Volume 6 - Issue 1

Article Number 1

Growth response and mycoremediation activity of Coprinus comatus on heavy metal contaminated media


Dulay RMR, Pascual AHL, Constante RD, Tiniola RC, Areglo JL, Arenas MC, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG

Received 29 October 2014
Accepted 27 December 2014
Published Online 04 January 2015
Corresponding Author Rich Milton Dulay - richmiltondulay@yahoo.com
Abstract This present work highlighted the effects of heavy metals (lead, copper, chromium and cadmium) on the growth phases of Coprinus comatus and its potential in mycoremediation. The growth response was evaluated on potato sucrose gulaman with varying concentrations (0 ppm, 1 ppm, 10 ppm, and 100 ppm) of the four metals. The ability to accumulate metals was determined on the rice straw - sawdust (7:3 ratio) based substrate formulation infused with 2 ml of 1000 ppm of metals. Metal contents of fruiting bodies were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results revealed that the growth of mycelia, initiation of primordia and development of fruiting bodies of C. comatus were significantly affected by the varying concentrations of the four heavy metals. Apparently, cadmium was the most toxic which significantly recorded the lowest diameter of mycelial growth (20.75 ± 0.87 mm), the most extensive periods of primordia (15.00 ± 0.00 days) and fruiting body (17.00 ± 0.00 days) development at 100 ppm concentration. Among the contaminated substrates, lead produced the highest weight of 3.17 ± 0.15 g while cadmium had the lowest weight (2.10 ± 0.20 g) of fruiting bodies. Chemical analyses showed that copper was obtained in highest amount (16.78 ppm) while cadmium occurred in lowest amount (10.83 ppm). The high tolerance and the ability to accumulate heavy metals strongly suggest that C. comatus is another candidate in mycoremediation.
Keywords Coprinus comatus – heavy metals – mycoremediation – mycelia – cadmium
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Article Number 2

A taxonomic analysis of miscellaneous fungi collected from Burma


Thaung MM

Received 11 November 2014
Accepted 28 December 2014
Published Online 07 January 2015
Corresponding Author Thaung MM - mmthaung@verizon.net
Abstract Records of fungi from Burma are updated to align with their current taxonomic nomenclature and classification. The update has generated a classified list of 58 contemporary species assigned to 27 families in 14 orders and 7 classes. This analysis aims at fungal taxa reported in world literature on Burma with a view to annotating and adding them to the local inventory for further enrichment and refinement.
Keywords aloewood – amber – biodiversity – Myanmar – systematics – truffle
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Article Number 3

Polylobatispora setulosa, a new freshwater hyphomycete from Ilhabela, Sao Paulo state, Brazil


Moro LB, Delgado G, Schoenlein-Crusius IH

Received 19 July 2014
Accepted 31 December 2014
Published Online 10 January 2015
Corresponding Author Larissa B. Moro - larissamoro@hotmail.com
Abstract Polylobatispora setulosa sp. nov. is described and illustrated from submerged mixed leaf litter samples collected at streams in Ilhabela, São Paulo state, Brazil. The fungus is distinct in having setulae at the tip of the conidial lobes. Acumispora verruculosa, isolated from identical substrate and characterized by the presence of fusiform, acuminate, rostrate, verrucose, 2-septate, hyaline to greenish conidia, is recorded for the third time from the Americas. They are compared with morphologically similar species and identification keys are provided.
Keywords anamorphic fungi – freshwater fungi – systematics – tropical fungi
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Article Number 4

Diversity of species of the genus Conocybe (Bolbitiaceae, Agaricales) collected on dung from Punjab, India


Amandeep K, Atri NS, Munruchi K

Received 23 September 2014
Accepted 10 December 2014
Published Online 10 January 2015
Corresponding Author Amandeep Kaur - amandeepbotany75@gmail.com
Abstract A study of diversity of coprophilous species of Conocybe was carried out in Punjab state of India during the years 2007 to 2011. This research paper represents 22 collections belonging to 16 Conocybe species growing on five diverse dung types. The species include Conocybe albipes, C. apala, C. brachypodii, C. crispa, C. fuscimarginata, C. lenticulospora, C. leucopus, C. magnicapitata, C. microrrhiza var. coprophila var. nov., C. moseri, C. rickenii, C. subpubescens, C. subxerophytica var. subxerophytica, C. subxerophytica var. brunnea, C. uralensis and C. velutipes. For all these taxa, dung types on which they were found growing are mentioned and their distinctive characters are described and compared with similar taxa along with a key for their identification. The taxonomy of ten taxa is discussed along with the drawings of morphological and anatomical features. Conocybe microrrhiza var. coprophila is proposed as a new variety. As many as six taxa, namely C. albipes, C. fuscimarginata, C. lenticulospora, C. leucopus, C. moseri and C. subpubescens are the first time records from India. Conocybe velutipes is the first time record from North India.
Keywords Basidiomycota – dung – hymeniform – lecythiform – taxonomy
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Article Number 5

Effects of storage conditions and culture media on the saprobic fungi diversity in tropical leaf litter


Costa LA, Peixoto PEC, Gusmão LPF

Received 21 November 2014
Accepted 16 January 2015
Published Online 30 January 2015
Corresponding Author Loise A. Costa - loisecosta@yahoo.com.br
Abstract The effects of methodology were observed in a community of fungi grown in culture associated with leaf litter of Clusia nemorosa, collected in the state of Bahia, northeast of Brazil. We examined the effects of variables as storage time (fresh leaf litter, 07, 14, 21 and 28 days) and temperature (room temperature and 4°C), and culture media (MYE and DRBC) on the diversity of fungi. Protocol of particle filtration was used to achieve the isolation of fungi. A total of 1.113 strains belonging to 67 taxa were isolated. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that richness and the number of isolates decreased significantly with storage time, but did not vary in relation to culture media. The differences between the communities related to the storage temperatures were not significant based on the t–test. The diversity analysis indicated that storage samples up to 14 days showed no significant differences in the communities when compared to fresh litter. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) shows a tendency of separation between the communities observed in the different temperatures and between the initial storage times and late. The results indicate that in the storage of leaves for up to 14 days no significant changes in the community were observed, however in longer storage periods there was a notable loss in both richness and quantity of fungi.
Keywords diversity – leaf litter – methodological aspects – storage litter – tropical fungi
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Article Number 6

Reduction of Cr(VI) using indigenous Aspergillus spp. isolated from heavy metal contaminated sites


De Sotto R, Monsanto R, Edora J, Bautista RH, Bennett RM, Dedeles GR

Received 04 November 2014
Accepted 25 January 2015
Published Online 03 February 2015
Corresponding Author Gina R. Dedeles - grdedeles@yahoo.com, grdedeles@mnl.ust.edu.ph
Abstract Fifteen (15) fungal morphospecies isolated from heavy metal contaminated sites were assayed for Cr(VI)-tolerance in nutrient scarce PDB medium. Of the 15 isolates, Aspergillus sp. MSG7 and Aspergillus sp. BP3 tolerated 1440 mg/L Cr(VI) and 1800 mg/L for Aspergillus sp. BP2 and Aspergillus sp. BP5. Further, in vitro Cr(VI) reduction using mycelial balls in reactor tubes with 1/10 strength PDB were assayed at varying Cr(VI) concentrations (90, 180, 360, 720 and 1440 mg/L) at pH 2.0 and at varying pH (1.0 – 4.0) with 360 mg/L Cr(VI). Reactor tubes were incubated at room temperature with shaking at 150 rpm and residual Cr(VI) was quantified using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at OD540nm following 1,5-Diphenylcarbazide (DPCZ) method. Isolates showed Cr(VI) reduction of  30–65%  with culture factors as not significant (p > 0.05). This signified that isolates were able to tolerate and reduce Cr(VI) within the utilized pH levels and Cr(VI) concentration effectively. The findings indicates the potential biotechnological application of the four fungal isolates in reducing Cr(VI) in broth medium.
Keywords Aspergillus sp. – Cr (VI) – reduction
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Article Number 7

A new species and a new record of Diatrypaceae from Iran


Mehrabi M, Hemmati R, Vasilyeva LN, Trouillas FP

Received 25 October 2014
Accepted 26 January 2015
Published Online 09 February 2015
Corresponding Author Mehdi Mehrabi - mehrabimhd@yahoo.com
Abstract Two species of Diatrypaceae (Xylariales) are described and illustrate from Iran. Diatrypella iranensis from dead branches of Quercus brantii is described as a new species based on both morphology and molecular sequence data. It differs from other members of the genus on the basis of stroma morphology and ascus and ascospore sizes. Molecular data of the ITS rDNA region show that the new species is a sister taxon of Diatrypella quercina. Cryptovalsa ampelina is described from dead branches of Juglans regia and is a new record from Iran. This study is the first in a series that investigate the diversity of Diatrypaceae from Iran.
Keywords Cryptovalsa – Diatrypella – Iran – Taxonom
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Article Number 8

A new species of Entolomataceae with cuboidal basidiospores from São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil


Karstedt F, Capelari M

Received 09 December 2014
Accepted 31 January 2015
Published Online 22 February 2015
Corresponding Author Fernanda Karstedt - fekarstedt@yahoo.com.br
Abstract A new species of Entolomataceae with cuboidal basidiospores, from Reserva Biológica de Paranapiacaba, is described, illustrated and discussed.
Keywords Entoloma – taxonomy
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Article Number 9

Occurrence of myxomycetes in the aerial “canopy soil” microhabitat


Stephenson SL, Landolt JC

Received 09 December 2014
Accepted 26 January 2015
Published Online 23 February 2015
Corresponding Author Steven L. Stephenson - slsteph@uark.edu
Abstract Myxomycetes (also called plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) are now known to occur in the aerial “canopy soil” microhabitat of those forest types (primarily temperate and tropical rain forests) in which this type of microhabitat exists. They appear to be less common than dictyostelid cellular slime mold (dictyostelids) in canopy soil but can be relatively common in some microsites. Reported herein are the first records of myxomycetes from canopy soil in the temperate rain forests of the Southern Hemisphere.
Keywords dictyostelids – ecology – epiphytes – forest ecosystems – myxogastrids
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Article Number 10

Gone with the wind – a review on basidiospores of lamellate agarics


Halbwachs H, Bässler C

Received 08 January 2015
Accepted 15 February 2015
Published Online 23 February 2015
Corresponding Author Hans Halbwachs - halb.wax@onlinehome.de
Abstract Field mycologists have a deep understanding of the morphological traits of basidiospores with regard to taxonomical classification. But often the increasing evidence that these traits have a biological meaning is overlooked. In this review we have therefore compiled morphological and ecological facts about basidiospores of agaricoid fungi and their functional implications for fungal communities as part of ecosystems.
Readers are introduced to the subject, first of all by drawing attention to the dazzling array of basidiospores, which is followed by an account of their physical and chemical qualities, such as size, quantity, structure and their molecular composition. Continuing, spore generation, dispersal and establishment are described and discussed.
Finally, possible implications for the major ecological lifestyles are analysed, and major gaps in the knowledge about the ecological functions of basidiospores are highlighted.
Keywords basidiomycetes – propagules – morphology – physiology – traits – dispersal –impaction – establishment – trophic guilds – ecology – evolution
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Article Number 11

Hyphoderma moniliforme and H. nemorale (Basidiomycota) newly recorded from China


Yurchenko E, Wu SH

Received 29 December 2014
Accepted 04 February 2015
Published Online 28 February 2015
Corresponding Author Sheng-Hua Wu - shwu@mail.nmns.edu.tw
Abstract Hyphoderma moniliforme and H. nemorale, saprobically growing on wood, are recorded as new for mycobiota of China. Both species were collected in mountains at the altitudes of 1850‒3000 m, from Yunnan Province (southwestern China). Hyphoderma moniliforme is also a new record for Eurasia, and previously known only from South Africa. The collections of H. nemorale in this study represent the most eastern and the most southern localities for this species known for Eurasia. Both species bear moniliform cystidia. Bayesian inference of phylogeny based on ITS and partial 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that H. moniliforme is united in one clade with H. litschaueri from North America. 28S-based phylogram demonstrated that Chinese H. nemorale belong to the same clade with the holotype of this species collected from Europe. Morphology descriptions and illustrations for these two species are provided.
Keywords corticioid fungi – Meruliaceae – Polyporales – taxonomy – wood-decay fungi
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Article Number 12

Delitschia gigaspora var. pescanii: a new variety of coprophilous fungus from Brazil


Calaça FJS, Delpont M, Xavier-Santos S

Received 28 January 2015
Accepted 06 February 2015
Published Online 28 February 2015
Corresponding Author Francisco Junior Simões Calaça - calacafjs@gmail.com
Abstract This study presents a new variety of Delitschia gigaspora, called pescanii, that was obtained in moist chamber cultures of cow dung collected in the Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas (PESCAN), a conservation unit of the Cerrado bioma (Brazilian Savanna) in the State of Goiás, Brazil. The study also brings the first record of the genus Delitschia for Brazil. A taxonomic description, illustrations, and a dichotomous key for the known varieties of the species are provided.
Keywords Ascomycota – Brazilian Savanna – Delitschiaceae – dung fungi
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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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