Volume 1 - 2010 - Issue 1

1. Phylogenetic relationships of Astrocystis eleiodoxae sp. nov. (Xylariaceae)

Authors: Pinnoi A, Phongpaichit P, Jeewon R, Tang AMC, Hyde KD and Jones EBG

Recieved: 12 December 2009, Accepted: 08 January 2010, Published: 14 January 2010

An ascomycete with morphological similarities to Astrocysti (Xylariaceae) was collected from the peat swamp palms Eleiodoxa conferta and Licuala longicalycata in southern Thailand and is introduced here. The new taxon is characterized by carbonaceous black stromata on persistent white hyphae, and brown ascospores surrounded by a thin mucilaginous sheath and with a longitudinal germ slit. No anamorph was observed in nature or in culture. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, partial LSU and SSU rDNA sequences using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS regions places the taxon in Xylariaceae, in a clade comprising Astrocystis eleiodoxae and Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola with good support and a sister group to Astrocystis, Kretzschmaria, Rosellinia and Xylaria species, with moderate support. LSU and SSU rDNA data places A. eleiodoxae in a clade with A. cocoes, Rosellinia necatrix and Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola in the Xylariaceae. The data indicates a relationship between A. eleiodoxae and Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola. There are no other Astrocystis sequence data available in GenBank, and based on molecular data shown here and morphological data we described Astrocystis eleiodoxae as a new species.

Keywords: molecular phylogeny – new species – palm fungi – Stilbohypoxylon


2. Fungi in aquatic habitats near St Andrews in Scotland

Authors: Pearman JK Taylor JE and Kinghorn JR

Recieved: 12 February 2010, Accepted: 13 March 2010, Published: 09 April 2010

The species composition and diversity of wood inhabiting fungi was compared in three aquatic habitats, a marine, an estuarine and a freshwater site, in order to determine whether the species present in these areas are cosmopolitan, or if there is a distinct separation between the sites correlated with the change in water conditions. Both molecular and morphological analysis were used for identification purposes. In total 35 species were observed, and three of these species, Fusarium sp. 1, Orbilia sp. and Neonectria lucida, were found at more than one site. Seventeen species were observed in both the freshwater and estuarine sites (Kinness Burn and Guardbridge, respectively), but only four were present at Kinkell Rocks, the marine site. The Shannon Wiener Diversity Index was highest for the freshwater Kinness Burn site (2.8) and lowest for the marine Kinkell Rocks (1.33). The Sorensen’s Index of Similarity confirmed that there were no species in common between the marine site, and either of the other sites. The Index between the estuarine and freshwater sites (0.18) suggest that there is some overlap in species composition, but there was still a wide variation in species identity between the two sites. The diversity of the mycota inhabiting the aquatic environments decreased in more saline habitats. The ratio of anamorphs to teleomorphs decreased with a reduction in salinity. Ascomycetes were the most prevalent group of fungi on the wood substrate in the freshwater and estuarine sites.

Keywords: distribution – diversity – estuarine – freshwater – marine


3. Biodiversity of microfungi associated with litter of Pavetta indica

Authors: Shanthi S and Vittal BPR

Recieved: 23 January 2010, Accepted: 09 March 2010, Published: 09 April 2010

The biodiversity of fungi associated with leaf litter of Pavetta indica from jungle scrub at Tambaram, Chennai, India was studied from October 1999 to September 2000. The litter was divided into freshly fallen senescent leaves (grade 1) and leaves already undergoing active decomposition (grade 2). Moist chamber incubation of the litter revealed 54 fungal taxa belonging in 40 genera. More taxa were found on grade 1 than on grade 2 litter. Alternaria alternata, Chaetomium seminudam, Circinotrichum fertile, Cladosporium oxysporum, Drechslera halodes, Fusarium lateritium, F. oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Tretopileus sp., Zygosporium echinosporum and Z. gibbum were some species recorded exclusively on grade 1 litter. Acremonium sp., Bartalinia robillardoides, Curvularia brachyspora, C. intermedia, Helicosporium vegetum and Harknessia sp. were specific to grade 2 litter. Although 37 taxa were common to both grades, there were differences in percentage occurrence between the two grades of litter. Taking the average percentage occurrence as an index of colonizing efficiency of a taxon, it was found that Euantennaria sp., Circinotrichum falcatisporum, Wiesneriomyces javanicus, Meliola sp., Zygosporium oscheoides, Beltraniella portoricensis, Selenosporella curvispora and Zygosporium masonii were active in that order. In addition to the identification of fungi after moist incubation, a washing technique was also performed. Fresh leaves attached to the plant were also collected and studied for microfungi to understand if carryover of the species from the phylloplane to the litter occurred after the leaves senesced and fell. The phylloplane study revealed 29 species, among which 19 species were carried to the grade 1 litter and 12 species thereafter to the grade 2 litter.

Keywords: decomposition – leaf litter


4. Phomatospora luteotingens sp. nov., a new aquatic species of Phomatospora from France and Spain

Authors: Fournier J and Lechat C

Recieved: 20 February 2010, Accepted: 25 March 2010, Published: 09 April 2010

A distinctive species of Phomatospora was repeatedly encountered on submerged wood in aquatic (lotic) habitats in various parts of France and northwestern Spain. It is described and illustrated herein based on many collections and its affinities and differences with other aquatic species known in the genus are discussed. Phomatospora luteotingens sp. nov. is mainly characterized and distinguished from other related taxa by being consistently associated with a yellow stain of the woody substrate and ascospores lacking a mucilaginous sheath or appendages. The ecological data observed during this study are briefly reported.

Keywords: freshwater ascomycota – Sordariomycetes – taxonomy


5. The problems of traditional and phylogenetic taxonomy of fungi

Authors: Vasilyeva LN and Stephenson SL

Recieved: 10 February 2010, Accepted: 24 March 2010, Published: 09 April 2010

The current taxonomic system, based on the hierarchy of Linnaean ranks, is said to be unsatisfactory. Many people insist that the very concept of rank should be eliminated, and the current taxonomic system should be replaced with a rankless system based on phylogenetic taxonomy. However, it is not the elimination of the concept of rank but rather the correct ranking of characters that will promote stability in taxonomy. The first problem of both traditional and phylogenetic taxonomies is the chaotic employment of differences that leads to the segregation of groups which are not comparable in rank. A proper rank coordination could be carried out by the special weighting of differences among tentative groups. Groups become equal in rank when they are distinguished by state combinations of the same character set. The second problem of both traditional and phylogenetic taxonomies is the employment of internal polymorphism of genera and families for the re-unification of species into new taxa. This could be overcome if taxonomists take into consideration the law of homologous variation within closely related genera and families.

Keywords: Character weighting – ranks – taxonomic system


6. Baipadisphaeria gen. nov., a freshwater ascomycete (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes) from decaying palm leaves in Thailand.

Authors: Pinruan U, Rungjindamai N, Sakayaroj J, Lumyong S, Hyde KD and Jones EBG

Recieved: 29 March 2010, Accepted: 10 April 2010, Published: 30 April 2010

Baipadisphaeria spathulospora gen. et sp. nov., a freshwater ascomycete is characterized by black immersed ascomata, unbranched, septate paraphyses, unitunicate, clavate to ovoid asci, lacking an apical structure, and fusiform to almost cylindrical, straight or curved, hyaline to pale brown, unicellular, and smooth-walled ascospores. No anamorph was observed. The species is described from submerged decaying leaves of the peat swamp palm Licuala longicalycata. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined small and large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences showed that it belongs in Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Hypocreomycetidae, Ascomycota). Baipadisphaeria spathulospora constitutes a sister taxon with weak support to Leuconectria clusiae in all analyses. Based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence, a new genus is proposed.

Keywords: Licuala – Nectriaceae – peat swamp – tropical fungi


7. Caliciopsis indica sp. nov. from India.

Authors: Pratibha J Amandeep K, Shenoy BD and Bhat DJ

Recieved: 12 April 2010, Accepted: 15 April 2010, Published: 30 April 2010

Caliciopsis indica sp. nov. is described from leaf lesions of kokum (Garcinia indica, Clusiaceae) from the Western Ghats, India. Caliciopsis indica is morphologically similar to C. myrticola but differs in having larger ascomata, longer asci and smaller ascospores. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 28S rRNA gene sequence data has confirmed its placement within the Coryneliaceae (Coryneliales, Eurotiomycetes). The ITS/5.8S rRNA gene sequence, however, did not provide any clarity on the species delineation due to lack of reference sequences in GenBank.

Keywords: biodiversity – bitunicate ascomycete – forest ecology


8. New records of myxomycetes from high-elevation areas of Mexico and Guatemala

Authors: Rojas C, Stephenson SL, Estrada-Torres A, Valverde R and Morales O

Recieved: 12 February 2010, Accepted: 08 March 2010, Published: 30 April 2010

Surveys of four high-elevation study areas in central Mexico and northwestern Guatemala were carried out to obtain baseline information on the species of myxomycetes present. All study areas were sampled in 2006 and 2007. Both specimens that had fruited in the field and those obtained from moist chamber cultures in the laboratory were considered. The myxomycetes recorded included seven species that represented new records for Mexico and 35 species that were new for Guatemala. Five of these were new records for the Neotropics. A list of these species and information on the microhabitats in which they occurred is provided. This relatively limited study clearly demonstrates that high-elevation areas in the Neotropics are still undersampled for myxomycetes. For the majority of countries in the region, there are still information gaps relating to distribution patterns of myxomycetes. In the context of biodiversity conservation, it is important to continue studying groups of organisms such as myxomycetes in the rapidly changing Neotropical ecosystems.

Keywords: Cuchumatanes – Cofre de Perote – La Malinche – myxogastria – species distribution


9. Lyophyllum rosae-mariae sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).

Authors: Vizzini A and Contu M

Recieved: 16 April 2010, Accepted: 19 April 2010, Published: 30 April 2010

A new species of the genus Lyophyllum collected in La Palma (Canary Islands) is taxonomically delimited based on morphological data. A detailed description, microscopic drawings and a colour plate of fresh material is presented. The new species is well circumscribed by its Lyophyllum semitale-like habit, black lamellae in dried material and small, smooth, globose, basidiospores.

Keywords: Agaricales – Lyophyllaceae – taxonomy


About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

Mycosphere journal of fungal bilology

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