Volume 6 - Issue 5

Article Number 1

Exosporium gymnemae sp. nov. from India


Singh PN, Baghela A, Singh SK, Maurya DK

Received 22 June 2015
Accepted 12 July 2015
Published Online 10 September 2015
Corresponding Author Paras N. Singh - pnsingh@aripune.org
Abstract A new species, Exosporium gymnemae is proposed as a saprobe associated with dead stems of Gymnema sylvestre. It has distinct morphological characters, especially the conidiophores which form large, compact, blackish brown synnemata with glazed surface and cylindrical to obclavate conidia with dark bands at the septa. A literature-based checklist of Exosporium species together with their respective hosts and geographic locations is also provided.
Keywords microfungi – Pezizomycotina – taxonomy – Western Ghats
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Article Number 2

Clavarioid fungi and Gasteromycetes from Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa


Desjardin DE, Perry BA

Received 22 July 2015
Accepted 25 August 2015
Published Online 12 September 2015
Corresponding Author Dennis E. Desjardin - ded@sfsu.edu
Abstract Nine clavarioid-coralloid fungi and 14 gasteromycetes are reported from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. Of these 23 species, 14 are first reports for the Republic. Minimal descriptions, color photographs and comparisons with allied taxa are provided.
Keywords fungal diversity – mushrooms – Gulf of Guinea
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Article Number 3

The Genus Auricularia Bull. ex Juss. (Basidiomycota) in Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) areas of Goiás state and the Federal District, Brazil


Alvarenga RLM, Naves LRR, Xavier-Santos S.

Received 14 May 2015
Accepted 01 September 2015
Published Online 27 September 2015
Corresponding Author Renato L. M. Alvarenga - renatolma@gmail.com
Abstract The present study reports species occurrence of the genus Auricularia found in areas of the Cerrado biome in Goiás state and in the Federal District, thereby expanding the occurrence records of this species in Brazil. A total of 101 samples were found, they are distributed into four species: A. delicata, A. fuscosuccinea, A. mesenterica and A. nigricans; the first three are being recorded for the first time for Goiás state and A. delicata are being registered for the first time for the Federal District.
Keywords Auriculariales – Central Brazil – jelly fungi
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Article Number 4

Mycosphere Essays 1: Taxonomic confusion in the Ganoderma lucidumspecies complex


Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Deng CY, Kang JC, Hyde KD

Received 24 August 2015
Accepted 16 September 2015
Published Online 27 September 2015
Corresponding Author Ting-Chi Wen - tingchiwen@yahoo.com
Abstract The genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) has been widely used as traditional medicines for centuries in Asia, especially in China, Korea and Japan. Its species are widely researched, because of their highly prized medicinal value, since they contain many chemical constituents with potential nutritional and therapeutic values. Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) is one of the most sought after species within the genus, since it is believed to have considerable therapeutic properties. In the G. lucidumspecies complex, there is much taxonomic confusion concerning the status of species, whose identification and circumscriptions are unclear because of their wide spectrum of morphological variability. In this paper we provide a history of the development of the taxonomic status of the G. lucidumspecies complex. We present a phylogeny for the G. lucidumcomplex based on multigene analysis with combined 5.8S–ITS rDNA, RPB1, and EF–1α sequence data for 17 taxa of the complex. The taxonomic standing of these species is briefly discussed. Further clarification is, however, required. Type specimens, epitypes, reference collections, fresh collections and vouchered multigene nucleotide sequence data of more informative DNA markers should be used to determine the taxonomy of species in the G. lucidum complex.
Keywords Ganoderma lucidum complex – Lingzhi – morphology – phylogenetic analyses – taxonomic status
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Article Number 5

A new species of Marasmius sect. Globulares from Indian Himalaya with tall basidiomata


Dutta AK, Das K, Acharya K

Received 13 July 2015
Accepted 20 September 2015
Published Online 30 September 2015
Corresponding Author Kanad Das - daskanadbsi@gmail.com
Abstract A marasmioid fungus: Marasmius indopurpureostriatus (Marasmiaceae, Basidiomycota) is proposed here as new to science from Sikkim, a small Himalayan state in India. A comprehensive description with illustrations to aid in the identification, comparisons with morphologically similar taxa and an artificial key to the species of Marasmius sect. Globulares, previously reported from India are provided.
Keywords Agaricomycetes – macrofungi – new species – taxonomy
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Article Number 6

Records of myxomycetes from Maine


Zoll V, Stephenson SL

Received 22 June 2015
Accepted 25 September 2015
Published Online 09 October 2015
Corresponding Author Steven L. Stephenson - slsteph@uark.edu
Abstract Historical records indicate that myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) have been collected in Maine since the 1850’s, with the efforts of Francis LeRoy Harvey during the last decade of the 19th century being of particular importance. A review of myxomycete collections cited in the literature and available data from herbarium records yielded a total of at least 166 species representing 42 genera reported from or known to occur in Maine. Although many records (especially early ones) were incomplete with respect to the exact locality where they were collected, the three counties with the highest numbers of collections are Hancock, Penobscot and Washington. This undoubtedly reflects, as least in part, the presence of Acadia National Park in Hancock County, the University of Maine in Penobscot County, and the Eagle Hill Institute in Washington County.
Keywords boreal forests – Francis LeRoy Harvey – slime molds – taxonomy
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Article Number 7

Agaricales of the dunes of Galicia (IV): Marasmiellus ciesanus (Omphalotaceae), a new species found in the National Maritime-Terrestrial Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia


Blanco-Dios JB

Received 24 July 2015
Accepted 27 September 2015
Published Online 13 October 2015
Corresponding Author Jaime B. Blanco-Dios - jbblancodios@gmail.com
Abstract Marasmiellus ciesanus, collected in open dunes in the National Maritime-Terrestrial Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia, is illustrated and described as a new species from Spain on the basis of morphological features. This species is close to other taxa of the subsection Quercini, in which it occupies an isolated position due to its unusual small spores broadly ellipsoid to oblong-lacrimoid, versiform cheilo- and caulocystidia and specific substrata (dead stalks of  Helichrysum picardii var. virescens).
Keywords Basidiomycota – Omphalotaceae – Marasmiellus – National Park – Cies – Spain – taxonomy
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Article Number 8

Some taxonomic novelties for pyrenomycetous fungi from south-eastern Russia


Vasilyeva LN, Stephenson SL

Received 29 July 2015
Accepted 07 October 2015
Published Online 18 October 2015
Corresponding Author Steven L. Stephenson - slsteph@uark.edu
Abstract One new species (Nemania corylina), one new genus (Nummauxia), and two new combinations (Nummauxia succenturiata and Sarawakus bicolor) are proposed in this paper. Being rather frequent in south-eastern Russia, two of these species display a biogeographic connection with Europe, and the third species is an example of the disjunction between north-eastern Asia and eastern North America.
Keywords Ascomycota – Biscogniauxia – Nemania – Sarawakus – taxonomy
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Article Number 9

Antioxidant activity of mangrove-derived marine thraustochytrids


Kalidasan K, Sunil KS, Narendran R and Kathiresan K

Received 14 August 2015
Accepted 28 September 2015
Published Online 19 October 2015
Corresponding Author Kandasamy Kathiresan - kathiresan57@gmail.com marinedasan87@gmail.com
Abstract Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit the reaction caused by free radicals thereby preventing or delaying damage to the cells and tissues. Protection against free radicals can be enhanced by taking sufficient amounts of exogenous antioxidants. The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the mangrove-derived thraustochytrids for their potential health benefits. Thirteen thraustochytrid strains were isolated from mangrove leaf litter, extracted them separately in methanol and tested for their antioxidant activity by using six different assays: DPPH radical scavenging, total phenol content, hydrogen peroxide radical inhibition, nitric oxide radical assay and total reducing power activity. The antioxidant activity was found significant between the thraustochytrid strains and between concentrations of their extracts (P< 0.05). The activity also increased with concentration of the extracts. The strain TSKK1 exhibited highest (78.95±1.29) antioxidant activity and TSSK5 the lowest antioxidant activity (72.52±2.03). This study proved the potent free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of thraustochytrids.
Keywords DPPH - free radicals – leaf litter - nitric oxide – total phenol
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Article Number 10

Coprinopsis novorugosobispora (Basidiomycota, Agricales), an ammonia fungus new to Canada


Raut JK, Fukiharu T, Shimizu K, Kawamoto S, Takeshige S, Tanaka C, Yamanaka T, Suzuki A

Received 25 July 2015
Accepted 12 October 2015
Published Online 30 October 2015
Corresponding Author Jay Kant Raut - raut_jk2000@yahoo.com
Abstract Fruiting of Coprinopsis novorugosobispora was effectively stimulated by urea treatment in the soil collected from aspen forest in Canada. A complete description and illustration on the fungus with its phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear rRNA gene sequences in ITS regions are provided. The report represents a new record in American continent.
Keywords Aspen – Coprinoid – saprobic – species complex – urea
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Article Number 11

Notes on mycophagy of Descomyces albus (Basidiomycota) in southern Brazil


Sulzbacher MA, Grebenc T, Köhler A, Antoniolli ZI, Giachini AJ, Baseia IG

Received 15 July 2015
Accepted 13 October 2015
Published Online 30 October 2015
Corresponding Author Marcelo Sulzbacher - marcelo_sulzbacher@yahoo.com.br
Abstract Descomyces albus is a truffle-like fungus in the Cortinariaceae collected for the first time in Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The morphological features, distribution and taxonomy of the collections are discussed. Additional observations of the external surfaces and gut contents of Balloniscus sellowii indicate D. albus is consumed by the species and its spores dispersed in the soil organic matter. This is the first published record of mycophagy involving B. selowii in Brazil. This information contributes to the knowledge on mycophagy and truffle-like fungi.
Keywords Balloniscus sellowii – fungivory – hypogeous – Oniscidae – sequestrate
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Article Number 12

Modification to the Barber and Keane’s method of illustrating fungi


Almeida DAC, Gusmão LFP

Received 16 September 2015
Accepted 18 October 2015
Published Online 30 October 2015
Corresponding Author Davi A. C. de Almeida - daviaugusto@gmail.com
Abstract Although less common nowadays, line drawing still is useful to represent morphological characters, in many cases better than digital photographic images. In this paper we describe two modifications that can be applied to the Barber & Keane (2007) method, which combine computer hardware and software to make line drawings of fungi.
Keywords line drawing – mycology – fungi
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Article Number 13

Phylogenetic and morphological appraisal of Leptosphaeria italica sp. nov. (Leptosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales) from Italy


Dayarathne MC, Phookamsak R, Ariyawansa HA, Jones EBG, Camporesi E and Hyde KD

Received 06 October 2015
Accepted 28 October 2015
Published Online 31 October 2015
Corresponding Author Kevin D. Hyde - kdhyde3@gmail.com
Abstract A fungal species with bitunicate asci and ellipsoid to fusiform ascospores was collected from a dead branch of Rhamnus alpinus in Italy. The new taxon morphologically resembles Leptosphaeria. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses of a combined LSU and ITS sequence dataset confirm its placement in Leptosphaeria sensu stricto.The new taxon is distinct from other species based on morphology and phylogeny and is thus introduced as a new species, viz. L. italica. The new species is compared with other Leptosphaeria species and a comprehensive description and micrographs are provided.
Keywords ITS – LSU – molecular phylogeny – morphology – taxonomy
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About Mycosphere

Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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