Volume 5 - Issue 6


Article Number 1
Title

First survey for protosteloid amoebae in South Australia

Authors

Tice AK, Fry NW, Stephenson SL

Received 19 October 2014
Accepted 03 November 2014
Published Online 10 November 2014
Corresponding Author Steven L. Stephenson - slsteph@uark.edu
Abstract Samples of ground litter and aerial (dead but still attached plant parts) litter collected from 20 localities in South Australia were examined for the presence of protosteloid amoebae. Fifteen described species were recovered, including seven species that are new records for Australia. In addition, the samples yielded three forms that appear to represent species new to science. Eleven different species were recovered from the 33 samples of ground litter, and 13 species were recorded from the 34 samples of aerial litter.
Keywords arid areas – ecology – eumycetozoans – mainland Australia
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Article Number 2
Title

Multi-gene genealogies reveal cryptic species Beauveria rudraprayagi sp. nov. from India

Authors

Agrawal Y, Mual P, Shenoy BD

Received 19 October 2014
Accepted 03 November 2014
Published Online 10 November 2014
Corresponding Author Shenoy BD - shenoynio@gmail.com, Yamini Agrawal - yaminiagrawal04@gmail.com
Abstract Beauveria is an insect-associated fungal genus and it represents a monophyletic lineage within the Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes). Beauveria species are economically important as mycoinsecticides and a good source of secondary metabolites. In this study, we employed the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition criterion to resolve the evolutionary relationships of 125 Beauveria and Beauveria-like isolates from India. In ITS-based phylogenetic analysis, 111 fungal isolates clustered within Beauveria clade (Cordycipitaceae), while 14 Beauveria-like isolates showed phylogenetic affinities with Isaria (Cordycipitaceae) and Tolypocladium (Clavicipitaceae) clades. In a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis involving the partial Bloc, EF1α, RPB1 and RPB2 gene sequence-data, a novel Beauveria lineage was recovered that has been described here as Beauveria rudraprayagi sp. nov. This is the first study from India on the molecular taxonomy of Beauveria using GCPSR criterion.
Keywords Ascomycetes – diversity – Entomopathogenic fungi – GCPSR – taxonomy
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Article Number 3
Title

Rare lichen taxa from Costa Rica

Authors

Neuwirth G, Stocker-Wörgötter E

Received 06 October 2014
Accepted 11 November 2014
Published Online 16 November 2014
Corresponding Author Elfie Stocker-Wörgötter - elfriede.stocker@sbg.ac.at
Abstract The aim of this investigation is to document five remarkable lichen species which have been collected during several visits to Costa Rica by undertaking field trips to habitats of several vegetation zones. Pertusaria amnicola is new to the Neotropics and three species are new to Costa Rica (Enterographa sipmanii, Pertusaria borealis, Pertusaria torulosa).
Keywords lichenized ascomycota – Nearctica – Neotropics – new records
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Article Number 4
Title

Morphogenetic effect of L-cysteine on Pseudogymnoascus destructans and related species

Authors

Raudabaugh DB, Miller AN

Received 27 September 2014
Accepted 12 November 2014
Published Online 22 November 2014
Corresponding Author Daniel B. Raudabaugh - raudaba2@illinois.edu
Abstract The addition of L-cysteine to culture media is shown to cause a morphogenetic effect on Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans, the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome, and on several North American Pseudogymnoascus species in vitro. Under elevated levels of L-cysteine, seven P. destructans isolates from various geographical localities produced yeast-like cells on amended Sabouraud’s dextrose agar within 30 days at 7–10 °C. The yeast-like cells appear in semi-solid, black, pigmented masses composed of ellipsoidal to obtuse cells that average 13 × 5.5 µm and demonstrate blastic development easily differentiating them from the typical curved conidia which average 6 × 3 µm. The yeast-like cells were shown to revert to filamentous form when cultured on non-amended Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. No yeast-like cells were visualized in four other isolates within the Pseudogymnoascus roseus complex or in two additional, distantly-related Pseudogymnoascus isolates when exposed to the same elevated levels of L-cysteine. The sensitivity of P. destructans to L-cysteine is believed to be a response to the reduced oxidation-reduction potential of the amended medium, but further research is needed to understand the biochemical mechanisms.
Keywords Bat white-nose syndrome – yeast-like morphology – oxidation-reduction potential
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Article Number 5
Title

Cytospora castanae sp. nov., associated with perennial cankers of Castanea sativa

Authors

Dar MA, Rai MK

Received 27 September 2014
Accepted 12 November 2014
Published Online 27 November 2014
Corresponding Author Mahendra Rai - mkrai123@rediffmail.com
Abstract The Chestnut (Castanea sativaMill.) population in India is confined to the northern part of the country, which is continuously destroyed by natural (diseases/pests) and anthropogenic disturbances. Chestnut diseases like cankers and blight are mainly caused by fungi. Attempts were made to isolate the important fungal pathogen of chestnut trees. We isolated fungal isolates from samples of infected chestnut trees, which are confirmed as a new species of the genus Cytospora, family Valsaceae, with unique morphological and molecular characters. The initial identification of the fungus was based on morphological characters, and later confirmed by molecular studies. The phylogeny of the fungus was determined by rDNA-based phylogenetic markers ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacers) with the help of phylogenetic tools and were used for molecular identification and differentiation of the fungus. Phylogenetic analysis of the unknown fungus showed isolates reside in a clade separate from other species of genus Cytospora. Cytospora castanae sp. nov., therefore, is a new species of the genus Cytospora, witnessed by its morphological and molecular characters.
Keywords Cryphonectria – India – ITS –  rDNA – Phylogeny
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Article Number 6
Title

A new method by correlation to forecast the optimal time of spore-prints production and collection on sporocarps of  Ganoderma resinaceum Boud

Authors

Kengni Ayissi MB, Mossebo DC, Machouart M, Kansci G, Tsigaing TF, Dogang LR, Metsebing BP, Difack NM

Received 26 October 2014
Accepted 24 November 2014
Published Online 30 November 2014
Corresponding Author Dominique Claude Mossebo - dmossebo@yahoo.fr
Abstract Spores features of most fungal species are of prime importance in the process of their identification. These spores could also be used for numerous other studies including fungal genetics, reproduction and molecular biology. Studies involving single spore cultures are numerous in various domains of mycology and these isolated spores could be obtained at best only from spore-prints. These spore prints are most often produced by sporocarps of most Agaricales on field and also in the laboratory after collection. In contrary, Ganoderma in general including G. resinaceum produce spore-prints only on field and for a limited period of time not covering all their life span. These spore-prints could therefore be collected only on the field during a well defined period. The correlation equation Y = a+bX between size of sporocarps and time of growth now renders possible the forecast of the period of spore-prints production by sporocarps of G. resinaceum on natural substrate, thereby enabling collection of these spores at the best time on field for various mycological investigations.
Keywords basidiocarp size – correlation equation – field data – Ganodermataceae – life span – spore collection – time of growth
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Article Number 7
Title

On the status of Phytopythium kandeliae (Oomycetes, Straminipila)

Authors

Marano AV, Jesus AL, de Souza JI, Jerônimo GH, Pires-Zottarelli CLA

Received 19 September 2014
Accepted 17 November 2014
Published Online 12 December 2014
Corresponding Author Agostina Marano - agosvm@hotmail.com
Abstract Phytopythium kandeliae was recently published as a new combination. The existence of contradictory information about the vouchers CBS 111.91, 112.91 and 113.91 at the CBS-KNAW and the identity of the ex-type specimen is herein clarified.
Keywords isonyms– Phytopythium – voucher specimens
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Article Number 8
Title

An update on the genus Parmelinella Elix & Hale (Parmeliaceae, lichenized ascomycetes)

Authors

Benatti MN

Received 02 October 2014
Accepted 30 November 2014
Published Online 14 December 2014
Corresponding Author Benatti Michel Navarro - michel_benatti@yahoo.com.br
Abstract A detailed morphological and anatomical investigation of the type specimens of the current-ly accepted species of Parmelinella (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Fungi) confirmed the current spe-cies delimitations and revealed additional characteristics. The name Parmelia mutata is removed from synonymy with Parmelinella versiformis and proposed as a new combination, and Parmelia nimandairana is removed from Parmelinella wallichiana and proposed as another new combina-tion. Parmelinella salacinifera is proposed as a new combination. A lectotype is designated for Parmelinella versiformis. A key to all currently accepted species of the genus is presented.
Keywords Canoparmelia – Parmelina – Parmotremopsis – cilia – salazinic acid
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Article Number 9
Title

The genera Ascobolus and Saccobolus (Ascobolaceae, Pezizales) in Brazil

Authors

Melo RFR, Miller AN, Santiago ALCMA, Maia LC

Received 04 June 2014
Accepted 06 December 2014
Published Online 15 December 2014
Corresponding Author Roger Melo - rogerfrmelo@gmail.com
Abstract Coprophilous species of Ascobolus and Saccobolus from Brazil are poorly known. Fourteen species were identified from fresh herbivore dung recently collected in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, and eight exsiccatti sets were revised from the Pe. Camille Torrend (URM) and Dárdano de Andrade Lima (IPA) herbaria. Ascobolus elegans and S. beckii are reported for the first time in South America, while Ascobolus americanus and Saccobolus saccoboloides are reported for the first time in Brazil. Saccobolus infestans is neotypified. Information regarding the distribution and substrate preference of these species is presented. Descriptions and plates are provided, along with an identification key to all known species of Ascobolus and Saccobolus in Brazil.
Keywords Ascomycota – dung fungi – taxonomy
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Article Number 10
Title

The biodiversity of dictyostelid cellular slime molds in rubber tree leaf litter in Southern Thailand

Authors

Seephueak P, Petcharat V

Received 17 November 2014
Accepted 09 December 2014
Published Online 15 December 2014
Corresponding Author Pornsil Seephueak - spornsil@gmail.com
Abstract The occurrence of dictyostelid cellular slime molds were examined in rubber tree plantation habitats. Samples of leaf litter were collected from 10 rubber tree plantation fields in Nakhon Si Thammarat and Songkhla provinces and plated out for dictyostelid cellular slime molds. Ten species were identified, seven of them are Dictyostelium (Dictyostelium dichotomum, D. macrocarpum, D. menorah, D. microsporum, D. minutum, D. mucoroides and D. rosarium). The other three species belong to the genus Polysphondylium (Polysphondylium multicystogenum, P. pallidum and P. violaceum). The occurrence of dictyostelid slime molds in litter collected from use-of-herbicide areas tends to be of a much lower density (15.0–32.5 clones/1g leaf litter) than in non-use-of-herbicide areas (122.5–255.0 clones/1g leaf litter).
Keywords plant litter – rubber tree – slime mold
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Article Number 11
Title

First cultivation of Agaricus flocculosipes and a novel Thai strain of A. subrufescens

Authors

Thongklang N, Sysouphanthong P, Callac P, Hyde KD

Received 11 November 2014
Accepted 08 December 2014
Published Online 27 December 2014
Corresponding Author Kevin D Hyde - kdhyde3@gmail.com
Abstract Agaricus flocculosipes and A. subrufescens are edible species that belong to section Arvenses of the genus Agaricus. Agaricus subrufescens (almond mushroom) is known to produce bioactive compounds with medicinal properties, such as anti-cancer and anti-tumor activity and fruiting bodies are also edible and nutritious. Agaricus subrufescens is presently cultivated in Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan and some European countries for use as foods and nutraceuticals. Agaricus flocculosipes is a newly described species currently known only from Thailand, Mayotte Island and China. Species of Agaricus have high potential for cultivation as many species are edible and have medicinal properties. Herein we report the first cultivation of A. flocculosipes and a Thai strain of A. subrufescens. The strains were isolated from wild sporocarps and subcultured on compost extract agar medium. Standard compost based on wheat straw and horse manure was used as the cultivation substrate. A comparative study of the cultivation of one strain of A. flocculosipes and two strains of A. subrufescens from France and Thailand was carried out with four replicates trays. The mushroom spawn was inoculated into the compost and incubated at 25 °C. The mycelia fully covered and grew throughout the media after incubation for two weeks. A casing layer made up of sand, peat and lime (1:1:1) was applied. Fruiting phase was performed at 25 °C and 95% humidity. The first primordia of the French and Thai strains of A. subrufescens occurred after the casing layer was added at days 12 and 24, respectively. Yields were obtained from both strains of A. subrufescens. The yield of the Thai strain (85.90 ± 27.06 g kg-1) was lower than that of the French strain (178.56 ± 68.28 g kg-1) in the first production cycle lasting 34 days. The first primordia of A. flocculosipes formed at day 32 after casing, and the strain produced only a few fruit bodies (1.04 ± 0.95 g kg-1). Further research is needed to develop suitable agriculture wastes and regimes for growing these mushrooms and for increasing production yields so that these strains and species can be industrialized.
Keywords Agaricus – edible mushroom – fruiting test – mushroom growing
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Article Number 12
Title

The response of myxogastrids to soil amendments

Authors

Feest A, Stephenson SL

Received 01 November 2014
Accepted 10 December 2014
Published Online 31 December 2014
Corresponding Author Alan Feest - a.feest@bris.ac.uk
Abstract Myxogastrids (also referred to as myxomycetes or plasmodial slime moulds) are common to abundant organisms in soils, where they probably account for ~50% of the protozoan component represented by soil amoebae. In the present study, an effort was made to assess the possible effects of various soil amendments on myxogastrids, which exemplify the role of soil protozoans while also being relatively easy to quantify in soil samples. Amendments to soil in either field or microcosm experiments included the addition of water, glucose, a bacterial suspension and the herbicide Dalapon. Both trophic forms and encysted forms of myxogastrids were considered. As general observation, the responses of myxogastrids to the various amendments were distinct in the case of the herbicide, with the most obvious effect being the ratio of trophic to encysted forms. Any assessment of soil protozoans invariably will result in occasions where the population is grossly underestimated if samples are not tested after freezing as well as fresh. Frozen samples provide data on the total encysted population, which appears to “awakened” by the action of freezing.
Keywords amoebae – ciliates – encystment – herbicides – soil protozoans
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Article Number 13
Title

Pervasiveness of endophytic fungal diversity in Anisomeles malabarica from Aliyar, Western Ghats, South India

Authors

Jayanthi G, Karthikeyan K, Muthumary J

Received 05 November 2014
Accepted 15 December 2014
Published Online 31 December 2014
Corresponding Author Jayanthi Ganapathi - jai27karthi25@gmail.com
Abstract A total of 616 fungal isolates were obtained from 1600 segments of leaves and stems of the medicinal plant Anisomeles malabarica during four seasons (2009–2010). Fourteen different morphospecies were isolated: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum dematium, Pestalotiopsis microspora, Phoma betae, Phomopsis arnoldiae, Phomopsis stipata, Phomopsis sp., Phomopsis tersa, Phyllosticta murnadensis, Septoria sp., Penicillium sp., Nigrospora sp. and sterile forms. Phomopsis spp. was the most dominant and frequently isolated taxon. Colonization frequency (%) differed significantly between the seasons. The total colonization frequency of endophytes during south–west monsoon comprised young leaves 6.6%, mature leaves 15.7%, young stems 3.6% and mature stems 13.4%; north–east monsoon comprised young leaves 4.3%, mature leaves 16%, young stems 7% and mature stems 15.9%; winter comprised young leaves 14%, mature leaves 21.7%, young stems 12.5% and mature stems 17.1%; summer comprised young leaves 1.2%, mature leaves 4.4%, young stems 0.9% and mature stems 2.6%. The colonization rate was higher during the winter than in the monsoon and summer seasons. Moreover, the higher colonization frequency was found in mature leaves than in young leaves. The maximum relative percentage occurrence was coelomycetes (97.91%) followed by agnomycetes (1.33%)andhyphomycetes (0.76%).
Keywords Anisomeles malabarica – diversity – endophytic fungi – total colonization frequency percentage – relative percentage occurrence
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