Volume 1 - Issue 1


Article Number 1
Title

Phylogenetic relationships of Astrocystis eleiodoxae sp. nov. (Xylariaceae)

Authors

Pinnoi A, Phongpaichit P, Jeewon R, Tang AMC, Hyde KD and Jones EBG

Received 12 December 2009
Accepted 08 January 2010
Published Online 14 January 2010
Corresponding Author remispora@googlemail.com
Abstract An ascomycete with morphological similarities to Astrocysti (Xylariaceae) was collected from the peat swamp palms Eleiodoxa conferta and Licuala longicalycata in southern Thailand and is introduced here. The new taxon is characterized by carbonaceous black stromata on persistent white hyphae, and brown ascospores surrounded by a thin mucilaginous sheath and with a longitudinal germ slit. No anamorph was observed in nature or in culture. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, partial LSU and SSU rDNA sequences using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS regions places the taxon in Xylariaceae, in a clade comprising Astrocystis eleiodoxae and Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola with good support and a sister group to Astrocystis, Kretzschmaria, Rosellinia and Xylaria species, with moderate support. LSU and SSU rDNA data places A. eleiodoxae in a clade with A. cocoes, Rosellinia necatrix and Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola in the Xylariaceae. The data indicates a relationship between A. eleiodoxae and Stilbohypoxylon elaeicola. There are no other Astrocystis sequence data available in GenBank, and based on molecular data shown here and morphological data we described Astrocystis eleiodoxae as a new species.
Keywords molecular phylogeny – new species – palm fungi – Stilbohypoxylon
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Article Number 2
Title

Fungi in aquatic habitats near St Andrews in Scotland

Authors

Pearman JK Taylor JE and Kinghorn JR

Received 12 February 2010
Accepted 13 March 2010
Published Online 09 April 2010
Corresponding Author J.K.Pearman@warwick.ac.uk
Abstract The species composition and diversity of wood inhabiting fungi was compared in three aquatic habitats, a marine, an estuarine and a freshwater site, in order to determine whether the species present in these areas are cosmopolitan, or if there is a distinct separation between the sites correlated with the change in water conditions. Both molecular and morphological analysis were used for identification purposes. In total 35 species were observed, and three of these species, Fusarium sp. 1, Orbilia sp. and Neonectria lucida, were found at more than one site. Seventeen species were observed in both the freshwater and estuarine sites (Kinness Burn and Guardbridge, respectively), but only four were present at Kinkell Rocks, the marine site. The Shannon Wiener Diversity Index was highest for the freshwater Kinness Burn site (2.8) and lowest for the marine Kinkell Rocks (1.33). The Sorensen’s Index of Similarity confirmed that there were no species in common between the marine site, and either of the other sites. The Index between the estuarine and freshwater sites (0.18) suggest that there is some overlap in species composition, but there was still a wide variation in species identity between the two sites. The diversity of the mycota inhabiting the aquatic environments decreased in more saline habitats. The ratio of anamorphs to teleomorphs decreased with a reduction in salinity. Ascomycetes were the most prevalent group of fungi on the wood substrate in the freshwater and estuarine sites.
Keywords distribution – diversity – estuarine – freshwater – marine
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Article Number 3
Title

Biodiversity of microfungi associated with litter of Pavetta indica

Authors

Shanthi S and Vittal BPR

Received 23 January 2010
Accepted 09 March 2010
Published Online 09 April 2010
Corresponding Author shanthisomasundaram@gmail.com
Abstract The biodiversity of fungi associated with leaf litter of Pavetta indica from jungle scrub at Tambaram, Chennai, India was studied from October 1999 to September 2000. The litter was divided into freshly fallen senescent leaves (grade 1) and leaves already undergoing active decomposition (grade 2). Moist chamber incubation of the litter revealed 54 fungal taxa belonging in 40 genera. More taxa were found on grade 1 than on grade 2 litter. Alternaria alternata, Chaetomium seminudam, Circinotrichum fertile, Cladosporium oxysporum, Drechslera halodes, Fusarium lateritium, F. oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Tretopileus sp., Zygosporium echinosporum and Z. gibbum were some species recorded exclusively on grade 1 litter. Acremonium sp., Bartalinia robillardoides, Curvularia brachyspora, C. intermedia, Helicosporium vegetum and Harknessia sp. were specific to grade 2 litter. Although 37 taxa were common to both grades, there were differences in percentage occurrence between the two grades of litter. Taking the average percentage occurrence as an index of colonizing efficiency of a taxon, it was found that Euantennaria sp., Circinotrichum falcatisporum, Wiesneriomyces javanicus, Meliola sp., Zygosporium oscheoides, Beltraniella portoricensis, Selenosporella curvispora and Zygosporium masonii were active in that order. In addition to the identification of fungi after moist incubation, a washing technique was also performed. Fresh leaves attached to the plant were also collected and studied for microfungi to understand if carryover of the species from the phylloplane to the litter occurred after the leaves senesced and fell. The phylloplane study revealed 29 species, among which 19 species were carried to the grade 1 litter and 12 species thereafter to the grade 2 litter.
Keywords decomposition – leaf litter
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Article Number 4
Title

Phomatospora luteotingens sp. nov., a new aquatic species of Phomatospora from France and Spain

Authors

Fournier J and Lechat C

Received 20 February 2010
Accepted 25 March 2010
Published Online 09 April 2010
Corresponding Author jacques.fournier@club-internet.fr
Abstract A distinctive species of Phomatospora was repeatedly encountered on submerged wood in aquatic (lotic) habitats in various parts of France and northwestern Spain. It is described and illustrated herein based on many collections and its affinities and differences with other aquatic species known in the genus are discussed. Phomatospora luteotingens sp. nov. is mainly characterized and distinguished from other related taxa by being consistently associated with a yellow stain of the woody substrate and ascospores lacking a mucilaginous sheath or appendages. The ecological data observed during this study are briefly reported.
Keywords freshwater ascomycota – Sordariomycetes – taxonomy
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Article Number 5
Title

The problems of traditional and phylogenetic taxonomy of fungi

Authors

Vasilyeva LN and Stephenson SL

Received 10 February 2010
Accepted 24 March 2010
Published Online 09 April 2010
Corresponding Author vasilyeva@biosoil.ru
Abstract The current taxonomic system, based on the hierarchy of Linnaean ranks, is said to be unsatisfactory. Many people insist that the very concept of rank should be eliminated, and the current taxonomic system should be replaced with a rankless system based on phylogenetic taxonomy. However, it is not the elimination of the concept of rank but rather the correct ranking of characters that will promote stability in taxonomy. The first problem of both traditional and phylogenetic taxonomies is the chaotic employment of differences that leads to the segregation of groups which are not comparable in rank. A proper rank coordination could be carried out by the special weighting of differences among tentative groups. Groups become equal in rank when they are distinguished by state combinations of the same character set. The second problem of both traditional and phylogenetic taxonomies is the employment of internal polymorphism of genera and families for the re-unification of species into new taxa. This could be overcome if taxonomists take into consideration the law of homologous variation within closely related genera and families.
Keywords Character weighting – ranks – taxonomic system
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Article Number 6
Title

Baipadisphaeria gen. nov., a freshwater ascomycete (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes) from decaying palm leaves in Thailand.

Authors

Pinruan U, Rungjindamai N, Sakayaroj J, Lumyong S, Hyde KD and Jones EBG

Received 29 March 2010
Accepted 10 April 2010
Published Online 30 April 2010
Corresponding Author remispora@googlemail.com
Abstract Baipadisphaeria spathulospora gen. et sp. nov., a freshwater ascomycete is characterized by black immersed ascomata, unbranched, septate paraphyses, unitunicate, clavate to ovoid asci, lacking an apical structure, and fusiform to almost cylindrical, straight or curved, hyaline to pale brown, unicellular, and smooth-walled ascospores. No anamorph was observed. The species is described from submerged decaying leaves of the peat swamp palm Licuala longicalycata. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined small and large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences showed that it belongs in Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Hypocreomycetidae, Ascomycota). Baipadisphaeria spathulospora constitutes a sister taxon with weak support to Leuconectria clusiae in all analyses. Based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence, a new genus is proposed.
Keywords Licuala – Nectriaceae – peat swamp – tropical fungi
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Article Number 7
Title

Caliciopsis indica sp. nov. from India.

Authors

Pratibha J Amandeep K, Shenoy BD and Bhat DJ

Received 12 April 2010
Accepted 15 April 2010
Published Online 30 April 2010
Corresponding Author Bhat DJ – bhatdj@rediffmail.com, Shenoy BD – shenoy@imtech.res.in
Abstract Caliciopsis indica sp. nov. is described from leaf lesions of kokum (Garcinia indica, Clusiaceae) from the Western Ghats, India. Caliciopsis indica is morphologically similar to C. myrticola but differs in having larger ascomata, longer asci and smaller ascospores. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 28S rRNA gene sequence data has confirmed its placement within the Coryneliaceae (Coryneliales, Eurotiomycetes). The ITS/5.8S rRNA gene sequence, however, did not provide any clarity on the species delineation due to lack of reference sequences in GenBank.
Keywords biodiversity – bitunicate ascomycete – forest ecology
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Article Number 8
Title

New records of myxomycetes from high-elevation areas of Mexico and Guatemala

Authors

Rojas C, Stephenson SL, Estrada-Torres A, Valverde R and Morales O

Received 12 February 2010
Accepted 08 March 2010
Published Online 30 April 2010
Corresponding Author crojas@uark.edu
Abstract Surveys of four high-elevation study areas in central Mexico and northwestern Guatemala were carried out to obtain baseline information on the species of myxomycetes present. All study areas were sampled in 2006 and 2007. Both specimens that had fruited in the field and those obtained from moist chamber cultures in the laboratory were considered. The myxomycetes recorded included seven species that represented new records for Mexico and 35 species that were new for Guatemala. Five of these were new records for the Neotropics. A list of these species and information on the microhabitats in which they occurred is provided. This relatively limited study clearly demonstrates that high-elevation areas in the Neotropics are still undersampled for myxomycetes. For the majority of countries in the region, there are still information gaps relating to distribution patterns of myxomycetes. In the context of biodiversity conservation, it is important to continue studying groups of organisms such as myxomycetes in the rapidly changing Neotropical ecosystems.
Keywords Cuchumatanes – Cofre de Perote – La Malinche – myxogastria – species distribution
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Article Number 9
Title

Lyophyllum rosae-mariae sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).

Authors

Vizzini A and Contu M

Received 16 April 2010
Accepted 19 April 2010
Published Online 30 April 2010
Corresponding Author alfredo.vizzini@unito.it
Abstract A new species of the genus Lyophyllum collected in La Palma (Canary Islands) is taxonomically delimited based on morphological data. A detailed description, microscopic drawings and a colour plate of fresh material is presented. The new species is well circumscribed by its Lyophyllum semitale-like habit, black lamellae in dried material and small, smooth, globose, basidiospores.
Keywords Agaricales – Lyophyllaceae – taxonomy
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