidence for the establishment of Phaeoseptaceae, which diverged approximately 88 MYA.
Keywords: 3 new taxa – Asexual morph – Divergence times – Dothideomycetes – Multi-genes – Taxonomy
18. Reptilian Mycophagy: A global review of mutually beneficial associations between reptiles and macrofungi
Authors: Elliott TF, Bower DS, Vernes K
Recieved: 28 June 2019, Accepted: 11 November 2019, Published: 15 November 2019
Macrofungi are an important food source for many mammals, birds and arthropods; in return, these animals disperse numerous species of fungi through their scats. Many of the fungi that are important as food also perform key functions in the ecosystem through nutrient cycling. Research on associations between reptiles and fungi has primarily focused on pathology and has mostly overlooked mutually beneficial relationships between these two groups of organisms and the positive impacts of their associations on overall ecosystem health. There is a substantial body of disparate research showing the importance of turtles as seed dispersers, but we provide the first study evaluating the ecological implications of turtles and other reptiles as macrofungi spore dispersers. These associations have been less thoroughly studied than those between mammals and fungi, yet we show that they have similar ecological importance. In this review, we present the most comprehensive summary to date of reptile species reported to eat fungi (42 reptile species in 7 families) and outline the potential importance of reptiles as spore dispersers for fungi that play a positive role in ecosystem dynamics. We also show that oversights in the methodology of past dietary studies may have led to false representation of the role of fungi in reptile diets, and we make recommendations for future dietary studies involving reptiles.
Keywords: fungal dispersal – fungivory – mycorrhizae – reptile nutrition – spore dispersal
Authors: Rashmi M, Kushveer JS, Sarma VV
Recieved: 22 March 2019, Accepted: 01 November 2019, Published: 30 November 2019
Endophytic fungi are symptomless internal inhabits of plant tissues. They are implicated in the production of antibiotic and other compounds of therapeutic importance. Ecologically they provide several benefits to plants, including protection from plant pathogens. There have been numerous studies on the biodiversity and ecology of endophytic fungi. Some taxa dominate and occur frequently when compared to others due to adaptations or capabilities to produce different primary and secondary metabolites. It is therefore of interest to examine different fungal species and major taxonomic groups to which these fungi belong for bioactive compound production. In the present paper a list of endophytes based on the available literature is reported. More than 800 genera have been reported worldwide. Dominant genera are Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Phoma. Most endophyte studies have been on angiosperms followed by gymnosperms. Among the different substrates, leaf endophytes have been studied and analyzed in more detail when compared to other parts. Most investigations are from Asian countries such as China, India, European countries such as Germany, Spain and the UK in addition to major contributions from Brazil and the USA.
Keywords: Checklist – Continents – Diversity – Foliar endophytes – Geographical distribution – Host distribution – Substrate preference
20. Lignicolous freshwater fungi from China and Thailand: Multi-gene phylogeny reveals new species and new records in Lophiostomataceae
Authors: Bao DF, Su HY, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Liu JK, Nalumpang S, Luo ZL, Hyde KD
Recieved: 15 October 2019, Accepted: 07 November 2019, Published: 30 November 2019
We are investigating the diversity of lignicolous freshwater fungi from China and Thailand. In this study, six collections of Lophiostomataceae-like taxa were made from freshwater habitats in China and Thailand, of which three are identified as existing species Biappendiculispora japonica, Neovaginatispora fuckelii and Vaginatispora armatispora. While, the other collections are recognized as new species, Flabellascoma aquaticum sp. nov., F. fusiforme sp. nov. and Sigarispora clavata sp. nov. and these are introduced herein based on the morphological characters and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, SSU, ITS, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of these six species are provided.
Keywords: 3 new species – Dothideomycetes – Pleosporales – sexual morphs – phylogeny taxonomy
21. Succession and natural occurrence of saprobic fungi on leaves of Berchemia floribunda (climber) and their association with Magnolia liliifera (host)
Authors: Promputtha I, McKenzie EHC, Tennakoon DS, Lumyong S, Hyde KD
Recieved: 13 November 2019, Accepted: 26 December 2019, Published: 30 December 2019
Fungal succession on various plants from different regions of the world have been well-studied, however there has been no report comparing the fungi on leaves of a climber with those of the supportive plant. Fungi on leaves of Berchemia floribunda, a climber, were studied to fungal diversity and succession over a period of leaf decomposition. These fungi were compared with those on leaves of Magnolia liliifera, the supportive plant, using data from previous studies at the same site. Leaves of B. floribunda were placed with the upper or lower leaf surface adjacent to the forest floor, hung above the ground either under the host tree or other tree species, or placed on the forest floor under the host tree or under other trees to establish the effects of these treatments. These leaf bait trials did not affect the fungal diversity on the leaves. There was very little overlap between fungi on the climber leaves and those on the support tree. Only four saprobes from B. floribunda were also found on leaves of M. liliifera. We suspect that most of the fungi degrading leaves of B. floribunda were initially endophytes and became active saprobes once leaves started to decay.
Keywords: Fungal diversity – Fungal ecology – Fungal succession – Leaf decomposition – Percentage occurrence
22. Mycosphere notes 275-324: A morpho-taxonomic revision and typification of obscure Dothideomycetes genera (incertae sedis)
Authors: Pem D, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, Doilom M, Boonmee S, Hongsanan S, Promputtha I, Xu JC, Hyde KD
Recieved: 21 November 2019, Accepted: 28 December 2019, Published: 31 December 2019
This is the 6th in a series, Mycosphere notes, wherein 50 taxonomic notes are provided based on types of genera and specimens in the class Dothideomycetes. These genera have so far not been formally accommodated at any lower taxonomic rank and therefore referred to the Dothideomycetes genera incertae sedis. Notes on the economic significance, wherever known, of each genus are also provided, wherever known. Three new families, viz. Dubujianaceae, Endosporiaceae and Macrovalsariaceae, are introduced in this paper. Thirteen genera namely Acarella Syd., Asteronia (Sacc.) P. Henn., Belizeana Kohlm. & Volkm., Bonaria Bat., Byssocallis Syd., Byssolophis Clem., Dothichiza Lib. ex Roum., Dothidasteromella Höhn., Englerodothis Theiss. & Syd., Eumela Syd., Gibbago E.G. Simmon, Gibberidea Fuckel and Koordersiella Höhn are assigned to other families based on morphological investigation and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data available in GenBank. Acarella costaricensis Syd. and Perizomella inquinans Syd. are synonymized based on morphology and transferred to the family Vizellaceae. Chaetosticta perforata (Ellis & Everh.) Petr. & Syd. (≡ Chaetomella perforata Ellis & Everh.) and Pyrenochaeta erysiphoides Sacc. are synonymized, as all the three species share similar morphological characters and all were collected from the same host (Cirsium sp). The genus Kullhemia P. Karst. is synonymized under Strangospora Körb. based on morphology. The genus Didymocyrtidium Vain. is typified with Didymocyrtidium nudum Vain. (H6022676) as type species. Four genera namely Bahusutrabeeja Subram. & Bhat, Botryohypoxylon Samuels & J.D. Rogers, Dilophospora Desm. and Hassea Zahlbr. are excluded from the Dothideomycetes. All taxa are described and illustrated.
Keywords: Antennulariellaceae – Botryosphaeriaceae – Dothidotthiaceae – Dubujianaceae – Lophiostomataceae – Lophiotremataceae – Morphology – Microtheliopsidaceae – Naetrocymbaceae – Perisporiopsidaceae – Phylogeny – Sporocadaceae – Species – Taxonomy – Trematosphaeriaceae – Macrovalsariaceae