Volume 2 - Issue 4

Article Number 1

Clitopilus rubroparvulus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomy-cetes), a new species from the Canary Islands (Spain)


Vizzini A, Dähncke RM, Contu M.

Received 11 May 2011
Accepted 23 May 2011
Published Online 10 August 2011
Corresponding Author Alfredo Vizzini - alfredo.vizzini@unito.it
Abstract Clitopilus rubroparvulus is described as a new species belonging to the subgenus Rhodophana on the basis of a collection from La Palma, Canary Islands. The new species grows on mosses and is known only from a single site. A colour illustration of fresh basidiomata of the type-collection and line drawings are also provided.
Keywords Agaricales – Entolomataceae – taxonomy
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Article Number 2

Seasonal and Depth-wise variation in Microfungal Population Numbers in Nameri forest soil, Assam, Northeast India.


Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK.

Received 19 May 2011
Accepted 11 July 2011
Published Online 16 August 2011
Corresponding Author Jha DK - dkjhabot07@gmail.com dkjha@gauhati.ac.in
Abstract Soil microflora was isolated by serial dilution plate method using different culture media. The highest fungal population was recorded in spring at the topsoil (1–9 cm), and decreased in other seasons with increasing depths. Twenty-one fungal species belonging to 14 genera were recovered from all depths throughout the seasons with the highest population and relative abundance of Aspergillus flavus (8.4%), followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (8.0%) and lowest by Rhizopus oryzae, R. nodosus and Trichophyton sp. (2.8% each). Phycomycetes (80.1%) were dominant in the study site followed by Zygomycetes (14.1%), Ascomycetes (3.7%) and sterile mycelia (2.1%). Soil pH, moisture content, organic C (Corg), total N concentration (Ntot) and available K had positive correlations (p<0.05 and <0.01) with the fungal colony forming unit. Difference in soil depth and seasonal variation have an influence on the microfungal population numbers as well as their species composition in Nameri forest soil.
Keywords colony forming unit – population and relative abundance – serial dilution plate method
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Article Number 3

Diversity of saprobic fungi on decaying branch litter of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)


Seephueak P, Phongpaichit S, Hyde KD, Petcharat V.

Received 25 May 2011
Accepted 11 July 2011
Published Online 13 September 2011
Corresponding Author Seephueak P - spornsil@gmail.com
Abstract The diversity of fungi associated with the degradation of rubber branch litter (Hevea brasiliensis) was studied. Samples were collected during four periods in 2010 – January (late rainy season), April (dry season), July (early rainy season) and October (rainy season) in Nakhon Si Thammarat and Songkhla Provinces, southern Thailand. Samples were classified as newly fallen branches, middle stage decaying branches and old decaying fallen branches. Moist chamber, dilution plate and sporocarp survey methodologies were used to detect the fungi. Fungal identification was based on morphological examination under compound and stereo microscopes. In total, 497 species of fungi were identified from the decaying branches, comprising 400 anamorphic taxa, 61 ascomycota, 34 basidiomycota, 1 oomycota and 1 zygomycota. Bactrodesmium rahmii, Botryodiplodia sp., Hypoxylon sp.1, Hypoxylon sp.2, Kirschsteiniothelia sp., Lasiodiplodia cf. theobromae, Nigrospora sphaerica, Paratomenticola lanceolatus, Pestalosphaeria hansenii, Schizophyllum commune, Torula herbarum and Veronaea carlinae were the dominant species occurring at all stages of decomposition. Bactrodesmium rahmii, Kirschsteiniothelia sp. and Lasiodioplodia cf. theobromae were the dominant species occurring during all seasons.
Keywords decomposition – lignicolous fungi – plant litter – rubber tree
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Article Number 4

Addition to "Fungi Fimicoli Italici": An update on the occurrence of coprophilous Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes in Italy with new records and descriptions


Doveri F.

Received 07 March 2011
Accepted 18 April 2011
Published Online 14 September 2011
Corresponding Author Francesco Doveri - f.doveri@sysnet.it
Abstract "Fungi Fimicoli Italici", the first monograph on coprophilous fungi from Italy, is regarded as the starting point of a survey on Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes obligatorily or facultatively growing on any kind of dung. All fimicolous species recorded from Italy and described in that work or in subsequent author's papers are listed and their dung sources are mentioned. The occurrence on dung of different genera and species is reported in separate Tables, and their frequency on different types of excrements is discussed and compared with other parts of the world. An update on the families Gymnoascaceae, Microascaceae and Sporormiaceae, and keys to genera of Gymnoascaceae and Microascaceae, and to Italian species of Gymnoascus s.l. and Sporormiella with 8-celled ascospores are provided. Chaetomidium fimeti, C. ancistrocladum, C. murorum, Gymnoascus dankaliensis, G. littoralis, G. ruber, Hypocopra equorum, Iodophanus difformis, Kernia cauquensis, Lophotrichus bartlettii, Orbicula parietina, Pithoascus intermedius, and Sporormiella affinis are first described from Italy.
Keywords damp chambers – fimicolous fungi – frequency – keys – natural state – survey
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Article Number 5

Endophytic fungi from Rafflesia cantleyi: species diversity and antimicrobial activity


Refaei J, Jones EBG, Sakayaroj J, Santhanam J.

Received 09 June 2011
Accepted 12 July 2011
Published Online 20 September 2011
Corresponding Author Jinous Refaei - jinousrefaei@yahoo.com
Abstract The Rafflesia flower is the largest single flower in the world, a parasitic flowering plant found only in Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. This study was undertaken to isolate, identify and evaluate antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from Rafflesia cantleyi, a Malaysian endemic species. Different parts of the flower and bud collected in Perak, Malaysia, were surface sterilized and plated onto potato dextrose agar. Fungal isolates recovered were cultured in potato dextrose broth for antimicrobial activity screening and solvent extraction. Fungal 5.8S gene and flanking internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA were sequenced for construction of phylogenetic trees. Eight endophytic strains obtained from R. cantleyi were categorized as seven morphotypes. Three isolates inhibited the growth of Candida albicans with IC50 values of 3.5–8.2 µg/ml for crude fungal extracts. Based on morphological study, the endophytes were identified as belonging to Colletotrichum, Cytospora and Gliocladiopsis. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences confirmed the three active isolates were Colletotrichum siamense, Colletotrichum sp. and Cytospora sp. while other isolates were identified as Colletotrichum siamense, Colletotrichum sp. and Gliocladiopsis sp. Endophytic fungi isolated from Rafflesia cantleyi produce bioactive metabolites which may contribute to the plant’s medicinal properties.
Keywords Anti Candida – Colletotrichum siamense – rDNA phylogeny
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Article Number 6

List of species collected and interactive database of myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds) for Mt. Arayat National Park, Pampanga, Philippines


Dagamac NHA, dela Cruz TEE, Pangilinan MVB, Stephenson SL.

Received 21 June 2011
Accepted 12 July 2011
Published Online 20 September 2011
Corresponding Author Dagamac NHA - nhadagamac@gmail.com
Abstract Myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds) are fungus-like protists that are often understudied in a biodiverse country such as the Philippines. As such, the purpose of the project described herein was first to document the species of myxomycetes collected in Mt. Arayat National Park, Pampanga, Philippines and then to develop an interactive database for these organisms using DELTA software. These are the first reports of myxomycetes from Mt. Arayat. A total of 33 species were recorded for the two slopes of the mountain during the wet and dry seasons.Five species of myxomycetes (i.e., Arcyria afroalpina, Collaria arcyrionema, Craterium concinnum, Enerthenema papillatum and Licea biforis) were new records for the Philippines. As a second component of the project, interactive identification guides were generated from 67 taxonomic characters using the DELTA software. The interactive database recognized spore appearance, colour of the spores by transmitted light, fruiting body colour and the outline of the sporotheca as the most useful characters in recognizing the species of myxomycetes known from Mt. Arayat. The interactive database generated in this study is the first effort along these lines for the Philippines and for Southeast Asia.
Keywords taxonomy – diversity – species listing – protist – identification key
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Article Number 7

Five trillion basidiospores in a fruiting body of Calvatia gigantea


De-Wei Li.

Received 08 June 2011
Accepted 14 June 2011
Published Online 21 September 2011
Corresponding Author De-Wei Li - dewei.li@ct.gov
Abstract Basidiospores in a fruiting body (38.5×37×22.5 cm in size) of Calvatia gigantea were quantified to be 5.1 trillion (5.1×1012). The results suggested that Buller’s study on a smaller fruiting body of 40×28×20 cm in size over-estimated the basidiospore number.
Keywords basidioma – puff ball – Lycoperdaceae – spores – sterigmal remnant
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Article Number 8

New record of Megacapitula villosa and Paradictyoarthrinium diffractum from India


Prabhugaonkar A, Bhat DJ.

Received 20 June 2011
Accepted 04 July 2011
Published Online 23 September 2011
Corresponding Author Darbhe Jayarama Bhat - bhatdj@rediffmail.com
Abstract Two monotypic genera, Megacapitula and Paradictyoarthrinium, are reported for the first time from palm litter from India. ML analysis suggests that they have a close affinity with members of the order Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes.
Keywords Western Ghats – palm fungi – fungal diversity – taxonomy
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Article Number 9

First report of Ganoderma resinaceum and G. weberianum from north India based on ITS sequence analysis and micromorphology


Mohanty PS, Harsh NSK, Pandey A.

Received 27 June 2011
Accepted 30 August 2011
Published Online 04 October 2011
Corresponding Author Partha Sarathi Mohanty - m.sarathipartha@gmail.com
Abstract The genus Ganoderma is a notorious pathogen causing root rot and butt rot in more than 144 tree species. There is high variability in the basidiome morphology, and complicated speciation, which often leads to inconclusive identification by traditional taxonomic methods. We analyzed the specimen collected from Acacia nilotica and Tectona grandis using morphological characters, sequencing of the ribosomal 5.8S RNA gene and the flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS). The species status was confirmed as Ganoderma resinaceum and Ganoderma weberianum both from sequence and micromorphological study.
Keywords Internal transcribed spacer – Ganoderma – Cutis
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Article Number 10

Conidial fungi from semi-arid Caatinga Biome of Brazil. Rare freshwater hyphomycetes and other new records


Barbosa FR, Gusmão LFP.

Received 04 July 2011
Accepted 15 August 2011
Published Online 04 October 2011
Corresponding Author Flavia Barbosa - faurb10@yahoo.com.br
Abstract During surveys for freshwater hyphomycetes on submerged plant debris in Brazil, six rare species were collected: Brachydesmiella anthostomelloidea, Camposporidium cristatum, Dactylaria hyalotunicata, Lauriomyces sakaeratensis, Pleurophragmium malaysianum and Pyricularia rabaulensis. Descriptions, illustrations and comments are given for these species. Additionally, 37 new records for Western hemisphere, Neotropics, South America, Brazil and Bahia State are listed. These results contribute to knowledge about the geographic distribution of freshwater hyphomycetes and reflect the lack of studies of these fungi in tropical regions.
Keywords aquatic fungi – mitosporic fungi – stream – taxonomy
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Article Number 11

Principles and protocols for genetical study of myxomycete reproductive systems and plasmodial coalescence


Clark J, Haskins EF.

Received 04 May 2011
Accepted 18 August 2011
Published Online 05 October 2011
Corresponding Author Jim Clark - jimc1939@frontier.com
Abstract The diplo-haplontic life cycle of myxomycetes produces a genetic system with clonal gametes, which provide a number of opportunities and difficulties that those unfamiliar with the group might find confusing. Therefore, we provide a guide to the Mendelian genetics of the myxomycetes for those who are interested in expanding their taxonomic and environmental research in this group. The ability of the haploid unicellular myxamoeba, which reproduces by mitotic division to produce a clonal population, and to convert directly into a gamete, is the basis of the special characteristics of myxomycete genetics. Since the same clonal lines can be used in multiple different specific crosses, genetic information, which can be used in future crosses, can be built up for those lines. This allows the researcher to study multi-gene traits such as the plasmodial coalescence system.
Keywords fusion – heterothallism – homothallism – self-recognition – sibling-species
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Article Number 12

Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in pine forest of Meghalaya, North East India


Songachan LS, Kayang H.

Received 27 July 2011
Accepted 18 August 2011
Published Online 05 October 2011
Corresponding Author Songachan LS - rayskybl@yahoo.co.in, hkayang@yahoo.com
Abstract Species composition and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were investigated in three common and widely distributed plant species (Crotalaria anagyroides, Eupatorium adenophorum and Hedychium coronarium) from subtropical pine forest of Meghalaya, North East India. AMF colonization ranged from 66–71%. Colonization of dark septate endophyte was also evaluated and ranged from 0.17–0.85%. AMF spore densities with a range of 319 to 661 in 25 g-1 rhizosphere soils were detected. Based on morphological characteristics, 23 AMF species belonging to two genera (Acaulospora and Glomus) were isolated and identified, plus one unidentified AMF species. E. adenophorum harbours the highest number of AMF species (15), followed by C. anagyroides (14) and H. coronarium (11). Species of Acaulospora were dominant in all three plant species. Acaulospora koskei, A. laevis, A. mellea, A. morrowiae and Glomus geosporum were isolated from all plant species. Diversity indices showed little difference between the three plant species. It is concluded that the three plant species from sub-tropical pine forest are well-colonized by AMF and host many AMF species.
Keywords colonization – diversity – species richness – spore density
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Article Number 13

High production of laccase by Ganoderma lucidum 447 in submerged cultivation on ethanol production residue supplemented with Cu2+


Songulashvili G, Jimenéz-Tobón G, Jaspers C, Penninckx MJ.

Received 15 June 2011
Accepted 06 September 2011
Published Online 06 October 2011
Corresponding Author George Songulashvili - gsongulashvili@yahoo.com
Abstract The white rot fungus (WRF) Ganoderma lucidum 447 was shown to produce laccase in submerged cultivation on two media based on glucose and ethanol production starch free residue (EPSFR) coming from wheat bran. A very high yield of laccase production of 149,600 U l-1, corresponding to about 1.81 g enzyme protein l-1, was obtained with the EPSFR medium supplemented with 3mM of Cu2+ ions. It is suggested that an EPSFR based medium in the presence of copper as an inducer, may be relevant for economic production of laccase at an industrial level.
Keywords Ganoderma lucidum – laccase – microelements – submerged cultivation – ethanol production residue
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Article Number 14

Quaternaria carpinicola, a comb. nov. (Diatrypaceae)


Vasilyeva LN.

Received 11 February 2011
Accepted 25 August 2011
Published Online 06 October 2011
Corresponding Author Larissa Vasilyeva - vasilyeva@biosoil.ru
Abstract Quaternaria carpinicola is suggested as a new combination. The species is restricted to Fagus grandifolia in south-eastern United States. It differs from the European Q. quaternata in possessing smaller stromata and ascospores. Its position in the genus Quaternaria rather than Eutypella is discussed.
Keywords ascomycetous fungi – Diatrypales – taxonomy
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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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