Volume 8 - Issue 6 (SI Tropical Wood Degrading Fungi)


Article Number 1
Title

Editorial – New taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi from the tropics

Authors

Yu-Cheng Dai

Received 30 April 2017
Accepted 06 April 2017
Published Online 11 April 2017
Corresponding Author Yucheng Dai – yuchengd@yahoo.com
Abstract

Wood-inhabiting fungi are not taxonomically a natural taxon, but have a similar ecology (growing on wood) in nature; most of these fungi can decompose cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in woody plants, and therefore play a key role in nutrient recycling in most forest ecosystems. The major taxa of this group fungi are traditionally known as aphyllophoroid fungi, and share the tough basidiocarps not fleshy as in the Agaricales, but with variable of hymenophore as smooth, poroid, irpicoid, reticulate, merulioid, grandinoid, ondontioid, hydnoid, tuberculate, colliculose and epitheloid etc. In addition, wood-inhabiting fungi have different shapes of fruiting body such as resupinate, effused-reflexed, pileate and stipitate etc. Molecular evidence has shown wood-inhabiting fungi are distinctly polyphyletic; based on the modern taxonomy they belong to orders of Agaricales, Amylocorticiales, Atheliales, Boletales, Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Corticiales, Gloeophyllales, Hymenochaetales, Jaapiales, Polyporales, Russulales, Thelephorales and Trechisporales, but most taxa in Polyporales, Hymenochaetales, Thelephorales, Russulales and Corticiales.

Some members of wood-inhabiting fungi are the serious forest pathogens, e.g. the species of genus Heterobasidion Bref. cause the most destructive forest disease in north hemisphere, and some wood-inhabiting fungi have been used as medicinal herbs, e.g. the selling for various productions of Ganoderma lingzhi Sheng H. Wu, Y. Cao & Y.C. Dai is over 2 billion US$ by 2015. Species diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in boreal and temperate areas is relatively well known, however, it is still poorly known in tropics because of less exploration and rich of woody plants. Most wood-inhabiting fungi were reported to grow on an extensive host range, but recent studies showed species in many genera were considered to be host-specific. Recently a greater number of novel genera and species of wood-inhabiting fungi were described from tropics by the application of molecular techniques, and these studies are mostly connected with phylogenies. New taxa are redefined based on a combination of morphology, ecology, host-specific and DNA sequence analysis. Phylogeny on wood-inhabiting fungi in tropics is more important than in boreal and temperate areas, especially for the host-specific groups, because the host tree species in boreal and temperate areas are usually recognized at generic or species level by mycologists, but they are very difficult in tropics.

This issue of Mycosphere includes papers dealing with new taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi found from tropical Asia, Central America and South America, and phylogenetic analyses on these new taxa are included. Ecological discussions on substrate specificity of some genera are provided.

Keywords
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Article Number 2
Title

Porodaedalea chinensis (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota) — a new polypore from China

Authors

Dai SJ, Vlasák J, Tomšovský M, Wu F

Received 29 May 2017
Accepted 01 June 2017
Published Online 02 July 2017
Corresponding Author Fang-Wu – fangwubjfu2014@yahoo.com
Abstract

Porodaedalea chinensis is described and illustrated as a new species occurring on Pinus yunnanensis from southwestern China based on morphological and molecular characters. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal RNA gene and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α) sequences show that the new species forms a distinct lineage separating it from other Porodaedalea species. P. chinensis is characterized by perennial, pileate basidiocarps, relatively small pores (2–3 per mm), a dimitic hyphal system with generative hyphae bearing simple septa which are frequent in trama and skeletal hyphae dominant in context and trama, broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-to slightly thick-walled, smooth, moderately cyanophilous basidiospores measured as 46 × 34.8 µm, and having a distribution in southwestern China.

Keywords Hymenochaetales – phylogeny – taxonomy – wood-inhabiting fungi
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Article Number 3
Title

Kavinia chacoserrana sp. nov. (Gomphales, Basidiomycota): a new species from South America based on morphological and molecular data

Authors

Robledo GL, Urcelay C

Received 25 June 2017
Accepted 03 July 2017
Published Online 14 July 2017
Corresponding Author Gerardo L. Robledo – e-mail – glrobledo@yahoo.com
Abstract

Kavinia chacoserrana is described as a new species based on morphological data and molecular evidence. The species is characterized by its white to pale yellowish hydnoid hymenophore and cylindrical to fusiform basidiospores measured as 10–12 × 3–4 μm. Phylogenetic analysis provide evidence suggesting that, as currently accepted, Kavinia alboviridis is a species complex.

Keywords Argentina – Chaco – corticioid fungi – neotropical fungi – phylogeny – taxonomy
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Article Number 4
Title

A new Phanerochaete (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) with brown subicular hyphae from Thailand

Authors

Sádlíková M, Kout J

Received 16 June 2017
Accepted 13 July 2017
Published Online 23 July 2017
Corresponding Author Jiří Kout – e-mail – martial@seznam.cz
Abstract

A new species of Phanerochaete, P. thailandica, is described from Thailand, it has resupinate fruiting body with smooth, beige, creamy hymenophore, a monomitic hyphal system, the presence of leptocystidia, ellipsoid spores and remarkable subicular layer composed of brown clamped hyphae with quasi-binding hyphae. Molecular analysis of rDNA ITS regions shows P. thailandica as an independent species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the relationships with closely related species and confirms position the new species in the genus Phanerochaete. 

Keywords Corticioid fungi – Phanerochaetaceae – Southeast Asia – Taxonomy
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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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