Volume 3 - Issue 2

Article Number 1

Species composition, seasonal changes and comm-unity ordination of alkalotolerant micro fungal diversity in a natural scrub jungle ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India


Muthukrishnan S, Sanjayan KP, Jahir HK

Received 03 February 2012
Accepted 06 February 2012
Published Online 03 March 2012
Corresponding Author Muthukrishnan S - krish_522@yahoo.com
Abstract One hundred and seven species of alkalotolerant fungi were isolated from different layers of litter of the Guindy Reserve Forest, Chennai, South India during a 2-year period. They comprised Zygomycota (7 species), Ascomycetes (4 species), hyphomycetes (86 species) and coelomycetes (10 species). The F1 litter layer, just beneath the recently fallen leaves, had the richest composition of fungi and the fungi were most abundant during the North East monsoons (September to November). Shannon's diversity index and Simpson diversity index λ indicate F1 layer to have the maximum species. The species distribution fell into the log series model and Fishers alpha was also highest for the F1 layer. Species richness indices computed also indicated that none of the species was more predominant. Values of species evenness computed hovered around 0.6 indicating a tilt towards even distribution of the species. The fungal community is a heterogenous assembly of species derived from a homogenous habitat with a log normal pattern of distribution formed due to the interplay of many independent factors governing the relative abundance of the species. Principal component ordination analysis reveals that the greatest variation in the species composition was due to the South West monsoon. Also, detrended correspondence data put the species abundance data for the four seasons in a linear arrangement.
Keywords Alkalotolerant fungi – Fungal diversity – Micro fungi – Plant Litter
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Article Number 2

Coprophilous ascomycetes in Kenya: Saccobolus species from wildlife dung


Mungai PG, Chukeatirote E, Njogu JG, Hyde KD

Received 25 February 2012
Accepted 27 February 2012
Published Online 17 March 2012
Corresponding Author Paul G. Mungai - emu@kws.go.ke
Abstract The taxonomy, occurrence and distribution of Saccobolus species was investigated from wild herbivore dung types in Kenya. Dung samples incubated in a moist chamber culture were examined for fungi over three months. Seven species, Saccobolus citrinus, S. depauperatus, S. diffusus, S. infestans, S. platensis, S. truncatus and S. versicolor were isolated from African elephant, black rhinoceros, Cape buffalo, dikdik, giraffe, hartebeest, hippopotamus, impala, waterbuck and zebra dung. Five taxa, S. citrinus, S. diffusus, S. infestans, S. platensis and S. truncatus, are new records for Kenya. The most common taxa were S. depauperatus and S. citrinus. The diversity of coprophilous Saccobolus species in wildlife dung is very high.
Keywords African elephant – diversity – moist chambers – national parks – Saccobolus citrinus
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Article Number 3

Plasmodial incompatibility in the myxomycetes: a review


Clark J, Haskins EF

Received 21 February 2012
Accepted 28 February 2012
Published Online 25 March 2012
Corresponding Author Jim Clark - jimc1939@frontier.com
Abstract Two myxomycete phaneroplasmodia of the same species undergo somatic fusion only if they are phenotypically identical for a complex genetic incompatibility system. This system consists of a three tiered polygenic complex with dominant and recessive alleles. Thus, plasmodia must be phenotypically identical for approximately 16 loci in order to fuse (CC and Cc are phenotypically identical, but different from cc). The first level of the system (having a minimum of seven Fus loci) controls membrane fusion, and it apparently prevents fusion unless the two plasmodia have identical membrane or slime sheath components. The second level (having a minimum of six Cz loci) produces a rapid lysis of a small mixed region, of the two plasmodia, if membrane fusion has occurred. This lysis is directional in that it targets the recessive phenotype, and it is apparently triggered by some pre-formed substances when they come into contact with a different plasmodium. The third level (having a minimum of three Let loci) comes into play if membrane fusion occurs and there is no rapid lysis of the mixed plasmodium. It produces a slow lethal reaction, which targets and degrades the nuclei of the recessive phenotype. This reaction occurs over a period of five to twenty hours and requires the synthesis of new RNA and proteins. Since, this complex system produces a minimum of 65,536 different incompatibility phenotypes, it is highly unlikely that any two phaneroplasmodia will undergo a successful fusion unless they are very closely related. Species with aphaneroplasmoida apparently have a similar system, but species with small protoplasmodia do not appear to undergo any type of plasmodial fusion.
Keywords incompatibility – myxomycetes – self-recognition – somatic-fusion
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Article Number 4

Managing and coping with names of pleomorphic fungi in a period of transition


Hawksworth DL

Received 04 March 2012
Accepted 06 March 2012
Published Online 26 March 2012
Corresponding Author David L Hawksworth - d.hawksworth@nhm.ac.uk
Abstract An explanation is provided of the recent changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants relating to the ending of the separate naming of different states of fungi with a pleomorphic life-cycle. Issues relating to their implementation are discussed, including problems of defining "widely used", author citations, proofs of holomorphy, typification, the preparation of “Lists of accepted and rejected names” (with a possible timetable), relationship to the existing processes of sanctioning and conservation or rejection, and steps to be considered for the future. This material is presented here to stimulate debate on the actions that should be taken by individuals, and responsible committees, in the current period of transition to a system of fungal nomenclature fit for the 21st century.
Keywords anamorph – Ascomycota – Basidiomycota – coelomycetes – conidial fungi –hyphomycetes – International Code of Nomenclature – nomenclature – Sneath – teleomorph
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Article Number 5

Towards incorporating anamorphic fungi in a natural classification – checklist and notes for 2011


Wijayawardene DNN, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD

Received 24 March 2012
Accepted 29 March 2012
Published Online 10 April 2012
Corresponding Author KD Hyde - kdhyde3@gmail.com
Abstract A complilation of anamorphic names for both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota is provided which comprises 2895 genera. The genera are listed against a backbone of teleomorphic relationships where known. The study reveals that 73 genera and 95 anamorph-like genera are linked to teleomorphic genera names, 447 genera (three anamorph-like genera) are linked to teleomorph families, orders or classes, while for more than 1592 (55%) genera no teleomorph link is known. The links are based on the literature and often because fungi were found in association, but have not been proven by molecular data. Many are based on links with species other than the generic type and thus must be considered questionable for the genus. A considerable effort is needed to establish whether these links are correct.
Keywords Asexual fungi – life cycle – sexual fungi – taxonomy
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Article Number 6

Occurrence of Chaetomidium arxii on sunn pest in Iran


Arzanlou M, Khodaei S, Saadati Bezdi M

Received 28 March 2012
Accepted 29 March 2012
Published Online 30 April 2012
Corresponding Author Mahdi Arzanlou - Arzanlou@hotmail.com
Abstract Chaetomidium arxii was recovered from dead, overwintering adults of Eurygaster integriceps in northern Iran. The species was identified based on morphological characteristics as well as sequence data from LSU and ITS-rDNA regions. This is first report on the occurrence of C. arxii on sunn pest and a new record of C. arxii for Iran. The fungus is fully illustrated and described.
Keywords Ascomycetes – cephalothecoid – Chaetomiaceae – Chaetomium – entomopathogenic
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Article Number 7

A new species of Mycena sect. Polyadelphia from southern India


Aravindakshan DM, Manimohan P

Received 12 April 2012
Accepted 17 April 2012
Published Online 30 April 2012
Corresponding Author P Manimohan - pmanimohan@gmail.com
Abstract Mycena saparna sp. nov. from Kerala State, India is described, illustrated and discussed. It is placed in Mycena sect. Polyadelphia where it seems closely allied to M. foliicola reported from Madagascar.
Keywords Agaricales – Basidiomycota –Mycenaceae– mycota – taxonomy
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Article Number 8

Myxomycetes associated with pipevine, a temperate liana


Coelho IL, Stephenson SL

Received 13 April 2012
Accepted 19 April 2012
Published Online 30 April 2012
Corresponding Author Steven L. Stephenson - slsteph@uark.edu
Abstract Pinevine (Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.), a climbing woody vine native to temperate forests of eastern North America, is morphologically similar to many of the lianas characteristic of moist tropical forests. In August 2010, samples of dead pinevine collected from a study site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park were used to prepare a series of 50 moist chamber cultures. Thirty-seven of the 50 cultures (74%) yielded evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Fourteen species representing seven genera were recorded, with members of the Trichiales (41% of all records) and Physarales (49% of all records) the most abundant.
Keywords Great Smoky Mountains National Park – moist chamber cultures – slime moulds – woody vine
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Article Number 9

An ethnomycological survey of macrofungi utilized by Aeta communities in Central Luzon, Philippines


De Leon AM, Reyes RG, dela Cruz TEE

Received 08 March 2012
Accepted 06 April 2012
Published Online 30 April 2012
Corresponding Author dela Cruz TEE - thomasdelacruz@yahoo.com / tedelacruz@mnl.ust.edu.ph
Abstract Questionnaires and formatted interviews were used to determine mushrooms used as food and as materials for societal rituals and beliefs among six Aeta communities in three provinces of Central Luzon, Northern Philippines. Thirty-eight different fungi were utilized by the Aeta communities: 21 in Pampanga, 10 in Tarlac, and 19 in Zambales. Fourteen fungal species were collected and identified based on their morphological characters: Auricularia auricula, A. polytricha, Calvatia sp., Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus tigrinus, L. sajor-caju, Mycena sp., Pleurotus sp., Schizophyllum commune, Termitomyces clypeatus, T. robustus, Termitomyces sp. 1, Termitomyces sp. 2, and Volvariella volvacea. Twelve of the identified macrofungi were consumed as food while Ganoderma lucidum and Mycena sp. were used as house decoration and medicine, respectively. The Aeta communities also performed rituals prior to the collection of these mushrooms, including tribal dancing, praying and kissing the ground. Their indigenous beliefs regarding mushrooms are also documented. This is the most extensive enthnomycological study on the Aeta communities in the Philippines.
Keywords edible fungi – ethnomycology – indigenous communities – macrofungi
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Article Number 10

Two remarkable xylariaceous ascomycetes associated with elephant dung


Deepna Latha KP, Manimohan P

Received 20 April 2012
Accepted 23 April 2012
Published Online 30 April 2012
Corresponding Author P Manimohan - pmanimohan@gmail.com
Abstract A continuing survey of coprophilous fungi associated with elephant dung in Kerala State, India has resulted in the discovery of two lesser known xylariaceous fungi. This forms the second record worldwide of Podosordaria elephanti and the first record of Poronia pileiformis on elephant dung. Both fungi are described, illustrated and discussed based on the Kerala collections.
Keywords Ascomycota – coprophilous fungi – new records– Xylariaceae
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