Volume 2 - Issue 2

Article Number 1

Checklist of Aphyllophorales from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra State, India


Ranadive KR,Vaidya JG, Jite PK, Ranade VD, Bhosale SR, Rabba AS, Hakimi M, Deshpande GS, Rathod MM, Forutan A, Kaur M, Naik-Vaidya CD, Bapat GS, Lamrood P

Received 11 March 2010
Accepted 12 January 2011
Published Online 24 March 2011
Corresponding Author ranadive.kiran@gmail.com
Abstract During field surveys and visits, a rich mycobiota was observed in the tropical vegetation of the Western Ghats. The heavy rainfall and high humidity favours the growth of aphyllophoraceous fungi. Investigations were carried out in 67 localities of Western Ghats including Pune, Bhimashankar, Mulshi-Dongarwadi, Karnala, Kankeshwar, Amboli and Satara areas and a total of 629 samples were studied. A checklist of the 256 species of aphyllophoraceous fungi from Maharashtra State is provided including 170 species from 10 poroid families and 86 species from 20 non-poroid families. The ratio of resupinate to bracket-like type of fruit bodies is 60:40, and the white to brown rot ratio is 80:20. All the species are new records for the area. The collection sites are briefly described and the hosts are listed. An intensive search of literature records is reported. The checklist gives the total count of aphyllophoraceous fungal diversity from Western Ghats of Maharashtra and it is also a valued addition for comparing aphyllophoraceous diversity in the world.
Keywords Fungi – Basidiomycetes – semi-evergreen forest
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Article Number 2

Guignardia bispora and G. ellipsoidea spp. nov. and other Guignardia species from palms (Arecaceae)


Wulandari NF, To–Anun C, McKenzie EHC and Hyde KD

Received 22 December 2010
Accepted 04 February 2011
Published Online 31 March 2011
Corresponding Author agppi006@chiangmai.ac.th
Abstract Two Guignardia species collected in northern Thailand differ morphologically from previously known Guignardia species recorded on palms. Guignardia bispora sp. nov. is distinguished by having two ascospore types and G. ellipsoidea sp. nov. is distinguished by having reduced mucilaginous appendages compared to the holotype of G. candeloflamma, also found on palms. The new species are described and illustrated and compared with similar taxa.
Keywords Ascomycetes – Botryosphaeriaceae – Dothideales – Leaf spot – Pathogen – Taxonomy
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Article Number 3

Production and stabilization of amylases from Aspergillus niger


Monga M, Goyal M, Kalra KL, Soni G

Received 12 July 2010
Accepted 22 November 2010
Published Online 31 March 2011
Corresponding Author drmeenakshi_pau@rediffmail.com
Abstract Four isolates of Aspergillus niger and two of A. flavus were screened for α-amylase production by submerged fermentation. A. niger RN (isolated from boiled rice) gave maximum α-amylase yield. The pH and temperature optima of α-amylase of A. niger RN were 4.6 and 40°C, respectively. The optimum incubation period, temperature and pH for maximum enzyme production were 7 days, 30°C and 4.5, respectively. Of the six different nitrogen sources used peptone at 0.2% N w/v gave maximum α-amylase yield. The fermentation medium was varied with eight different carbon sources and the combination of soluble starch and maltose gave the best enzyme production. Shelf life could be improved up to 120 days with PEG at 1% and sodium azide at 0.001% concentration. Thermostability improved considerably with 30% sorbitol, 30% sucrose and 5% PEG.
Keywords Aspergillus spp. – submerged fermentation – α-amylase – thermostability
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Article Number 4

Global distribution and molecular diversity of Didymium difforme


Winsett KE, Stephenson SL

Received 24 November 2010
Accepted 02 December 2010
Published Online 12 April 2011
Corresponding Author kwinset@uark.edu
Abstract Fifty-six collections of Didymium difforme from three different geographically distant regions of the world were examined for intraspecific variation using DNA sequences. An approximately 400 base pair region of the mitochondrial small subunit was sequenced for each collection. The analysis of the sequences did not resolve the collections from each geographic region into separate groups. Instead, all but one of the six major groups included sequences from collections originating in at least two different regions. The one group with sequences from one region (Kenya) to the exclusion of the other two regions was made up of sequences from collections made at different localities within the region. Other sequences from the same localities were, however, found in the other major groups most closely related to sequences from the other two regions.
Keywords cosmopolitan species – distribution – intraspecific variation – mitochondria – molecular diversity – myxomycete
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Article Number 5

L-asparaginase from marine derived fungal endophytes of seaweeds


Thirunavukkarasu N, Suryanarayanan TS, Murali TS, Ravishankar JP, Gummadi SN

Received 29 November 2010
Accepted 21 February 2011
Published Online 04 May 2011
Corresponding Author t_sury2002@yahoo.com
Abstract Symptomless endophytic fungi isolated from seven green algae, six brown algae and six red algae occurring along the southern coast of Tamilnadu, southern India were screened for the production of L-asparaginase enzyme. Of the 82 endophyte isolates, 64 were positive for the enzyme. A Fusarium sp. isolated from the thallus of Sargassum wightii and a sterile mycelial form isolated from the thallus of Chaetomorpha sp. showed maximum activity of the enzyme. The mycelial growth of Fusarium sp. was positively correlated with enzyme production. In a time course study, maximum enzyme activity was observed on the 5th day of growth of this fungus. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was pH 6.2. High concentration of glucose in the medium as C source inhibited enzyme production by the fungus. Endophytes of tropical seaweeds appear to be a good source of this therapeutic enzyme.
Keywords endophytes – tropical seaweeds – anti neoplastic – acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
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Article Number 6

Sarcinella tamarindi sp. nov. from Kerala, India


Hosagoudar VB, Riju MC

Received 09 December 2010
Accepted 21 March 2011
Published Online 06 May 2011
Corresponding Author vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com
Abstract A new species of Sarcinella and its Questieriella synanamorph collected on leaves of Tamarindus indica from Kerala State, India is described and illustrated as new species.
Keywords India – Kerala – black mildew – Sarcinella – new species – Questieriella
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Article Number 7

A checklist of aphyllophoraceous fungi in Thailand: Part I. New records


Choeyklin R, Hattori T, Jones EBG

Received 14 December 2010
Accepted 07 March 2011
Published Online 22 May 2011
Corresponding Author remispora@googlemail.com
Abstract A checklist of the aphyllophoraceous fungi (Polyporales sensu lato) is presented based on a 2-year study of the fungi of Thai forests. 54 species, 40 genera, 13 families, 6 orders (Auricularliales, Boletales, Corticiales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales) are reported. The checklist includes details of the location, substrata and dates collected.
Keywords aphyllophoraceous fungi – tropics – wood inhabiting
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Article Number 8

Ganoderma ryvardense sp. nov. associated with basal stem rot (BSR) disease of oil palm in Cameroon


Kinge TR, Mih AM

Received 16 December 2010
Accepted 23 December 2010
Published Online 22 May 2011
Corresponding Author afuimih@yahoo.com
Abstract A species of Ganoderma, which could not be identified with any known species, was found during a survey of fungi associated with basal stem rot disease of oil palm in the littoral and south western areas of Cameroon. Morphological and molecular characterization showed that it is closely related to G. steyaertanum and G. boninense, but distinct from these in having ellipsoidal basidiospores with slightly truncated apices. Elucidation of the phylogenetic relationship with other species of Ganoderma, using internally transcribed rDNA sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) showed that it is a distinct species, in the oil palm clade that is new to science. This species has been named Ganoderma ryvardense R.K. Tonjock & A.M. Mih, with the specific epithet in honor of Lief Ryvarden, a renowned mycologist who has contributed immensely to the African mycobiota and to the genus Ganoderma. The holotype (HKAS 58053) is lodged at the HKAS (Herbarium of Cryptogams, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences) while all new sequences generated during the study are deposited in GenBank.
Keywords Ganodermataceae – Molecular – Morphological – Taxonomy
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Mycosphere publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, taxonomic works such as monographs, and checklists which are relevant to fungal biology, including lichens. The official journal language is English.

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