Recent Papers

Volume 8 Issue 10 (November/December)

11. Can ITS sequence data identify fungal endophytes from cultures? A case study from Rhizophora apiculata
Doilom M et al. (2017)

10. Establishment of Zygosporiaceae fam. nov. (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes) based on rDNA sequence data to accommodate Zygosporium.
Li JF et al. (2017)

9. Novel taxa of Diatrypaceae from Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in northern Thailand; introducing a novel genus Allocryptovalsa.
Senwanna C et al. (2017)

8. Novel fungal species of Phaeosphaeriaceae with an asexual/sexual morph connection.
Karunarathna A et al. (2017)

7. Nomenclatural and identification pitfalls of endophytic mycota based on DNA sequence analyses of ribosomal and protein genes phylogenetic markers: A taxonomic dead end?
Jeewon R et al. (2017)

6. Mycosphere notes 51–101. Revision of genera in Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae and other Ascomycota genera incertae sedis
Boonmee S et al. (2017)

5. Mycosphere Essays 20: Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma species: Insights into its use as traditional medicine
Hapuarachchi et al. (2017)

Volume 8 Issue 5 (SI Diaporthe)-closed

6. Diaporthe toxicodendri sp. nov., a causal fungus of the canker disease on Toxicodendron vernicifluum in Japan
Ando Y et al. (2017)

Volume 8 Issue 6 (SI Tropical Wood Degrading Fungi)-closed

12. Two new species of aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) from southern China.
Huang FC et al. (2017)

11. Aegis boa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) a new neotropical genus and species based on morphological data and phylogenetic evidences
Gómez-Montoya et al. (2017)

Volume 8 - Issue 10 (November/December)

Article Number 1

Lignicolous freshwater fungi from China I : Aquadictyospora lignicola gen. et sp. nov. and new record of Pseudodictyosporium wauense from northwestern Yunnan Province


Li WL, Luo ZL, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Bao DF, Su HY, Hyde KD

Received 18 September 2017
Accepted 06 October 2017
Published Online 08 November 2017
Corresponding Author Hong-Yan Su – e-mail –

This is the first in a series of papers on lignicolous freshwater fungi from China. In this paper, eight fresh collections of taxa of Dictyosporiaceae from submerged wood in freshwater are characterized based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU and TEF1α sequence data. A new monotypic genus Aquadictyospora, with A. lignicola as the type species is introduced based on its distinct morphology and evidences from molecular phylogeny. In addition, detailed description and illustration of Pseudodictyosporium wauense from the fresh collection are provided and it is a new record for China.

Keywords Asexual fungi – Dictyosporiaceae – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
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Article Number 2

Neophyllachora gen nov. (Phyllachorales), three new species of Phyllachora from Poaceae and resurrection of Polystigmataceae (Xylariales)


Dayarathne MC, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Jones EBG, Goonasekara ID, Bulgakov TS, Al-Sadi AM, Hyde KD, Lumyong S and McKenzie EHC

Received 12 October 2017
Accepted 14 October 2017
Published Online 08 November 2017
Corresponding Author Lumyong S and McKenzie EHC – e-mail –,

We collected six “tar spot” disease specimens from various hosts and these were subjected to morpho-phylogenetic studies. In this paper, a new genus, Neophyllachora is introduced to accommodate N. cerradensis, N. myrciae, N. myrciariae, N. subcircinans and N. trucantispora, which are related to Phyllachora species but constitutes an independent strongly supported monophyletic clade within Phyllachoraceae of the Phyllachorales. Three novel Phyllachora species; P. chloridis, P. cynodonticola and P. panicicola on Poaceae are also introduced. Phenotypic comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of partial SSU, LSU and ITS sequence data with homologous taxa, confirm the placement of the novel species in Phyllachoraceae. The family Polystigmataceae is re-established to accommodate Polystigma within the order Xylariales. The asexual morph of Polystigma rubrum was re-collected from Russia and is provided as a reference specimen with a description, illustrations and molecular data. Further studies with multiple gene analysis are recommended to provide a natural and stable classification system for members of Phyllachorales.

Keywords biotrophs – phylogeny – tar spots – taxonomy
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Article Number 3

Metabolomics reveals changes in metabolite concentrations and correlations during sexual development of Eurotium cristatum (synonym: Aspergillus cristatus)


Ren CG, Tan YM, Ren XX, Liu YX and Liu ZY

Received 24 April 2017
Accepted 06 November 2017
Published Online 08 November 2017
Corresponding Author Zuo-Yi Liu – e-mail –

Eurotium cristatum is the main probiotic fungus involved in fermentation of Chinese Fuzhuan brick tea, and the amount of E. cristatum is an important indicator of tea quality. Sexual development of E. cristatum consists of three main stages, hypha and ascogonium (at 36 hours post-inoculation), cleistothecium formation (at 48 hours), and cleistothecium ripening (at 72 hours), and each stage exhibits a unique metabolite profile. In this study, developmental changes were analyzed by GC–MS based untargeted metabolomics. Ninety-nine metabolites involved in multiple biochemical pathways were identified. Principal component analysis separated developing E. cristatum into 36, 48 and 72 hour groups. Hierarchical cluster analyses showed that the relative contents of organic acids and amino acids peaked at 36 hours and decreased thereafter, while alcohol and carbohydrate levels peaked at 48−72 hours. Statistical analysis revealed 401 significant metabolite−metabolite correlations (Pearson’s |r|>0.8 at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.05), of which 213 were positive and 188 negative. The early increases in organic acid and amino acid metabolites as well as certain phosphate and amine metabolites favor ascogonium formation. Conversely, increased alcohol and carbohydrate concentrations favor cleistothecium formation. These results provide a foundation for further exploration of the biochemical mechanism underlying sexual development in E. cristatum.

Keywords Eurotium cristatum – Fungus – Metabolite – metabolite correlation – Metabolomic
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Article Number 4

The edible wide mushrooms of Agaricus section Bivelares from Western China


Zhang MZ, Li GJ, Dai RC, Xi YL, Wei SL and Zhao RL

Received 01 June 2017
Accepted 20 September 2017
Published Online 13 November 2017
Corresponding Author Rui-Lin Zhao and Sheng-Long Wei – e-mail – and

Agaricus is a genus of macrofungi containing species with highly edible and medicinal values. A mushroom survey was recently carried out in Qilian Mountain National Natural Reserve, in Gansu Province of China, and yielded 21 Agaricus specimens. The morphological examination and phylogenetic analysis based on four-gene sequences from those specimens were conducted. The result shows they belong to four species in A. section Bivelares: A. sinotetrasporus sp. nov. and A. qilianensis sp. nov. are new species for science; A. devoniensis is a new record from China; and the famous button mushroom, A. bisporus is found in the wild. All of them are described and illustrated in details. A brief comparison with similar taxa or previous records are addressed too.

Keywords Agaricaceae – Multi–gene – Phylogeny – Taxonomy
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Article Number 5

Mycosphere Essays 20: Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma species: Insights into its use as traditional medicine


Hapuarachchi KK, Cheng CR, Wen TC, Jeewon R and Kakumyan P

Received 14 August 2017
Accepted 13 November 2017
Published Online 16 November 2017
Corresponding Author Ting-Chi Wen– e-mail –

The genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) has a long history in traditional medicine to improve longevity and health in Asia. Ganoderma has been widely used in multiple therapeutic activities as well as dietary supplements to prevent and treat many diseases. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from Ganoderma, such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, nucleosides, sterols, fatty acids, protein and alkaloids. There are numerous research publications, which report the abundance and variety of biological actions initiated by the metabolites of Ganoderma. Investigation on different metabolic activities of Ganoderma species has been performed both in vitro and in vivo. In many cases, however, it has been questioned whether Ganoderma is solely a nourishment supplement for wellbeing or merely a helpful "medication" for restorative purposes. There has been no any conclusive report of human trials using Ganoderma species as a direct control agent for diseases. In addition, there is no evidence supporting the usage of Ganoderma species (excluding G. lucidum) as potential supplements for cancer or other diseases in humans since no preclinical trials have been performed up to date. In this review, the beneficial medicinal properties of several species of Ganoderma (excluding G. lucidum) and their secondary metabolites are discussed. Ganoderma species can be used as a therapeutic drug, but more direct scientific evidence should be made available in the future. The efficiency of Ganoderma in clinical treatments should be substantiated with more biomedical research and their true impact assessed on human health with more standardized clinical evaluations so that the feasibility of biologically active extracts of Ganoderma species in alternative treatments can be recommended. 

Keywords clinical evidence – medicinal properties – secondary metabolites
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Article Number 6

Mycosphere notes 51–101. Revision of genera in Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae and other Ascomycota genera incertae sedis


Boonmee S, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Doilom M, Mapook A, McKenzie EHC, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD

Received 19 August 2017
Accepted 13 November 2017
Published Online 22 November 2017
Corresponding Author Kevin D Hyde – e-mail –

This is the second in a series, Mycosphere notes, wherein we provide notes on various fungal genera. In this set of notes we deal with genera of the families Perisporiopsidaceae and Pseudoperisporiaceae. These families have traditionally accommodated taxa associated with dead and living leaves of mostly tropical plants and comprised pathogens, saprobes or epiphytes. Most genera are poorly understood with only brief Latin descriptions, but molecular sequence data are needed to establish their taxonomic placements. In this study, 50 genera and 51 taxa are re-examined and their placements at the family level discussed. Thirteen new families Alinaceae, Balladynaceae, Cleistosphaeraceae, Dysrhynchisceae, Hyalomeliolinaceae, Lizoniaceae, Nematotheciaceae, Neoparodiaceae, Phaeodimeriellaceae, Pododimeriaceae, Polyclypeolinaceae, Stomatogeneceae and Toroaceae are introduced and Dimeriaceae is reinstated in this paper. One new species, Phaeostigme alchorneae is introduced. Nine genera are transferred to other families. However, fresh collections, epitypification or reference specimens including DNA sequence data, are required to confirm their phylogenetic placements.

Keywords Alinaceae – Balladynaceae – Botryosphaeriaceae – Cleistosphaeraceae – Coccoideaceae – Dimeriaceae – Dysrhynchisceae – Epibryaceae – Hyalomeliolinaceae – Lizoniaceae – Massarinaceae – Mycosphaerellaceae – Myriangiaceae – Nematotheciaceae – Neoparodiaceae – Opegraphaceae – Parmulariaceae – Phaeodimeriellaceae – Phaeosphaeriaceae – Pododimeriaceae – Polyclypeolinaceae – Schizothyriaceae – Stomatogeneceae – Teratosphaeriaceae – Toroaceae – Venturiaceae
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Article Number 7

Nomenclatural and identification pitfalls of endophytic mycota based on DNA sequence analyses of ribosomal and protein genes phylogenetic markers: A taxonomic dead end?


Jeewon R, Wanasinghe DN, Rampadaruth S, Puchooa D, Zhou Li-Gang, Liu Ai-Rong, Wang Hong-Kai

Received 10 July 2017
Accepted 20 August 2017
Published Online 23 November 2017
Corresponding Author Hong-Kai Wang – e-mail –

Fungal endophytes are considered ecologically important microorganisms, but their role is the subject of much speculation and the methods and approaches by which endophytes are detected and identified give rather different results. In this study, we isolated a specific endophyte from a traditional medicinal plant and investigated its phylogenetic relationships with other known fungi. Microscopic examination and cultural details of the strain are documented, but these did not provide adequate data to substantially identify the species, either to a genus or species level. To overcome this limitation, six different gene regions (SSU, LSU, ITS, TEF, RBP2 & β-Tubulin) were amplified, sequenced and analysed phylogenetically (either in individual or concatenated datasets) to identify and investigate the placement of this endophyte at different taxonomic ranks. Results obtained from the cultural morphology were insufficient to identify the species. DNA sequence analyses (either single gene or combined gene analyses) revealed that this endophyte belongs to the order Pleosporales, class Dothideomycetes. However, an accurate establishment of its generic or even familial position is unresolved and the problems associated with our current system of assigning endophytes to a particular rank are discussed.

Keywords Dioscorea zingiberensis – endophyte – multigene phylogeny – Pleosporales – taxonomy
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Article Number 8

Novel fungal species of Phaeosphaeriaceae with an asexual/sexual morph connection.


Karunarathna A, Papizadeh M, Senanayake IC, Jeewon R, Phookamsak R, Goonasekara ID, Wanasinghe DN, Wijayawardene NN, Amoozegar MA, Shahzadeh Fazeli SA, Camporesi E, Hyde KD, Weerahewa HLD, Lumyong S, McKenzie EHC

Received 04 October 2017
Accepted 13 November 2017
Published Online 23 November 2017
Corresponding Author EHC McKenzie – e-mail –

We are studying Dothideomycetes from different hosts in different geographical regions and have introduced new taxa from China, Iran and Italy. In this paper, we introduce Yunnanensis gen. nov. on Poaceae from Yunnan Province, in China, to accommodate Y. phragmitis sp. nov. Neosetophoma iranianum sp. nov. recovered from soil in Iran is also introduced and a sexual morph of Wojnowicia dactylidis on Asperula sp. (Rubiaceae) collected in Italy is also reported. DNA sequence based phylogenies (ribosomal gene) are also generated to infer potential taxonomic relationships. Yunnanensis is morphologically distinct from other genera in Phaeosphaeriaceae in having ascomata with evenly thickened walls comprising with textura angularis and textura angularis to textura prismatica inner layers, broadly cylindrical to cylindric-clavate asci, muriform ascospores with a mucilaginous sheath and a coelomycetous asexual state with muriform conidia. Phylogeny also supports Yunnanensis as a novel genus basal to Neosetophoma. Neosetophoma iranianum is distinct from other species in having subglobose, ovoid to tear-drop shaped transversely septate;, biseptate to triseptate conidia. Neosetophoma iranianum is closely related to N. lunariae but DNA sequence data differences are sufficient to segregate them as two species. Another interesting finding are the asexual/sexual morph connections in Yunnanensis phragmitis and Wojnowiciella dactylidis. All novel taxa investigated herein belong to the family Phaeosphaeriaceae.

Keywords Dothideomycetes – graminicolous fungi – muriform – Neosetophoma – Pleosporales – soil fungi –Yunnanensis – Wojnowiciella
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Article Number 9

Novel taxa of Diatrypaceae from Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in northern Thailand; introducing a novel genus Allocryptovalsa.


Senwanna C, Phookamsak R, Doilom M, Hyde KD, Cheewangkoon R

Received 18 September 2017
Accepted 12 October 2017
Published Online 27 November 2017
Corresponding Author Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon – e-mail –

Species of Diatrypaceae are widespread on dead wood of plants worldwide. The delineation of this family is rather problematic because the characters of ascostromata are extremely variable and the names of taxa with sequence data are often misleading. In this paper, species of Diatrypaceae were collected from Para rubber in northern Thailand for examination and illustrations. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses, a new genus, Allocryptovalsa, is introduced to accommodate a new species A. polyspora and two species, A. cryptovalsoidea and A. rabenhorstii are transferred to the new genus. The new species, Diatrypella heveae and Peroneutypa longiasca are also introduced in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS and β-tubulin sequence data show their phylogenetic affinities in Diatrypaceae. Our study also shows that phylogenetic analyses of taxa of Diatrypaceae are highly confused as some genera are shown to be polyphyletic.

Keywords Phylogeny – Sordariomycetes – taxonomy – unitunicate fungi – Xylariales
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Article Number 10

Establishment of Zygosporiaceae fam. nov. (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes) based on rDNA sequence data to accommodate Zygosporium.


Li JF, Phookamsak R, Jeewon R, Tibpromma S, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ, Chukeatirote E, Lumyong S, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC

Received 20 September 2017
Accepted 13 November 2017
Published Online 28 November 2017
Corresponding Author Eric H.C. McKenzie: – e-mail –

Zygosporium species are widespread on hosts and usually associated with monocotyledonous plants including Arecaceae (palms) and Pandanaceae. Zygosporium forms colonies as darkened spots on the host surface. This study recovers two Zygosporium species from China and Thailand and makes an attempt to clarify the systematic placement of Zygosporium based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on rDNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined LSU and ITS sequence data generated under Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian criteria indicate that Zygosporium species form a strongly supported monophyletic lineage basal to the Coniocessiaceae and not to the Microdochiaceae as previously assumed. Given the distinct morphological features of Zygosporium and its strongly supported monophyletic nature, a new family, Zygosporiaceae is introduced within the Xylariales.

Keywords Asexual fungi – hyphomycetes – multigene phylogeny – new family
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Article Number 11

Can ITS sequence data identify fungal endophytes from cultures? A case study from Rhizophora apiculata


Doilom M, Manawasinghe IS, Jeewon R, Jayawardena RS, Tibpromma S, Hongsanan S, Meepol W, Lumyong S, Jones EBG, Hyde KD

Received 11 November 2017
Accepted 29 November 2017
Published Online 04 December 2017
Corresponding Author Kevin D Hyde e-mail – and Saisamorn Lumyong – e-mail –

Culture-based studies have recovered fungal endophytes from numerous plant hosts, while direct examination of sporulating cultures has enabled identification. However, many endophytes cannot be identified due to the fact that they only form mycelia sterilia in culture. Although next generation sequencing (NGS), as well as ITS sequence analyses have been used to identify endophytes, identification is still rudimentary. In this study, we isolated fungal endophytes from Rhizophora apiculata in Thailand and established how many can be identified to species level based on ITS sequence data. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, petioles and aerial roots of R. apiculata in four provinces of Thailand. One hundred and fifty four isolates were obtained and initially grouped into 20 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics. Nine were sporulating morphotypes, which were assigned to seven genera (Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Hypoxylon, Neopestalotiopsis, Neodevriesia, Pestalotiopsis and Phyllosticta), and eleven morphotypes were non-sporulating mycelia sterilia. Sequence similarity comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS regions were further used to identify taxa. While ITS sequence data is reliable to assign isolates at the generic rank, and can be useful to identify taxa to species level in a small number of fungal genera, it cannot generally be used to determine specific species in most genera. ITS analysis classified 30 representative isolates into 20 taxonomic units residing in 15 known genera: Allophoma sp., Colletotrichum spp., Diaporthe spp., Hortaea werneckii, Hypoxylon griseobrunneum, Hypoxylon sp., Pestalotiopsis sp., Phanerochaete sp., Phyllosticta spp., Pseudopithomyces maydicus, Preussia sp., Nemania sp., Neodevriesia sp., Neopestalotiopsis sp., Rigidoporus vinctus, Schizophyllum sp. and one unidentified genus. Of the morphotypes, four were identified to species. The results from Blast searches and ITS phylogeny of the 15 genera and the one unidentified genus are discussed. Twenty-five of the 30 isolates could not be identified and thus an estimated 20 isolates are likely to be new species and one a new genus. This is remarkable, as endophytes of a single host in Thailand, may yield 75% or more of new species. This is not akin to the OTUs generated in NGS platforms, which are generally short sequences with high possibility to not match with sequences in GenBank, not because they are new, but because of the quality of the sequence data. 

Keywords cultural characteristics – culture-dependent technique – ITS – mangrove – morphotype – mycelia sterilia – phylogenetic analysis
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About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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