Volume 8 - Issue 9 (September/October)


Article Number 1
Title

The zombie ants parasitized by the fungi Ophiocordyceps camponotiatricipis (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae): new occurrence and natural history

Authors

Sobczak JF, Costa LFA, Carvalho JLVR, Salgado-Neto G, Moura-Sobczak JCMS, Messas YF

Received 23 April 2017
Accepted 19 August 2017
Published Online 10 September 2017
Corresponding Author Jober F. Sobczak – e-mail – jobczak@gmail.com
Abstract

The entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps camponoti-atricipis parasitizes the ant species Camponotus (Myrmothrix) atriceps in the Brazilian Central Amazon, and may induce behavioral changes in its hosts. In this study, we extended the distribution range of this interaction for the Atlantic Forest biome. In addition, we investigated the occurrence of parasitized ants fixed upon specific host plants, plant structures and heights above the soil. We found higher frequencies of ants on the introduced plant of commercial value Coffea arabica. The ants adhered to the plants using their mandibles, normally on the abaxial surface and central veins of leaves. The fungus killed its hosts preferentially at a height of 1 m to 2.5 m above the soil, differing from that observed in other studies. 

Keywords behavioral manipulation – Camponotus atriceps – entomopathogenic fungi – Neotropical –rainforest.
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Article Number 2
Title

Diversity and community composition of aquatic ascomycetes varies between freshwater, estuarine and marine habitats in western Scotland

Authors

Friggens NL, Taylor JE, Koukol O

Received 02 December 2017
Accepted 07 June 2017
Published Online 10 September 2017
Corresponding Author Joanne E. Taylor – e-mail – jtaylor2@rbge.org.uk
Abstract

Aquatic ascomycetes occur in freshwater and marine environments where they facilitate nutrient cycling and energy flow through the water column, and are the foundations of aquatic food webs. This study investigates the diversity and abundance of aquatic ascomycetes on submerged wood in freshwater, estuarine and marine habitats in north-west Scotland. The fresh water habitat exhibits lowest temperature and salinity with an increasing gradient through the estuarine and marine habitats. Morphological identification and molecular analysis were used to identify taxa. A detailed description is given for Sporoschisma juvenile and Chalara anamorph of Calycina parilis and their phylogenetic placement is discussed based on their morphological variability and both ITS and LSU rDNA. Diversity of aquatic ascomycete taxa decreased along temperature and salinity gradients, being lowest in the estuarine and marine habitats. The composition of fungal communities varied between the three sampled habitats with some taxa common to all three and others exclusive to one habitat. A wide range of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors affect aquatic fungal diversity. It is therefore important to improve our understanding of these effects on aquatic fungal diversity to successfully conserve aquatic ecosystems in light of changing global environments. 

Keywords Abiotic factors, biodiversity, Chaetosphaeriaceae, lignicolous, Shannon index
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Article Number 3
Title

Functional variability of macrofungal populations in four different forest types of Costa Rica

Authors

Rojas C, Valverde R, Morales R

Received 10 June 2017
Accepted 17 August 2017
Published Online 10 September 2017
Corresponding Author Carlos Rojas – e-mail – carlos.rojasalvarado@ucr.ac.cr
Abstract

A series of functional variables, including biomass and hymenial area, were obtained for more than 4800 individual macrofungal sporocarps and correlated with a set of ecological parameters characterizing soil, climate and forest structure in four different forest types of Costa Rica. The idea behind this project was to document macrofungi over a three-year period with the objective of generating a dataset intended to document sporocarp variability and association with forest characteristics. In the context of climate change, habitat degradation and tropical forest fragmentation, studying fungi from an ecological perspective can provide crucial elements of analysis to weigh their relevance in tropical systems and to understand the potential threats to fungal populations. Our results showed high variability in the functional variables over the period of study, but suggest that such variability is partially induced by macroclimatic events in which forests with a higher percentage of mycorrhizal fungi seemed to be more sensitive. Overall, the ratio of hymenial area/biomass and pileus diameter were found to be significantly correlated with several ecological parameters in the studied forest types. However, the association of the former with ecological reproductive strategies makes such variable a good parameter to use for the monitoring of fungal dynamics in the studied tropical forests. The potential application of the latter in the framework of climate change and forest degradation studies is relevant since fungi are essential organisms in tropical ecosystems. 

 

Keywords climate change – fungal ecology – monitoring – Neotropics – Tropical Dry Forest –
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Article Number 4
Title

Yeasts and filamentous fungi inhabiting guts of three insect species in Assiut, Egypt

Authors

Moubasher AH, Abdel-Sater MA, Zeinab Soliman

Received 24 February 2017
Accepted 15 May 2017
Published Online 10 September 2017
Corresponding Author Abdel-Aal Hassan Moubasher – e-mail – ahamaumc@yahoo.com
Abstract

This work aimed to evaluate for the first time in Egypt the biodiversity of mycobiota that inhabit the guts of three insect species collected from Assiut Governorate. 50 adult insect samples (28 worker honey bees, 11 black beetles and 11 red palm weevils) were analyzed. 68 species and three varieties were recovered of which 49 species and 2 varieties were filamentous fungi and 19 species + one variety were yeasts. The number of taxa recovered from red-palm weevils and honey bees was almost equal, while lower number was isolated from beetles. However, a higher number of yeast species was obtained from the gut of red-palm weevils than those obtained from honey bees or black beetles. Some filamentous species were recovered from the guts of the three insect species (Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum), while others were reported from one or two insect species. However, none of yeast species was regularly recovered from the three insect guts, but two insect species may share the same yeast species in their guts. Other yeast species were restrictedly isolated from guts of one insect species. Some gut samples were fungi-free. To our knowledge, some of the isolated yeast species are being reported here for the first time from insect guts. On the other hand, ITS sequence data from several strains did not match well with those of known described species, and are probably new species. 

Keywords Beetles – honey bees – phenotypic and genotypic characteristics – red-palm weevils
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Article Number 5
Title

The gymnopoid fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) from the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa.

Authors

Desjardin DE, Perry BA

Received 25 May 2017
Accepted 10 June 2017
Published Online 23 September 2017
Corresponding Author Dennis E. Desjardin– e-mail – ded@sfsu.edu
Abstract

Thirty-one species of gymnopoid fungi are reported from the African island nation, Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Ten represent new species (Arrhenia cystidiata, Callistosporium elegans, Campanella burkei, Gymnopus billbowesii, G. hirtelloides, G. irresolutus, G. mustachius, G. ocellus, G. pleurocystidiatus, G. rodhallii), four are new nomenclatural combinations (G. cervinus, G. hirtellus, G. ugandensis, Tricholomopsis aurea), and all 21 previously described species represent new distribution records. Comprehensive descriptions, line drawings, colour photographs, comparisons with allied taxa, a dichotomous key to aid identification, and a phylogenetic analysis of members of the Omphalotaceae based on ITS rDNA sequence data are provided.

Keywords Gymnopus – Marasmiellus – fungal diversity – mushrooms – Gulf of Guinea
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Article Number 6
Title

Towards a natural classification of Amplistromataceae

Authors

Daranagama DA, Tian Q, Liu XZ, Hyde KD

Received 13 September 2017
Accepted 30 September 2017
Published Online 09 October 2017
Corresponding Author KD Hyde – e-mail – kdhyde3@gmail.com
Abstract

In this study, we revise the family Amplistromataceae (Amplistromatales) based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures and morphological observation of type and additional specimens from herbaria worldwide. Combined analyses of ITS and LSU sequence data were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of members for the family. We accept three genera; Acidothrix, Amplistroma and Wallrothiella in Amplistromataceae based on the morphology and phylogeny. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided with notes and a key to the genera is provided.

Keywords Amplistromatales – Ascomycetes – phylogeny – taxonomy
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Article Number 7
Title

Powdery mildew species on papaya – a story of confusion and hidden diversity

Authors

Braun U, Meeboon J, Takamatsu S, Blomquist C, Fernández Pavía SP, Rooney-Latham S, Macedo DM

Received 20 August 2017
Accepted 30 September 2017
Published Online 12 October 2017
Corresponding Author Uwe Braun – e-mail – uwe.braun@botanik.uni-halle.de
Abstract

Carica papaya and other species of the genus Carica are hosts of numerous powdery mildews belonging to various genera, including some records that are probably classifiable as accidental infections. Using morphological and phylogenetic analyses, five different Erysiphe species were identified on papaya, viz. Erysiphe caricae, E. caricae-papayae sp. nov., Erysiphe diffusa (= Oidium caricae), E. fallax sp. nov., and E. necator. The history of the name Oidium caricae and its misapplication to more than one species of powdery mildews is discussed under Erysiphe diffusa, to which O. caricae is assigned as a heterotypic synonym. Sphaerotheca caricae-papayae is synonymized with Podosphaera xanthii. Podosphaera caricicola comb. nov and additional powdery mildew species occurring on papaya are also described. A key to the papaya powdery mildew species that are considered is provided.

Keywords Carica papaya – Erysiphales – Erysiphe – molecular – Podosphaera – phylogeny – taxonomy
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Article Number 8
Title

Mycosphere Essay 19. Cordyceps species parasitizing hymenopteran and hemipteran insects

Authors

Shrestha B, Tanaka E, Hyun MW, Han JG , Kim CS , Jo JW , Han SK , Oh J, Sung JM, Sung GH

Received 26 June 2017
Accepted 04 October 2017
Published Online 12 October 2017
Corresponding Author Bhushan Shrestha – e-mail – bhushan.shrestha@gmail.com, Gi-Ho Sung – e-mail – sung97330@gmail.com
Abstract

Hymenoptera and Hemiptera are two major insect orders after Coleoptera and Lepidoptera that are parasitized by Cordyceps species. Among the 52 Cordyceps species parasitizing hymenopterans, the majority (50 species) are recorded on suborder Apocrita (ants, bees, wasps). Ant family Formicidae is the mostly parasitized family followed by Vespidae (wasps). Ophiocordyceps uilateralis, O. sphececephala, O. myrmecophila and Cordyceps australis are some of the cosmopolitan species that parasitize ants and wasps. Among Cordyceps species recorded on hemipterans, the majority (34 species) are recorded on suborder Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas, spittlebugs, froghoppers), followed by six species on suborder sternorhyncha (scale insects) and four species on the suborder Heteroptera (true bugs). Ophiocordyceps nutans is recorded worldwide in Asia, Africa and South America and parasitizes more than 30 species of true bugs. Another worldwide species is Ophiocordyceps sobolifera that parasitizes six cicada species in Asia, Africa and South America. Pentatomidae (true bugs), Cicadidae (cicadas) and Acanthosomatidae (shield bugs) are major host families within Hemiptera. Cordyceps species parasitizing hemipteran insects are phylogenetically very diverse and are currently segregated into Metarhizium, Ophiocordyceps, Polycephalomyces, Purpureocillium and Tolypocladium. Many hymenopterans and hemipterans are important insect pests and have invaded new localities in the world, threatening agriculture and human life. The host information compiled in this review could be informative for their use as potential biocontrol agents of endemic insect pests belonging to Hymenoptera and Hemiptera, including invasive alien species.

Keywords biological control – insect hosts – medicinal fungus – Ophiocordyceps
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Article Number 9
Title

Neotubeufia gen. nov. and Tubeufia guangxiensis sp. nov. (Tubeufiaceae) from freshwater habitats

Authors

Chaiwan N, Lu YZ,5, Tibpromma S, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD, Boonmee S

Received 22 September 2017
Accepted 30 September 2017
Published Online 14 October 2017
Corresponding Author Saranyaphat Boonmee – e-mail – saranyaphat.khag2@gmail.com
Abstract

During our fungal forays in freshwater streams of Thailand and China, two new taxa belonging to the family Tubeufiaceae were isolated from decaying submerged wood samples. A new genus Neotubeufia is introduced to accommodate a new species, N. krabiensis, which is comparable to Tubeufia in the features of ascomata, asci and ascospores, but found distinct with dark ascomata, cylindrical asci and cylindric-fusiform ascospores. A multigene phylogenetic analysis based on ITS, LSU, TEF1α and RPB2 sequence data indicate that Neotubeufia formed a single clade distant from the Tubeufia clade. A new species, Tubeufia guangxiensis collected from decaying wood in a freshwater habitat in China is confirmed by comparing morphological characters with the type species T. javanica and other Tubeufia taxa together with phylogenetic analysis. Descriptions, illustrations and notes are provided for the new genus and new species. 

Keywords decaying wood – freshwater fungi – new species – phylogeny – taxonomy
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Article Number 10
Title

Towards incorporating asexual fungi in a natural classification: checklist and notes 2012–2016

Authors

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Tibpromma S, Wanasinghe DN, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Wang Y, Fu L

Received 10 February 2017
Accepted 21 February 2017
Published Online 18 October 2017
Corresponding Author Li Fu – e-mail – 43117257@qq.com
Abstract

Incorporating asexual genera in a natural classification system and proposing one name for pleomorphic genera are important topics in the current era of mycology. Recently, several polyphyletic genera have been restricted to a single family, linked with a single sexual morph or spilt into several unrelated genera. Thus, updating existing data bases and check lists is essential to stay abreast of these recent advanes. In this paper, we update the existing outline of asexual genera and provide taxonomic notes for asexual genera which have been introduced since 2012. Approximately, 320 genera have been reported or linked with a sexual morph, but most genera lack sexual morphs.

Keywords Article 59.1 – Coelomycetous – Hyphomycetous – One name – Pleomorphism
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Article Number 11
Title

New species and records of Bipolaris and Curvularia from Thailand

Authors

Marin-Felix Y, Senwanna C, Cheewangkoon R and Crous PW

Received 22 September 2017
Accepted 06 October 2017
Published Online 18 October 2017
Corresponding Author Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon – e-mail – ratchadawan.c@cmu.ac.th.com, ratcha.222@gmail.com, Yasmina Marin-Felix – e-mail – y.marin@westerdijkinstitute.nl
Abstract

Several Bipolaris and Curvularia spp. were collected from different disease symptoms of Poaceae in Thailand. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene, and partial fragments of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the translation elongation factor 1-α genes, demonstrated that these isolates represent one new species of Bipolaris, B. brachiariae, and five new species of Curvularia, i.e. C. chiangmaiensis, C. dactyloctenicola, C. nodosa, C. pseudobrachyspora, and C. variabilis. Bipolaris brachiariae is related to B. heliconiae, B. maydis, and B. saccharicola, but produces shorter conidiophores and conidia. Curvularia chiangmaiensis is characterized by very long conidiophores to 2 mm. Curvularia dactyloctenicola is closely related to C. chiangmaiensis, but can easily be distinguished by the size of its conidiophores and conidia. Curvularia nodosa is related to C. hawaiiensis and C. dactyloctenii, but it produces abundantly knotted hyphae, which were not observed in the other two species, as well as shorter conidia with fewer septa. Curvularia pseudobrachyspora is related to C. brachyspora, but differs in the size of its conidiophores. Finally, Curvularia variabilis can be easily distinguished by its highly variable conidia. Furthermore, the description of B. oryzae is emended to include two isolates belonging to this species from Thailand that produce much longer conidiophores and conidia with fewer septa than observed in previous descriptions. The present study is also the first report of Bipolaris bicolor, B. setariae and B. yamadae from Thailand. Moreover, new hosts are reported for B. bicolor (Eleusine indica), B. setariae (Imperata cylindrica), and Curvularia verruculosa (Eleusine indica). 

Keywords six new species – multigene phylogeny – phytopathogenic fungi – Poaceae – systematics
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About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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