Volume 2 - Issue 3


Article Number 1
Title

Cladosporium sp. from phyloplane: a diversity evaluation on a Continental ecosystem

Authors

Guimarães JB, Chambel L, Melzoch K, Pereira P, Tenreiro R.

Received 07 December 2010
Accepted 07 April 2011
Published Online 09 June 2011
Corresponding Author joana.guimaraes@inrb.pt or bagoinj@yahoo.com
Abstract The biodiversity of filamentous fungi on leaves of two genera of plants from a mixed Continental ecosystem (Český Kras, Czech Republic) was assessed. Quercus (four species) and Acer (three species) are frequent plant genera in the area. Fifteen fungal genera were identified by phenotypic methods (colony characterisation and morphology of reproductive structures). The study focused on Cladosporium, the dominant genus, but less common genera were found including Alternaria, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, and Absidia. csM13 fingerprinting and ITS-ARDRA were used for genomic clustering of isolates of Cladosporium. Most Cladosporium isolates (99%) were identified as C. herbarum and C. macrocarpum. Diversity indexes and Chi-square analysis were applied to better analyse the fungal community. Continental environments are demonstrated to have some diversity of filamentous fungi, but not as large as in tropical, temperate or Mediterranean areas.
Keywords Cladosporium – csM13 PCR “fingerprinting” – Diversity – Fungi – ITS – ARDRA
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Article Number 2
Title

Identification and characterization of antimicrobial metabolite from an endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani isolated from bark of Himalayan yew

Authors

Tayung K, Barik BP, Jha DK, Deka DC.

Received 24 December 2010
Accepted 14 January 2011
Published Online 19 June 2011
Corresponding Author kumanandbotnou@rediffmail.com
Abstract An endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus baccata bark displayed considerable antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as Fusarium solani based on morphological and molecular characterization. The metabolite showed activity against both bacterial and fungal pathogens. The optimum conditions for metabolite production were found to be 30±1°C, slightly acidic pH and incubation period of 10 days. The crude metabolite was separated into two fractions by column chromatography over silica gel (60–120 mesh) using a mixture of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate (20:1) as the eluent. The metabolite was characterized and identified by Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis due to its volatile nature. The main components were 1-tetradecene, 8-octadecanone, 8-pentadecanone, octylcyclohexane and 10-nonadecanone. Phylo-genetic analysis of the fungus with other endophytic fungi producing bioactive metabolites revealed its close affinity with an F. solani isolate that produced taxol. The metabolite produced by the endophytic fungus could be an alternative source of antimicrobial agents against clinical pathogens.
Keywords Antimicrobial metabolite – Fusarium solani – Phylogenetic analysis – Taxus baccata
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Article Number 3
Title

A new species of the genus Englerula from India

Authors

Hosagoudar VB, Sabeena A, Kamarudeen M.

Received 08 April 2011
Accepted 06 June 2011
Published Online 24 July 2011
Corresponding Author Hosagoudar VB vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com
Abstract Englerula coscinii sp. nov. which infects the leaves of Coscinium fenestratum is described and illustrated. A key and the comparative account of all the species of the genus Englerula is provided.
Keywords India – Kerala – Black mildew – new species
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Article Number 4
Title

Zygosporium gibbum: a new and remarkable rust hyper-parasite

Authors

Manimohan P, Mannethody S.

Received 05 January 2011
Accepted 10 January 2011
Published Online 27 July 2011
Corresponding Author Manimohan P. - pmanimohan@gmail.com
Abstract Zygosporium gibbum is recorded for the first time as a hyperparasite of Coleosporium plumeriae, the cause of Plumeria (frangipani) rust. Zygosporium species have not been previously reported as hyperparasites of rust fungi. Preliminary observations indicate that Z. gibbum is a potential bio-control agent.
Keywords biocontrol – frangipani – mycoparasite – plumeria
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Article Number 5
Title

Diversity and abundance of marine fungi on driftwood collected from Kerala State and Lakshadweep Islands, India

Authors

Khan SS, Manimohan P.

Received 01 April 2011
Accepted 07 April 2011
Published Online 27 July 2011
Corresponding Author Manimohan P. - pmanimohan@gmail.com
Abstract Twenty three marine fungi (17 ascomycetes and 6 mitosporic fungi) associated with driftwood are documented from coastal locations of Kerala State and Lakshadweep Islands of India. Out of 494 samples scanned, 50 (10.1%) had sporulating marine fungi. All species were infrequent (< 4%). The average number of species per sample was 0.04. The percent colonization was higher (16.6%) in the samples from the Lakshadweep Islands than in those from Kerala coast (9.5). While all 23 species were recorded from Kerala coast, only four species were recovered from the islands. Etheirophora bijubata, Halosphaeria appendiculata, Remispora quadri-remis (ascomycetes) and Robillarda rhizophorae (mitosporic fungus) are new records for India.
Keywords aquatic – biodiversity – mycota – new records – tropics
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Article Number 6
Title

Two new species of Erysiphe (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) from Thailand

Authors

Divarangkoon R, Meeboon J, Monkhung S, To-anun C, Takamatsu S.

Received 04 April 2011
Accepted 08 April 2011
Published Online 28 July 2011
Corresponding Author Susumu Takamatsu & Chaiwat To-anun -takamatu@bio.mie-u.ac.jp or agppi006@chiangmai.ac.th
Abstract During a survey of powdery mildews in northern Thailand, two morphologically unique powdery mildews were collected on Castanopsis and Lithocarpus. Both powdery mildews have a thin, single layer of peridium cells of chasmothecia, which is a morphological character of the genus Brasiliomyces. However, recent molecular phylogenetic analyses indicates that Brasiliomyces is polyphyletic and shows that the two powdery mildews from Thailand belong to the Erysiphe lineage with Oidium subgenus Pseudoidium anamorphs. Therefore, they are described as Erysiphe monoperidiata sp. nov. and E. asiatica sp. nov.
Keywords Brasiliomyces – fungi – powdery mildew – taxonomy
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Article Number 7
Title

Endophytic fungi associated with two Suaeda species growing in alkaline soil in China

Authors

Sun Y, Wang Q, Lu XD, Okane I, Kakishima M.

Received 31 December 1969
Accepted 21 April 2011
Published Online 29 July 2011
Corresponding Author Kakishima M - kaki@sakura.cc.tsukuba.ac.jp
Abstract Suaeda species are annual halophytes growing in soils with high salinity and high concentration of irons where non-halophytes are unable to thrive. It might be expected that the endophytic fungi of Suaeda species might help their host to resist the environmental stress. Endophytic fungal communities associated with stems and leaves of healthy S. microphylla and S. corniculata plants were determined from June to October in 2009. The plants were growing in alkaline land in Songyuan City, Jilin Province in China. Endophytic fungal composition varied between the two plants, however Alternaria spp. and Phoma spp. colonized both plant species. The fungal diversity and colonization rate were highest in September. Different fungal species inhabited different tissues and a few species were overlapping between stems and leaves. Although species of Phoma chrysanthemicola were isolated from both stem and leaves in September, the isolation frequency in stems was significantly higher than in leaves. Pigmented dematiaceous endophytic fungi were particularly common in the halophytes and they may play an important ecological role for survival and stress resistance of the plant species.
Keywords Suaeda microphylla – Suaeda conriculata – fungal community – Alternaria alternata – plant phenology
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Article Number 8
Title

Production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes by Pleurotus florida

Authors

Goyal M, Soni G.

Received 29 November 2010
Accepted 13 July 2011
Published Online 29 July 2011
Corresponding Author Meenakshi Goyal - drmeenakshi_pau@rediffmail.com
Abstract Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajar-caju were screened for cellulolytic enzyme production under submerged fermentation conditions. Pleurotus florida produced the highest activity and it was further studied to optimize medium composition, incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature for maximum cellulolytic enzyme production. Malt extract (0.5%), 12 days incubation and 1% CMC (carboxyl methyl cellulose) as carbon source supported maximum production of cellulases. A temperature of 35–40°C and pH 5.0 was optimum for exo- and endoglucanase production while - glucosidase production was optimum at 30°C and pH 4.5.
Keywords Endoglucanase – exoglucanase – fermentation conditions - glucosidase – medium composition
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Article Number 9
Title

Temporal and spatial variability of rhizosphere and rhizoplane fungal communities in grasses of the subfamily Chloridoideae in the Lakkavalli region of the Western Ghats in India

Authors

Shivanna MB, Vasanthakumari MM.

Received 25 April 2011
Accepted 04 July 2011
Published Online 09 August 2011
Corresponding Author Shivana MB - mbshivanna@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract Rhizosphere fungal species in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of perennial grasses of the subfamily Chloridoideae in Lakkavalli region of the Western Ghats in India were characterized by culturing on potato dextrose agar medium. Anamorphic ascomycetous fungi were frequently isolated. Certain fungal communities are spatially distributed, as they are specific to rhizosphere and rhizoplane of certain grass species. Fungal communities were isolated more during winter than other seasons suggesting that fungal communities are temporally distributed. Although species richness of fungal communities was similar, the diversity and evenness of fungal assemblages differed depending on the grass species. Certain fungal species were commonly encountered, while, certain other fungal species and non-sporulating fungi were grass species-specific. The present study indicated that perennial grasses are reservoirs of diverse groups of fungi that could be exploited for beneficial purposes.
Keywords anamorphic ascomycetes – diversity – fungal assemblages – non-sporulating fungi – perennial grasses
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Article Number 10
Title

A new species and re-disposed taxa in Repetophragma

Authors

Castañeda-Ruiz RF, Heredia G, Arias RM, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD, Stadler M, Saikawa M, Gené J, Guarro J, Iturriaga T, Minter DW, Crous PW.

Received 31 December 1969
Accepted 10 May 2011
Published Online 09 August 2011
Corresponding Author Marc Stadler - marc.stadler@t-online.de
Abstract A new species of Repetophragma, collected on plant material from “Aguita Fria” Veracruz, Mexico, and from Canaima National Park, Bolivar State, Venezuela is described and illustrated. Repetophragma paracambrense sp. nov. is characterized by subobclavate to somewhat lageniform, truncate at the base, 8−10-septate, brown, mostly verruculose, sometimes smooth conidia. Twelve new combinations are proposed for taxa previously included in Sporidesmium and Endophrag-miella. A comparative table and key to Repetophragma species are provided.
Keywords anamorphic fungi – cloud forest – Guiana forest – systematics
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