Volume 1 - 2010 - Issue 3


1. A simple method for culture conservation of some commercial mushrooms

Authors: Veena SS and Meera Pandey

Recieved: 12 July 2010, Accepted: 24 July 2010, Published: 08 October 2010

The main objective of culture preservation is to store cultures in viable and stable form for long periods without losing genotypic, phenotypic and physiological traits (Chang & Miles, 2004). The most common method of short-term storage of mushroom culture is storing the culture tubes at room temperature (28–35ºC) for a period of 1–2 months or in refrigerator (5–8ºC) for an average period of 3–4 months. This method necessitates frequent sub culturing leading to the problems of contamination and degeneration. The objective of the present study was to develop an inexpensive and simple method to preserve mushroom cultures in a viable state for an extended period. The possibility of storing various mushroom cultures on sorghum (Jowar) grain at low temperature (5–8ºC in refrigerator) was explored. The result clearly showed that the mushroom cultures could safely be stored at low temperatures on sorghum grain free from contamination for more than one year without any growth and morphological changes. The most significant advantage of this method was its suitability to conserve milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) and some isolates of reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) cultures, which cannot be stored at low temperatures.

Keywords: Basidiomycete – Calocybe indica – Ganoderma – grain – preservation

 

2. Compatible arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of Jatropha curcas and spore multiplication using cereal crops

Authors: Charoenpakdee S, Phosri C, Dell B, Choonluechanon S, Lumyong S

Recieved: 20 August 2010, Accepted: 02 September 2010, Published: 08 October 2010

Jatropha curcas is being considered as a biofuel crop for Thailand. Seedlings of J. curcas were used as bait plants to trap compatible arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in field soils in northern Thailand. Of the ten species of AMF that were trapped, two species, Scutellospora heterogama (CMU33) and Entrophospora colombiana (CMU05) produced abundant spores (>50 spores/100 g soil) and heavily colonized the roots of the trap plant. In a second experiment, the two AMF species were used to assess the effectiveness of four annual cereal crop plants (job’s tears, Coix lacryma-jobi; rice, Oryza sativa; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor; maize, Zea mays) as suitable nurse plants for AMF spore multiplication. Higher mycorrhizal colonization and spore production were found after 120 days in sorghum than in the other crop species. Spore multiplication did not occur with corn and CMU33, nor with rice and CMU05. Except for the shoots of rice, inoculation increased the root and shoot dry weight of all four crop species. Sorghum is a suitable host for spore multiplication of E. colombiana but an alternative host, with the potential to produce higher spore yields, is required for S. heterogama.

Keywords: Entrophospora sp. – host plant – Scutellospora sp. – spore production, spore trapping

 

3. Two new species and a new record of cercosporoids from Thailand

Authors: Phengsintham P, Chukeatirote E , McKenzie EHC, Moslem MA, Hyde KD, Braun U

Recieved: 02 September 2010, Accepted: 09 September 2010, Published: 08 October 2010

Cercosporoid leaf-spotting hyphomycetes are being studied in the northern areas of Thailand. Pseudocercospora christellae on Christella parasitica and P. radermachericola are two new species introduced in this paper, while P. balsaminae on Impatiens balsamina is a new record for Thailand. The three Pseudocercospora species are described, illustrated and discussed.

Keywords: anamorphic fungi – hyphomycetes – South East Asia – taxonomy

 

4. New and interesting lichenicolous fungi from Eurasia. II

Authors: Zhurbenko MP

Recieved: 04 July 2010, Accepted: 22 August 2010, Published: 08 October 2010

Three new species of lichenicolous fungi are described: Cercidospora ochrolechiae, a widespread pyrenomycete in the Arctic occurring on Ochrolechia and Pertusaria species; Phacopsis oroarcticae, known from Brodoa oroarctica in Severnaya Zemlya; and Polycoccum psorae, known from Anamylopsora pulcherrima in Kirgizstan. Epigloea soleiformis is reported as new to Asia. Conidia with 2−3 septa are documented for the first time for Minutoexcipula; M. tephromelae is reported as new to Asia and the Arctic.

Keywords: Arctic – Cercidospora –Epigloea – Kirgizstan – Minutoexcipula – Phacopsis – Polycoccum – Russia

 

5. A new species of Pyricularia (hyphomycetes) on Cortaderia (Poaceae) in New Zealand

Authors: McKenzie EHC, Park D, Bellgard SE, Johnston PR

Recieved: 22 September 2010, Accepted: 28 September 2010, Published: 30 October 2010

Pyricularia cortaderiae sp. nov., found on leaves of Cortaderia selloana in New Zealand, is illustrated and described and compared with related taxa. rDNA sequencing showed it to be distinct from other species. It was associated with a narrow, dark brown leaf streak.

Keywords: anamorphic fungi – deuteromycetes – molecular phylogeny – taxonomy

 

6. An endophytic Myrothecium inundatum producing volatile organic compounds

Authors: Banerjee D, Strobel GA, Booth E, Geary B, Sears J, Spakowicz D, Busse S

Recieved: 27 August 2010, Accepted: 04 October 2010, Published: 30 October 2010

Myrothecium inunduatum was isolated as an endophyte from a euphorbeacean herb, Acalypha indica in NE India. This fungus when grown in shake culture produced an abundance of foam. Contained in the foam was a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) some of which were hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives. The most prevalent compounds were 3-octanone, 3-octanol, and 7-octen-4-ol. Numerous other volatile organic compounds were also produced including many terpenes, organic acids, ketones, and alcohols. The VOCs of this fungus demonstrated growth inhibitory activity against a number of plant pathogenic fungi including Pythium ultimum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. However, when grown in microaerophilic conditions, the organism produced a number of hydrocarbons of interest as fuel related hydrocarbons including octane and tentatively identified- 1,4- cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl- and cyclohexane, (1-ethylpropyl) and others. An NMR method was used to measure VOC production which peaked at day 15 in a time course experiment. Numerous substrates can serve to support the production of VOCs by this fungus including potato broth and beet pulp extracts.

Keywords: endophyte – rDNA – NMR – hydrocarbons – fungal foam – 3-octanone

 

7. Dentiscutata nigerita - a new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from India

Authors: Khade SW

Recieved: 01 August 2010, Accepted: 04 October 2010, Published: 30 October 2010

Dentiscutata nigerita Khade (family Dentiscutataceae), a new species is reported and described from the rhizosphere of Carica papaya plants from Kodar, Goa, India. The diagnostic features are discussed including the characteristic feature that the bulbous suspensor is attached at an angle to the spore.

Keywords: Carica papaya – Dentiscutataceae – Goa

 

8. Taxonomy and Diversity of Ganoderma from the Western parts of Maharashtra (India)

Authors: Bhosle S, Ranadive K, Bapat G, Garad S, Deshpande G, Vaidya J

Recieved: 08 July 2010, Accepted: 05 October 2010, Published: 30 October 2010

Ganoderma is the genus from order Aphyllophorales with more than 300 species. The type species, Ganoderma lucidum is medicinally important and many other species are worked out for various medicinal properties. Only 9 valid species have been reported from India but the present study reports 15 species and 3 varieties of G. lucidum, of which one variety remains unidentified. The species are each described and the fruit bodies, spore and cutis are illustrated.

Keywords: Aphyllophorales – Ganodermataceae – Maharashtra – medicinal mushroom – Western Ghats

 

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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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